James Cooke Brown Annotations by M. Randall Holmes



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Notebook 3

THE PRESENT STATE


OF
THE LOGLAN LANGUAGE

by
James Cooke Brown


Annotations by M. Randall Holmes

After 7/26/2014

This document is intellectual property of Randall Holmes and the Loglan Institute. It is licensed for private use by individuals interested in studying Loglan or Lojban; please contact us about any other use.

Copyright© 1987 by

The Loglan Institute, Inc.

A Non-Profit Research Corporation

1701 Northeast 75th Street

Gainesville FL 32601

U. S. A.


PREFACE


The present work is a revision and extension of The Institute's two previous notebooks, both published in 1982, and the two special issues of The Loglanist, TL6/1 (1983) and TL7/1 (1984), and it incorporates some material from the latter two works. The scope and organization of this present work is quite new, however; in particular it is the first complete description of the language to be published since 1975.

This account of New Loglan is long overdue and I apologize. Both financial reasons and reasons of personal health have slowed The Institute's work down since the early 1980's, when so much seemed to be being accomplished. One of the reasons is that that certain parlor game which had supported the Loglan Project for so much of its life was withdrawn from the market in 1983, and Loglan has had to go it alone ever since. Fortunately, we are now on the verge of Going Public Again; so the long, dry period of Loglan's being everybody's "poor relation" may soon be over. If, as everybody seems to think, Loglan is about to become at least a modest commercial success, the project may at last become financially self-supporting.

I wish to take this occasion to acknowledge the stalwart few who have contributed to the work of The Institute over these last few, difficult years. Faith Rich has made a large contribution to the next Loglan dictionary by completing the Eaton Interface. She was ably helped in doing so by Jeffrey Taylor, Kieran Carroll and Robert McIvor. Unfortunately, their work is not quite ready to be published. But it will, as I say, form the bulk of the next dictionary of the Loglan language whenever that is published.

My daughter Jennifer Fuller Brown managed to bring the Optional Case Tags Project to a happy conclusion this Spring; and the fruits of her work are in this notebook. Paloma Ibanez ably assisted me in bringing the Scientific Borrowings Project very nearly to an algorithmic conclusion; but the fruits of that project are, as explained elsewhere, not quite ready to be published. Glen Haydon has helped me put together the two MacTeach programs that are now available. Bill Greenhood has counselled me from time to time on the proprieties of scientific word-making. And Scott Layson has made yet another extraordinary gift to the project by updating all the Lyces software—which is the tool with which I do my grammatical work—for the more capacious environment of our new Zenith 100 computer.

Users of this notebook are invited to send in (1) notices of whatever errata they may find, and (2) proposals for improving the language by adding to, changing, or deleting any of the provisions described in this notebook. Please keep these two kinds of contributions separate, however. Formal proposals will go to the Loglan Academy for assessment when they meet in the early Spring of 1988; and the format for making proposals formally to the Academy has been described in a recent Lognet. Notices of errata should also be kept separate from the covering letter. Preferably they should be on sheets or cards that may be filed separately from correspondence.

We at The Institute look forward to a vigorous testing of the language described in these pages, and to GPA-ing with it in the very near future.

JCB

Gainesville



July 1987

MRH: adding comments in 2014.


TABLE OF CONTENTS




CHAPTER 1. PHONOLOGY (SOUNDS & SOUND-VARIANTS) 10

1.1 Definitions and Conventions 10

1.2 Two Types of Phonemes 12

1.3 Regular Phonemes 12

1.4 The 6 Regular Vowels 12

1.5 The Advantages of Romance (aa) 13

1.6 The TWO Spellings of ‘e’ of ‘met’ 13

1.7 The Odd Spellings of /i/ and /y/ 14

1.8 /y/ as a Hyphen 14

1.9 /y/ as a Buffer 14

1.10 /iy/ as a Hyphen in Buffered Dialects 15

1.11 The Effect of Hyphenating and Buffering on Stress 15

1.12 /y/ in Names 15

Table 1.1 Permissible Pronunciations of the Twenty-Five Loglan Vowel-Pairs 15

1.13 The 25 Vowel-Pairs 16

1.14 The 10 Optionally Disyllabic Vowel-Pairs 16

1.15 The Pair-from-the-Left-Rule 17

1.16 Indications of Syllabicity 18

1.17 The 17 Regular Consonants 19

1.18 The Odd Sounds of [C c] and [J j] 20

1.19 The Four Vocalic Consonants 20

1.20 The Unfamiliar Consonant Pairs 21

1.21 The Three Irregular Phonemes /q w x/ 21

1.22 The Use of Irregular Phonemes in Names 22

1.23 Three Stress Phonemes 22

1.24 One Pause Phoneme 22

1.25 Intonation 23

1.26 Buffered Dialects 24

CHAPTER 2. MORPHOLOGY (WORDS & WORD-FORMS) 25

2.1 Design Objectives 25

2.2 Definitions and Conventions 25

Table 2.1 The Two Partitions and Three Classes of Loglan Words 27

2.3 Two Major Partitions and Three Word-Classes 27

A. THE MORPHOLOGY OF NAMES 29

2.4 The Forms of Names 29

2.5 The Pause Before Vowel-Initial Names 29

2.6 The Name-Marker Restriction on Names 29

2.7 Working Around the Name-Marker Restriction 30

2.8 Derivations of Names 31

2.9 Internal Names 31

2.10 External Names 31

2.11 Auditorily-Modeled External Names 31

2.12 Visually-Modeled External Names 32

2.13 The Linnaean Polynomials 32

2.14 Pronunciation of the Linnaean Polynomials 33

2.15 Writing Linnaean Names 34

2.16 The Post-Nominal Pause 35

2.17 Resolving Names 35

B. THE MORPHOLOGY OF STRUCTURE WORDS 36

2.18 The Functions of Structure Words 36

2.19 The Four Little-Word Forms 36

2.20 Compound Little Words 37

2.21 Letter-Words 37

2.22 Suffixes for the 52 Latin Letter-Words 38

2.23 Suffixes for the 48 Greek Letter-Words 38

2.24 Uses of Letter-Words 39

2.25 Spelling Aloud 39

2.26 Little Word Predicates 39

2.27 Mathematical Predicates 39

2.28 The \ 40

2.29 Acronymic Predicates 40

2.30 Pause and Stress Around Acronymic Words and Letter-Words 41

2.31 Pause and Stress Around Dimensioned Numbers 42

2.32 Acronym Recovery Rules 43

2.33 Resolving Structure Words 44

C. THE RESOLUTION OF PREDICATES 46

2.34 The Functions of Predicates 46

2.35 A Temporary Stress-Marking Convention 46

2.36 The Post-Emphatic and Intervocalic Pauses 46

2.37 Stress in Predicates 47

2.38 The Forms of Predicates 47

2.39 Three Kinds of Predicates 48

2.40 Primitives 48

2.41 Complexes 48

2.42 Borrowings 49

2.43 Consonant-Pairs 50

2.44 Permissible Medials 50

2.45 Intelligibility at the C/CC-Joint 50

2.46 Hyphenation 50

2.47 Permissible Initials 51

2.48 The Decipherability of Complexes 51

2.49 Affix-Length and Frequency of Use 52

2.50 Term-Reduction 52

2.51 Long Affixes 52

2.52 Short Affixes & Their Derivations 52

2.53 Affix-Assignment & Coverage 53

2.54 Pre-empted CVr Affixes 53

2.55 Making Complexes 53

2.56 The 'Tosmabru Test' 54

2.57 Allowable Borrowings 54

2.58 The 'Slinkui Test' 55

2.59 The Resolution & Partial Classification of Predicates 55

2.60 The Predicate Resolution 56

2.61 Term-Resolution 57

2.62 The Recognition of Borrowings 57

2.63 Making Borrowed Predicates 57

CHAPTER 3. LEXICON (WORDS & SPEECH PARTS) 59

3.1. Definitions and Conventions 59

(The *-ed lexemes are machine oriented) 60

Lexeme A: Afterthought Connectives (Eks) 60

Lexeme ACI: Hyphenating Eks 61

Lexeme AGE: Right-Grouping Eks 61

Lexeme BI: Identity Operators 61

*Lexeme BAD 62

Lexeme CA: Predicate Word Connectives (Sheks) 62

Lexeme CI: The Interverbal Hyphen 62

Lexeme CUI: The Shek Left-Parenthesis 62

Lexeme DA: Variables 62

Lexeme DIO: Argument Tags 63

Lexeme DJAN: Name Words 64

*Lexeme END 64

*Lexeme FI: The Utterance Ordinal Suffix 64

Lexeme GE: The Grouping Operator 64

Lexeme GI: The Fronting Operator 65

Lexeme GO: The Inversion Operator 65

Lexeme GU: The Optional Right Boundary Marker (\ 65

Lexeme GUE: The GE-Group Optional Terminator 65

Lexeme HOI: The Vocative Marker 66

Lexeme HU: The Interrogative Argument 66

Lexeme I: Sentence Connectives (Eesheks) 66

Lexeme ICI: Hyphenating Eesheks 67

Lexeme IE: The Identity Interrogative 67

Lexeme IGE: Right-Grouping Eesheks 68

Lexeme JE: The First Linking Operator 68

Lexeme JI: Argument Modification Links 68

Lexeme JIO: Subordinate Clause Links 68

Lexeme JO: Metaphorizers 69

Lexeme JUE: The Second Linking Operator 69

Lexeme KA: Prefix Members of Forethought Connectives (Keks) 69

Lexeme KI: Infixes for Forethought Connectives (Keks) 71

Lexeme KIE: The Left-Parenthesis 71

Lexeme KIU: The Right-Parenthesis 71

Lexeme LAE: Indirect Designation Operators 71

Lexeme LE: Descriptors 72

Lexeme LEPO: Event Operators 73

Lexeme LI: The Left Quotation Operator 73

Lexeme LI: The Left Quotation Operator 73

Lexeme LIO: The Number Designator 73

Lexeme LIU: The Single-Word Quotation Operator 74

Lexeme LU: The Right Quotation Operator 74

Lexemes M1* through M11* 74

Lexeme ME: The Predifying Operator 74

Lexeme NI: Quantifiers 74

Lexeme NO: The Negation Operator 76

*Lexeme NOI: The Negation Suffix 76

Lexeme NU: Conversion Operators 76

Lexeme PA: Inflectors/Adverbs/Prepositions 77

Tense Operators 77

Location Operators 78

Modal Operators 78

Causal Operators 78

The Ga Operator 79

Lexeme PAUSE: The Pause-Comma 79

Lexeme PO: Abstraction Operators 80

Lexeme PREDA: Predicate Words 81

*Lexeme RA: Numerical Predicate Suffixes 82

Lexeme TAI: Letter Variables 82

Lexeme UI: Free Modifiers 83

Attitudinals 84

Discursives 85

Relative Interrogatives 85

Utterance Ordinals 86

Salutations 86

A Note on Other Free Modifiers 86

Lexeme ZE: The Joining Operator 86

*Lexeme ZI: Magnitude Suffixes 87

*Lexeme ZO: The Quantity Abstractor 87

CHAPTER 4. GRAMMAR (UTTERANCE FORMS) 88

4.1 Design Objectives 88

4.2 Definitions and Conventions 88

4.3 The Structure of Loglan Grammars 90

Group A. The Optional Punctuators, Rules 1-7 90

Group B. Linked Arguments, Rules 8-19 92

Group C. Predicate Units, Rules 20-33 93

Group D. Descriptive Predicates, Rules 34-48 94

Group E. Sentence Predicates, Rules 49-58 96

Group F. Modifiers, Rules 59-67 97

Group G. Arguments, Rules 68-116 98

Group H. Terms & Term Sets, Rules 117-127 102

Group I. Predicates, Rules 128-154 104

Group J. Sentences, Rules 155-164 106

Group K. Utterances, Rules 165-194 108

LIST 5 THE TEACHING CORPUS 111

A. Imperatives & Responses (eo ao ai ae ti tu mi no) 111

B. Address & Response; Offers & Replies (loi loa sia siu ea oi mu) 111

C. Addressing vs. Naming (la ta e hoi) 112

D. Descriptions (le ne su gu) 113

E. Questions with he; Demonstratives & Plurals; Replacement with da (he da na ri ro levi leva) 114

F. Identity Questions & Sentences; Replacement with de & dui (ie bi hu i de dui) 115

G. Yes/No Questions & Answers; Utterance Demonstratives (ei ia toi toa) 116

H. Tenses; Time Questions & Answers; Local Modification; Punctuation (pa fa ji ipou nahu) 117

I. Time Phrases (pahu fahu fazi pazu tiu) 118

J. Space Questions & Answers; Space Phrases (vi va vu vihu vahu vuhu) 119

K. Existentials & Universals; Completion (ba be bo bu raba rabe rabo nibe ifeu inusoa vina uu) 119

L. Predicate Strings; Grouping, Hyphenation, Connection & Inversion (ge go ci ce ke ki) 121

M. More Connections & Groupings in Predicate Strings (gue cui canoi ka kanoi) 122

N. Event/State Predicates; Other Abstractions (po pu zo di) 124

O. Mass & Event Descriptions; Mass Event Descriptions (lo lovi lepo lopo) 124

P. Specified & Nested Event Descriptions (No new LWs.) 126

Q. Attitude Indication; Conversion, Negation & Superlatives (uo ue ua uu ui nu fu) 127

R. Counting, Quantifying & Numerical Questions (to te fo fe so se vo ve iesu iene ho hoba toba teba foba soba) 129

S. Quantified Descriptions & Questions (iete iefo ieho) 130

T. Measurement, Dimensioned Numbers & Numerical Description (lio lepa -ma -mei -dai) 131

U. Linked Description; Identity Clauses; Replacement with Letter-Words; Mixed Predicates and Arguments (je jue ze sui -mo -ai -ei (dai/dei, etc.)) 132

V. Identifying vs. Claiming Subordinate Clauses (jio jia) 133

W. Sentence, Predicate & Argument Negation (ni) 134

X. Quotation of Loglan; Fronted Arguments (li lu liu gi) 135

Y. Predicates from Arguments and Prenex Quantifiers (me me- goi) 135

Z. Prenex Quantifiers (goi) 136

AA. Connected Arguments & Predicates; Joint Argument Sets (a anoi onoi noa efa epa gugu do) 136

BB. Causal Inflectors, Modifiers & Phrases (moi soa kou moipa numoi kouhu moihu nukouhu) 139

CC. Compound Term Connectives (enumoi enukou efa eva epa) 140

DD. Connective Questions (ha enoi noenoi) 141

EE. Internal Arguments (No new LWs.) 141

FF. Argument Ordinals (HB-tags) (pua pue pui puo puu) 142

GG. Compound & Connected Tenses (-fa- -pa- -na- ra- ne- ni- -noi-) 143

HH. Logically Connected Clauses (inoca icanoi ica Ice) 144

II. Causally-Connected Clauses (i- ki-) 145

JJ. Indirect Designation; Foreign Quotation (lae sae lie) 145

KK. Metaphor-Marking or \ 146

LL. Letter-Variables and Acronyms (-z-) 146

MM. Predicates as Names & Vocatives (No new LWs.) 147

NN. Grouped & Ungrouped Afterthought Connections (i- -ge -ci) 148

OO. Spelling (No new LWs) 149

PP. Sentences in VOS Order (goa) 149




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