It's Gettin' Hot in Here!



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It's Gettin' Hot in Here!

  • Presented by :
  • ECOSCI
  • The Academy of Mt. St. Ursula

Global Warming – What is it?

  • Rise in earth’s temperature
  • Results from changes in the natural environment
  • Caused by too much carbon dioxide

The Greenhouse Effect

  • Solar radiation from the Sun reaches the Earth’s atmosphere
  • The surface of the Earth absorbs most of the short-rayed insolation and later releases this heat in the form of infrared radiation into the atmosphere.
  • Some of the heat is absorbed by particles known as “greenhouse gases.”
  • The heat retained by the gases acts as a “heat blanket.”

The Greenhouse Effect

  • Without With

Burning of fossil fuels

  • The burning of fossil fuels releases Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
  • In the past 150 years, burning fossil fuels has caused a 25 % increase in Carbon dioxide emissions.

Carbon dioxide

Burning of fossil fuels

  • In the last 200 years:
  • Nitrous oxide has increased 17%.
  • Methane has increased 150%!!

CO2 | NH4 | N20

The Ties Between Sardines & Global Warming

  • The over-hunting of sardines has caused higher levels of phytoplankton in the ocean.
  • While living, phytoplankton release oxygen into the atmosphere and use Carbon for photosynthesis
  • When they die, their decay releases large amounts of methane and the poisonous gas, hydrogen sulfide. It also uses large amounts of oxygen.

Sardines & Global Warming (Cont.)

  • Methane is 21 times more effective than carbon dioxide in maintaining heat in the atmosphere.
  • This results in the deaths of numerous marine animals.

Effects of global warming

  • More carbon dioxide -> increase in plant growth.
  • The increase in temperature -> rise in sea level from melting glaciers and polar ice caps (adds 0.2 mm annually)
  • Rising temperatures will also cause drier conditions in many important agricultural regions.

GLOBAL WARMING: Sea Life

  • GLOBAL WARMING’S NEGATIVE IMPACT ON SEA LIFE—
    • Coral Reef Bleaching—
    • Change in temperature and elevated sea level cause loss of algae in the coral.
    • Coral appears white, or “bleached.”
    • Result is mass death of sea animals, which are dependent on the coral reef.
    • The penguin population near Antarctica has been declining as the distance between them and their food has increased.

Rising Sea levels

  • The rise of temperature, even to a few degrees, could lead to the melting of ice shelves that hold back glaciers. This results in rising sea levels
  • The Larsen area of North Antarctic, South of Chili and Argentina have lost more than 5,200 sq miles of area.

The Effects of Global Warming on Land animals

  • Global warming can disrupt the migration, hibernation and reproductive cycles of certain types of animals.
  • Plants and animals will find it hard to escape or adjust to the effects of warming because humans occupy so much land.
  • Farmland or cities interrupt the movement of species between habitats.

Health & Global Warming

  • Extreme temperatures can directly cause the loss of life (ex: 35,000 people died during heat wave in Europe, Aug‘03.)
  • Warmer weather provides an ideal breeding environment for mosquitoes. Diseases such as West Nile will be more common.
  • .

Health & Global Warming (cont.)

  • High temperature can increase pollution of water and air, which harms the human body.
  • .

Tropical Diseases

    • Global Warming increases drought which lessens the supply of clean drinking water.
      • Cholera
    • It increases temperature providing an ideal breeding environment for mosquitoes.
      • Dengue fever
      • Malaria
      • Yellow fever

IMPACT ON AIR

  • The atmosphere’s ultimate fate is unclear.
  • More evaporation  increase in cloud cover
  • How High Will the Clouds Be? It makes a difference!
  • Clouds close to the earth reflect sunlight  cooling effect.
  • Clouds high in the atmosphere trap heat  warmingeffect.
  • Generally:
  • Cloud cover increases
  • Levels of the greenhouse gas methane may increase
  • Hurricanes range farther north, south on warmer water

El Niño Effect

  • Severe oceanic/atmospheric disturbance,
  • every 7-14 yrs (“the child”)
  • Warm surface waters suppress cold, nutrient-rich upwelling of the Humboldt Current
  •  Fall in the number of plankton
    • Wreaks havoc upon the entire ocean food chain
    • Devastates the fishing industry

El Niño Effect

  • Complete reversal of the trade winds: torrential rain, flooding, and mudslides to the usually dry coastal areas of Peru and Ecuador.

El Niño Effect

  • Collapse of the monsoons in Asia  severe drought to Indonesia and northern Australia.
  • Severe weather disturbances in other parts of the world, such as droughts in areas of Africa and central North America.

Kyoto Protocol

  • The Kyoto Protocol is an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
  • UNFCCC, an international treaty on global warming
  • Countries which ratify this protocol commit to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases
  • A total of 141 countries have ratified the agreement. Notable exceptions include the United States and Australia

Kyoto Protocol It’s Getting Warmer!

  •  Temperature
  • Area of Ice
  • It was negotiated in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997, opened for signature on March 16, 1998, and closed on March 15, 1999
  • Current estimates are that even if successfully and completely implemented, the Kyoto Protocol is predicted to reduce the average global temperature by somewhere between 0.02°C and 0.28°C by the year 2050
  • Continued..

UN Framework On Climate Change

  • Article 2 (iv) Research on, and promotion, development and increased use of, new and renewable forms of energy, of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies and of advanced and innovative environmentally sound technologies
  • (vi) Encouragement of appropriate reforms in relevant sectors aimed at promoting policies and measures which limit or reduce emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol;
  • (viii) Limitation and/or reduction of methane emissions through recovery and use in waste management, as well as in the production, transport and distribution of energy

The Climate Stewardship Act

  • First introduced in the senate in 2003 and reintroduced in February 2005
  • It would reduce carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydroflurocarbon and perfuorocarbons which are released by power plants to 2000 levels by 2010.
  • The bill reduces the risk of global warming without hurting the economy.

How To Prevent Global Warming:

  • Plant trees
  • Conserve energy:
  • (examples: 1. use low-energy, low-water-use washing machines, 2. use a solar heated system for hot water, 3. use an electric or push mower for gasoline powered mower)
  • Buy energy efficient products
  • Buy products that have reusable or recyclable packaging
  • Reduce use of car (walk instead)

Reduce,

  • Reduce,
  • Reuse,
  • Recycle!
  • 3R’s
  • of Saving Mother Nature


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