James Cooke Brown Annotations by M. Randall Holmes

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are also the "free modifiers" of Loglan. These are the elements that may occur anywhere in a Loglan utterance, and are taken to "modify"—if that interpretation is at all meaningful—the immediately preceding word, or, if initial, the utterance as a whole. Precisely because these objects may occur anywhere, their occurrence at any given location gives the parser no information. Therefore, their incidence constitutes a kind of "grammatical noise". So except for these headmods—which are the first elements in any utterance-initial strings of them— they are removed by the preparser before the utterance is "handed to" the parser. Thus, the parser never sees attitudinal words like ia ('certainly') or discursives like pou ('however') unless one occurs at the head of some utterance. Moreover, it never sees names used vocatively, such as Djan without a preceding la, unless they too are initial in some utterance. This is the preferred position for a free modifier, by the way, because then it is taken as modifying the utterance as a whole…which is usually what is intended. Finally, except for parsing them reentrantly, i.e., when the parse of the main utterance is concluded, the parser never sees descriptive expressions used vocatively with hoi, or parenthetic expressions marked by kie and kiu, unless these, too, are initial in some utterance. For reentrant parsing, see the comment after the last rule in the grammar, R194.

180: uttB

=> uttA

Nenkaa = Come in!


=> headmod

Djan = John!


=> headmod uttA


Pidr, zvosto = Peter, stay out!

183: neghead

=> NO gap

No, na la Fomen, gi da pa kamla = It is not the case that in April, X came.


=> headmod NO gap


Ui no, na la Fomen, gi da pa kamla = Happily it is not the case that in April, X came.

185: uttC

=> uttB

Na la Fomen, gi da pa kamla = In April, X came.


=> neghead uttC


Ui no, na la Fomen, gi da pa kamla = Happily it is not the case that in April, X came.

187: uttD

=> uttC

De prano = Y runs.


=> uttC ICI UttD


Da sucmi, ice de prano, icanoici di fleti = X swims, and Y runs if W flies. (Again the -ci suffix binds the 2 final sentences into the right connectand of ice.)

189: uttE

=> uttD

Di fleti = W flies.


=> uttE I uttD


Da sucmi, ice de prano, icanoi di fleti = X swims and Y runs, if W flies. (This is the normal left-grouping of afterthought connec­tion without the special grouping effects of -ci or -ge.)

191: utterance

=> I

Fei. Lei. E. Tei. I = Ef. El. Ee. Tee. Eye. (This rule is used only to parse and generate the letter i when used in spelling.)


=> uttE

De prano = Y runs.


=> I uttE

Icanoi di fleti = If W flies.


=> uttE IGE utterance

Da sucmi, ige de prano, icanoi di fleti = X swims; and Y runs if W flies. (Again the -ge suffix groups all subsequent connected utterances into a single right connectand of the connective so-altered.)

The grameme is also used covertly—i.e., carried invisibly through the parse—by KIE in R180 and by LI in R84. These are parenthetic expressions and bits of quoted Loglan, respectively, and like the names and descriptive vocatives of R179, such embedded utterances are parsed "reentrantly". This means that after the parse of an embedding utterance is complete the parser will return to parse the embedded expression, and will continue to do so until all embedded expressions have been parsed.


(LWs listed where 1st used)

A. Imperatives & Responses (18)

(eo ao ai ae ti tu mi no)

A01 Hapci


Be Happy!

A02 Eo skitu

eo skitu

Please sit!

A03 Stali eo

stali eo

Stand up, please!

A04 Hompi ti

hompi ti

Drink this!

A05 Ao kerju tu

ao (kerju tu)

I want you to take care of yourself!

A06 Ai mi kerju mi

ai (mi [kerju mi])

Yes, I'll take care of myself.

A07 Eo helba mi

eo (helba mi)

Please help me!

A08 Ao no mi helba tu

ao (no [mi (helba tu)])

I don't want to help you.

A09 No takna

no takna

Don't talk!

A10 Ae no takna mi

ae ([no takna] mi)

I wish you wouldn't talk to me.

A11 Eo no godzi

eo (no godzi)

Please don't go!

A12 No totco mi

(no totco) mi

Don't touch me!

A13 No mi totco tu

no (mi [totco tu])

I'm not touching you.

A14 Ae no mi puncko tu

ae (no [mi (puncko tu)])

I hope I'm not hurting you.

A15 Eo no nordri mi

eo ([no nordri] mi)

Please don't forget me!

A16 No eo nordri mi

([no eo] nordri) mi

Don't, please, forget me!

A17 No nordri eo mi

(no [nordri eo]) mi

Don't forget, please, me!

A18 No nordri mi eo

(no nordri) (mi eo)

Don't forget me, please!

B. Address & Response; Offers & Replies (20)

(loi loa sia siu ea oi mu)

B01 Djim



B02 Loi



B03 Eo nenkaa

eo nenkaa

Please enter.

B04 Sia ai

sia ai

Thanks, I will.

B05 Loi, Fred

loi fred

Hello, Fred.

B06 Djin, loi

djin loi

Jean, hello!

B07 Sia, Ted

sia ted

Thanks, Ted.

B08 Oi resto

oi resto

You may lie down.

B09 Sia ao no

(sia ao) no

Thanks, I don't want to.

B10 Oi titci ti

oi (titci ti)

You may eat this.

B11 Sia ao

sia ao

Thanks, I want to.

B12 Siu, Selis

siu selis

You're welcome, Sally.

B13 Sia ae no

(sia ae) no

Thanks, 1 hope not to. (I'd rather not.)

B14 Ea mu gotso

ea (mu gotso)

Let's go. (I suggest we go.)

B15 Ao


I want to. (OK./Alright./etc.)

B16 Eo mi titci ti

eo (mi [titci ti])

Please, I eat this? (May I eat this?)

B17 Oi


You may. (OK./Alright./etc.)

B18 Eo no mi titci ti

eo (no [mi (titci ti)])

Please, I not eat this?

B19 Oi no

oi no

You may not. (It's ok if you don't.)

B20 Loa, Tcet

loa tcet

Goodbye, Chet.

C. Addressing vs. Naming (23)

(la ta e hoi)

C01 Djan, santi

djan santi

John, be quiet!

C02 La Djan, santi

(la djan) santi

John is quiet.

C03 Prano, Mel

prano mel

Run, Mel!

C04 Prano la Mel

prano (la mel)

Run to Mel!

C05 Prano ta, Mel

prano (ta mel)

Run to that, Mel!

C06 Prano ta, Mel, e ti, Pol

prano ([ta mel] e [ti pol])

Run to that, Mel, and to this, Paul!

C07 Keit, skesa mi

keit (skesa mi)

Kate, kiss me!

C08 Skesa, Keit, mi

(skesa keit) mi

Kiss, Kate, me!

C09 Skesa mi, Keit

skesa (mi keit)

Kiss me, Kate!

C10 Skesa mi Hoi Keit

skesa (mi [hoi keit])

Kiss me, O Kate!

C11 Skesa la Bab, Hoi Keit

skesa (la [bab (hoi keit)])

Kiss Bob, O Kate!

C12 Skesa la Bab Keit

skesa (la [bab keit])

Kiss Bob Kate (a person by the name of 'Bob Kate').

C13 Karl, kukra la Dik

karl (kukra [la dik])

Carl, be faster than Dick.

C14 La Karl, kukra la Dik

(la karl) (kukra [la dik])

Carl is faster than Dick.

C15 La Stivn, sunho, Ruf

(la stivn) (sunho ruf)

Steven is a son, Ruth.

C16 La Stivn, sunho la Ruf

(la stivn) (sunho [la ruf])

Steven is a son of Ruth.

C17 La An, takna la Ritcrd, mi

(la an) (takna [(la ritcrd) mi])

Anne talks to Richard about me.

C18 An, takna la Ritcrd, mi

an (takna [(la ritcrd) mi])

Ann, talk to Richard about me.

C19 La Djeik, farfu, Djan, mi la Suzn

(la djeik) ([farfu djan] [mi (la suzn)])

Jake is the father, John, of me through Susan.

C20 La Djeik, farfu la Djan, mi, Suzn

(la djeik) (farfu [(la djan) (mi suzn)])

Jake is the father of John by me, Susan.

C21 Mel, prano la Djan Pol Djonz

mel (prano [la djonz)])

Mel, run to John Paul Jones!

C22 Prano la Djan Pol Djonz Mel

prano (la [ djonz) mel])

Run to John Paul Jones Mel!

C23 Prano la Djan Pol Djonz, Hoi Mel

prano (la [(djan pol) (djonz

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