Islamic economics



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530 Marketing

531 Business law and ethics and their economic implications


531:1 AHMAD, KHALIQ, Ethics in Business and Management: Islamic and Mainstream Approaches, London: Asean Press, 2001, 327 pp.

A compilation of 16 papers on ethical aspects of business and management. In the first part, three chapters discuss Islamic ethical system in the economic behavior. In part two, two chapters deal with creation of ethical environment in business. In part three, five chapters deal with aspects of social responsibility. Part four consisting of four chapters deals with ethics in management. The three chapters of the final part discuss ethics in human resource management.

Individual papers meant for business managers and academia. Based on contemporary

literature and Islamic primary sources. Documented.

531:2 AHMAD, KHALIQ, "Quality Management: Islamic Values and Implications", in Khaliq Ahmad and AHM Sadeq (eds.), Ethics in Business and Management. London: Asean Press, 2001, pp. 249-264

Introduces Islamic values for ensuring quality. Explores potentials of the Islamic values in management and sheds some light on how Islam motivates workers and solves industrial disputes and maintains high productivity and quality. The process is as follows: Recruitment of Mr. Right, converting him to Mr. Quality, making him Mr. Contribution and retaining him as Mr. Loyalty.

For general readers and academia. Based on contemporary literature and primary sources of Islam. Documented.

531:3 AHMAD, KHALIQ, "Islamic Ethics in a Changing Environment", in Khaliq Ahmad and AHM Sadeq (eds.), Ethics in Business and Management, London: Asean Press, 2001, pp. 97-109

Provides an ethical framework for the contemporary manager from the role models of Prophets Muhammad, Musa and Yusuf. Relates ethics with accountability before the boss and ultimately before Allah. Concludes that for developing a just and hardworking personality, one must be intelligent, patient, honest, stern and sincere in the search of knowledge.

For general readers. Based on primary sources. Documented.

531:4 AHMAD, MUSHTAQ, Business Ethics in Islam, Islamabad: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1995, 211 pp.

Discusses the Islamic concept of business, the Qur'anic view of wealth distribution of wealth and its effect on society, approved business conduct, disapproved business conduct and implementation of business ethics in an Islamic society. Basically, describes the principles of Islamic economics based upon the primary sources of Islam. A comprehensive anthology of the basic principles.

For general readers and Muslim economists. Documented.

531:5 AHMAD, SYYID FAYYAZ, "The Ethical Responsibility of Business: Islamic Principles and Implications" in Khaliq Ahmad and AHM Sadeq (eds.), Ethics in Business and Management , London: Asean Press, 2001, pp.189-206

Highlights several principles and business ethics in Islamic code of life. They are: abiding by contracts, refraining from false advertising, measuring accurately, non-destruction of surplus produce, prohibition of interest, fair recruitment, fair treatment of workers and protection of environment.

For general readers. Based on primary sources. Documented.

531:6 AYOUB-BEY, NASR-ELDIN, "Business Ethics: Implications for Islamic Banking," New Horizon, London, (83), Jan.1999, pp. 14-15.

There is a growing trend in the world to adopt ethical business practices and to promote those enterprises that deal in ethical business. There is a realization among the business firms also that ethical business is more profitable than unethical business. The Islamic bankers should take a cue from these developments and develop distinct ethical practices in light of Islam. These values should be widely disseminated among the employees, customers and public at large.

For Islamic bankers. Undocumented.

531:7 BILLAH, M. MASUM, "Caveat Emptor vs Khiyar al-Ayb", The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Herndon, VA., (14:2), Summer 1997, pp. 208-230.

Compares the Islamic law of options in sale to rescind contract by the buyer with the Western law of caveat emptor. Points out the differences.

For jurists. Based on primary sources. Documented.

531:8 BILLAH, M. MASUM, "The Doctrine of Bay' al-Urbun (Earnest Money),"in Asma Siddiqi (ed.), Anthology of Islamic Banking, London: Islamic Institute of Banking and Insurance, 2000, pp. 384-387

Argues that the majority opinion that considers bai' al-urbun as unlawful is not correct. Instead, bai' al-urbun is a valid form of agreement as considered by the Malikites and Hanbalites. The agreement helps increase cooperation and promotes commerce.

For jurists. Based on primary sources. Documented.

531:9 DELORENZO, YUSUF TALAL, A Compendium of Legal Opinions on the Operations of Islamic Banks (Vol.1), London: Institute of Islamic Banking and Insurance, 1997, 260 pp.

A subject-wise collection of 278 legal opinions directly relating to and concerning Islamic banking and allied issues, translated from, and published along with original Arabic. The subjects covered are murabaha, mudaraba and musharaka. The translator has based research on the legal opinions of Shari’ah supervisory bodies of Islamic Bank of the Sudan, Dubai Islamic bank, Faisal Islamic bank of Egypt, Dar al-Mal al-Islami, Jordan Islamic bank and Dalla al-Baraka bank.

For jurists, Islamic bankers and researchers. Based on original texts of the fatwas.

531:10 DELORENZO, YUSUF TALAL, A Compendium of Legal Opinions on the Operations of Islamic Banks (Vol.2), London: Institute of Islamic Banking and Insurance, 2000, 258 pp.

This is the second volume of the series consisting of 133 fatwas (No.179-312). Covers Ijara, sarf and riba. Provides Arabic text of all questions and answers.

For Islamic bankers, policy makers, researchers. Based on primary sources of all four Sunni fiqh schools.

531:11 GAMAL, MAHMOUD A. EL, "An economic explication of the Prohibition of Gharar in Classical Islamic Jurisprudence", Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (8:2), April 2001, pp. 29-58.

Translates 'gharar' as ‘trading risk’. Generally, the jurists have treated risk as gharar only when the risk is abnormal. Argues that the trading in risk is generally inefficient relative to other forms of risk-sharing. Develops a mathematical model.

For economists. Based on primary juristic sources as well as contemporary economic literature. Documented.

531:12 GARI, MOHAMED A.EL, "Essential Shari’ah Requirements for Major Exchange Contracts", New Horizon, London, (121), July 2002, pp.10-13.

Discusses legal terms and conditions of various Islamic business contracts such as murabaha, mudaraba, musharaka, istisna, etc.

For jurists. Based on primary sources. Undocumented.

531:13 HANAFY, ABDALLAH A., "Business Ethics: An Islamic Perspective", in Khaliq Ahmad and AHM Sadeq (eds.), Ethics in Business and Management, London: Asean Press, 2001, pp.169-187.

Present several Islamic codes of ethics that comprise truthfulness, trust, sincerity, brotherhood, science and knowledge and justice. Under each of these the authors provide evidence from the primary sources of Islam.

For general readers. based on primary sources. Documented.

531:14 HASAN, M. KAMAL, "Worldview Orientation and Ethics: A Muslim Perspective", in Khaliq Ahmad and AHM Sadeq (ed.),Ethics in Business and Management, London: Asean Press, 2001, pp. 41-65

Ethical system of Islami is based on the worldview of Islam. The ingredients of Islamic worldview are: tawhid, khilafah, accountability, social responsibility, cooperation, harmony and balance. This worldview is expressed in business management in the form of responsibility, human relationship, motivation, safety, discipline, and integrated knowledge.

For general readers. based on primary sources. Documented.

531:15 LOQMAN, MUHAMMAD, "Islamic Ethics in Management" in Khaliq Ahmad and AHM Sadeq (eds.), Ethics in Business and Management, London: Asean Press, 2001, pp. 265-281

Discusses the Islamic ethics and values in management. Deals with Islamic ethical issues like usurious management and administration, corruption in management, balance between material and spiritual well-being, the divine origin of ethics, justice, shura, and cooperation.

For general readers. Based on primary sources. Documented.

531:16 NYAZEE, I. A. KHAN, Islamic Law of Business Organization: Corporations, Islamabad: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1998, 205 pp.

The present form of Joint Stock Company is not in conformity with the Shari’ah. It violates the Shari’ah rules relating to limited liability, incorporation and rights and obligations of the shareholders. The Islamic framework does not accept the principle of limited liability. However, the present day corporations can be reformed to bring them within the fold of Islamic law. Proposes a legal model for this purpose.

For jurists. Based on primary sources. Documented.

531:17 SUWAILEM, SAMI al-, Toward an Objective Measure of Gharar in Exchange, 35 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the International Conference on Islamic Economics in the 21st Century organized by the IIU, Malaysia during 9-12 August 1999 at Kuala Lumpur.

Develops an objective criterion for identifying and measuring gharar in exchange. Shows that a gharar transaction is a zero-sum game with uncertain payoffs. The formulation is based on basic axioms of expected utility theory and game theory, and is consistent with Shari’ah rules and maxims. The measure helps economists view gharar as an integrated theory of risk, so that it can be easily communicated with non-Muslim economists. Some of conclusions are: forward trading and options trading are not allowed in Islam. Similar, insurance contracts involve gharar. Thinks revenue sharing is better than profit-sharing. Thinks riba is prohibited as it involves gharar.

For economists, financial analysts and bankers. Based on primary sources. Documented.

531:18 WILSON, RODNEY, "Business Ethics: Western and Islamic Perspective", in Khaliq Ahmad and AHM Sadeq (eds.), Ethics in Business and Management, London: Asean Press, 2001, pp.135-167

Discusses ethical issues in practice, rather than the ethical system of Islam per se. The Muslim behavior in business involves loyalty to employer, lack of cut-throat competition, employer-employee relationship, need-based compensation system and work ethics.

For general readers and academia. Based on contemporary literature. Documented.

533 Hisba and its role


533:1 BASHAR, M. L. A., "Price Control in an Islamic Economy," Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Islamic Economics, Jeddah, (9), 1997, pp. 29-52.

Reviews the debate on price control by the government in the Islamic law. Explores the circumstances under which price control becomes permissible. Gives a critical appraisal of selective cases of price control in economic theory. Provides a theoretical framework for the study of price regulation in Islamic economics.

For Muslim economists and jurists. Based on primary sources. Documented.

533:2 NAZ, M. S., Islami Riasat men Muhtasib ka Kirdar (Urdu) (Role of Muhtasib in the Islamic State), Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute, 1999, 500 pp.

A comprehensive treatise on the concept, role and evolution of the institution of hisba during the Islamic history. Discusses the function, obligation, privileges and organization of the office of the muhtasib in different parts of the Muslim world throughout Muslim history. Also, discusses the contemporary scene in some of countries like Sweden, Canada, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan

For jurists, historian, policy makers and general readers. Based on primary sources. Documented.


534 Advertising in the Islamic framework


534:1 ANWAR, MUHAMMAD, "Promotional Tools of Marketing: An Islamic” Intellectual Discourse, (4:1-2), 1996, pp. 15-30.

The Qur'anic view about man and his resources should be the basis for designing promotional tools and media strategies. There is a need to develop not only general guidelines for achieving marketing goals and corporate objectives in a morally acceptable manner, but also to devise an Islamic code of marketing.

For business managers. Based on contemporary literature on marketing, and primary sources of the Shari’ah. Documented.

535 Marketing of Islamic financial products


535:1 DUALEH, SULEIMAN, "The Case for a Dedicated Distribution Arm for Islamic Financial Products", New Horizon, London, (114), Nov. 2001, pp. 3-6.

The world is not aware of the Islamic financial products. Many of these products are not registered in the Western world. There is a need for developing an entity which is to the distribution and marketing of Islamic products. All Islamic banks can join hands to fund this entity.

For Islamic bankers. Based on practical experience of the author. Undocumented.

535:2 HARON, SUDIN, "The Role of Marketing in Mobilizing Deposits and Financing in Islamic Banking System," Journal of islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (15:4), Oct-Dec. 1998, pp. 28-36.

Based on the experience of Malaysia, argues that in an environment where the market is prominently dominated by conventional banks, the Islamic banks have to seek an edge to lead. Marketing is seen as a strategic tool for Islamic banks to find this edge for attracting deposits and promoting their products. The paper presents how an Islamic bank can use its customers, employees, competitors and other related parties to market its products and mobilize their funds effectively.

For Islamic bankers. Based on contemporary literature. Documented.

535:3 THOMAS, ABDULKADER, “The Islamic Perspective: Making Your Money Work”, New Horizon, London, (100), July 2000, pp.10-11.

Presents a view of current market of Islamic financial products. Stretches it to coming years and proposes market strategies that would work.

For Islamic bankers. Based on personal experience of the author. Undocumented.

540 Accounting and Auditing

541 Accounting in the Islamic framework


541:1 Financial Accounting Standard No.11: Provisions and Reserves, Bahrain: AAOIFI, Jan.1999, 16 pp. Mimeo.

Exposure draft of the accounting standard no.11 for the Islamic financial institutions. Includes the text of the standard, due process of its formulation and juristic rules.

For Islamic financial institutions. Based on the extensive work done by various committees.

541:2 Financial Accounting Standard No.12: General Presentation and Disclosure in Financial Statements of Islamic Insurance Companies, Bahrain: AAOIFI, Dec.1998, 42 pp. Mimeo. Exposure draft of the accounting standard no.12.

Gives text, explanatory appendices of the accounting standard for Islamic Insurance Companies. The standard deals with general presentation and disclosure in the financial statements.

For accountants and Islamic insurance company management. Based on the work done by various committees.

541:3 Financial Accounting Standard No.13: Disclosure of Bases for Determining and allocating Surplus or Deficit in Islamic Insurance Company, Bahrain: AAOIFI, Nov 1999, 13 pp.

Mimeo. Exposure draft of Accounting StandardNo.13 relating to disclosure of bases for determining and allocating surplus or deficit in Islamic insurance companies. Gives text of the standard and explanation of the due process.

For accountants and management of Islamic insurance companies. Based on the work of various committees.

541:4 Financial Accounting Standard No.14: Investment Funds, Bahrain: AAOIFI, Nov. 1999, 26 pp.

Mimeo. Exposure draft of accounting standard no.14 relating to accounting and disclosure requirements of Islamic Investment Funds. Gives the text of the standard and explanation of the due process.

For accountants and Islamic bankers. Based on the work done by various committees.

541:5 Accounting and Auditing Standards for Islamic Financial Institutions, Bahrain: AAOIFI, 1996, 237 pp.

A compilation of two statements on financial accounting, five accounting standards and two auditing standards developed by the Organization. The statements deal with objectives of financial accounting and concepts of financial accounting for islamic banks. The accounting standards deal with presentation of financial statements, murabaha, mudaraba, musharaka and bases of disclosure. The auditing standards deal with objectives of auditing and the audit report.

First ever systematic and professionally done work on the subject. For accountants and auditors.

541:6 ADNAN, M. AKHYAR, "The Shari’ah, Islamic Banks and Accounting Concepts," in Proceedings of International Conference 1 On the theme of Accounting, Commerce and Finance : The Islamic Perspective. Organized by the University of Western Sydney, Macarthur during 18-20 February 1997, pp. 116-137.

Reviews literature on Islamic accounting. Discusses the position of Islam on various basic concepts such as business entity, accounting period, basis of accounting, going concern, conservatism, match, recognition, measurement and highlight the differences between the Islamic approach and the prevalent Western approach.

For accountants. Based on contemporary literature. Documented.

541:7 ADNAN, M. AKHYAR, An Investigation of Accounting Concepts and Practices In Islamic Banks: The Case of BIMB and Bank Mu'amalat Indonesia, 1996. Unpublished. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wollongong (Australia).

The Islamic banks have been applying the concepts developed under capitalism. They cannot simply adopt their conventional practices because of some fundamental differences. Investigates and evaluates the accounting concepts and practices adopted by the Islamic and conventional banks. Also examines the standards issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board of the Islamic Banks (Bahrain). Proposes a modified approach.

For accountants. Based on the contemporary literature and field study. Documented.

541:8 ASKARY, SAEED, "Accounting in the Koranic Verses," in Accounting, Commerce and Finance: The Islamic Perspective” in Proceedings of the International Conference 1 On the theme of Accounting, Commerce and Finance : The Islamic Perspective. Organized by the University of Western Sydney, Macarthur during 18-20 February 1997, pp.139-152

Tries to derive the concepts of modern accounting from various verses of the Qur'an. The concepts derived are: measurement, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of accounting information.

For accountants. Based on the Qur'an. Documented.

541:9 GAMBLING, TREVOR, "Accounting Standards in the Islamic Banks", New Horizon, London, (70-71), Dec 1997-Jan 1998, pp.3-7.

Argues that the axiomatic accounting and normative accounting regulations fit well with the general Islamic ethos of a universal law that is applicable under all circumstances. However, accounting legislation, quasi-legislation, and accounting theory have developed to accord with secular ideas of business practice. Current European ideas about supervisory boards should be extended and strengthened to accommodate the authority of the Shari’ah Supervisory Boards.

For accountants. Based on the contemporary literature on accounting. Undocumented.

541:10 HAMAT, MUSTAPHA, Accounting and Taxation Issues in the Operation of Islamic Banking, 15 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the World Islamic Banking and Investment Summit organized by IBC Asia Ltd at Kuala Lumpur, during 23-24 September 1996.

Identifies need for a different basis of accounting Islamic modes of finance like mudaraba, ijara, etc. In the context of Malaysian taxation law, shows the laws that must be modified to bring them closer to the Islamic requirements.

For accountants. Based on primary sources. Documented.

541:11 HAMEED, SHAHUL, Islamic Accounting Research: Necessity, Review, and Possible Contribution, 15 pp. Unpublished. Paper prepared in pursuance of studies leading to Ph.D. in the University of Dundee, U.K. (1997).

Argues that there is very little rigorous research in Islamic accounting. Surveys the literature on the subject. Indicates the possible approach for developing Islamic accounting as an independent discipline. Speculates the contribution that such an approach can make to human knowledge in accounting.

A scholarly paper. Based on contemporary literature. Documented.

541:12 KARIM, RIFAAT ABDEL, "Islamic Finance and Standardization of Accounting for Islamic Financial Institutions," New Horizon, London, (93), Nov.1999, pp. 5-7.

Argues that with the proliferation of Islamic financial institutions, there was a great need for standardizing accounting practices. The Accounting and Auditing Organization of Islamic Financial Institutions fulfilled this need. Summarizes the work done by the Organization.

For bankers and accountants. Based on practical experience of the author. Undocumented.

541:13 KHAN, MUHAMMAD AKRAM, "Some Accounting Issues Relating to Zakah",

Islamic Studies, Islamabad, (39:1), Spring 2000, pp. 103-120.

Argues that the contemporary interpretation of zakah law leads to various distortions, and makes the impact of law regressive. There is need for ijtehad. Proposes several innovative steps to levy zakah on income and wealth of individuals and business firms. Shows calculations by hypothetical examples.

For jurists and accountants. Based on primary sources. Documented.

541:14 ZAID, OMAR ABDULLAH, "Accounting Books and Reports in the Islamic," in Proceedings of International Conference 1 On the theme of Accounting, Commerce and Finance : The Islamic Perspective. Organized by the University of Western Sydney, Macarthur during 18-20 February 1997, pp. 84-97.

Traces the history of some accounting practices in early Muslim period. Concludes that because of commercial practices and because of zakah, the Muslim were quite well-versed in accounting. With passage of time they developed this discipline. Mentions several accounting records, books and statements used by the Muslims. Speculates that the Italian writer Pacioli, known to be originator of double entry book-keeping might have borrowed this concept from the Muslims.

For accountants and auditors. Based on primary sources. Documented.

542 Auditing in the Islamic framework


542:1 Auditing Standard No.6: Internal Shari’ah Review, Bahrain: AAOIFI, Dec.1998, 9 pp. Mimeo.

Exposure draft of the Auditing Standard no.6 for Islamic banks. Deals with the internal Shari’ah review function within the Islamic financial institutions. Gives text of the auditing standard along with explanation of the due process and juristic views on the subject.

For auditors and bankers. Based on the work done by various committees.

542:2 Auditing Standard for Islamic Financial Institutions No.4: Testing by External Auditor for Compliance with Shari’ah Rule, Bahrain: AAOIFI, Nov. 2000, 6 pp. Mimeo.

Exposure draft of auditing standard no.4 relating to testing by external auditors for compliance with Shari’ah rules and principles. Gives text of the standard and explanation of the due process.

For auditors and Islamic bankers. Based on the work of various committees.

542:3 BANAGA, ABDELGADIR, External Audit and Corporate Governance in Islamic Banks, Aldershot: Avebury Ashgate Publishing, 1994, 270 pp.

Explains background to Islamic banking and reviews literature relating to development of accounting and auditing standards in the West. Discusses accounting and auditing issues relating to Islamic banks due to absence of standards. Highlights need for such standards for external auditors. Summarizes the proceedings of three seminars on the subject and elucidates various ideas on t the subject.

A valuable contribution on the subject. For bankers and practitioners of accounting and audit. Based on contemporary literature on the subject. Documented.

542:4 BUCHEERY, RAJA A., "The Audit Expectation Gap in Bahrain: The Case of Financial and Religious Auditors," in Accounting, Commerce and Finance: The Islamic Perspective. Proceedings of International Conference 1 organized by the University of Western Sydney, Macarthur, Australia during 18-20 February, 1997, pp. 209-227.

Addresses the question of expectations gap about the role of auditors in detecting errors and frauds. The financial auditors in Bahrain considered that they had no direct responsibility to detect errors and frauds while the religious auditors and many other segments of the society believed that the auditors had this responsibility.

Based on a questionnaire survey. Documented.

542:5 KHAN, MUHAMMAD AKRAM, "Role of Supreme Audit Institutions in Shaping the Islamic Economy in the 21st Century", IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, Malaysia, (9:1), 2001, pp. 77-98. Presented to the International Conference on Islamic Economics in 21st Century organized by the IIUM, Kuala Lumpur during 9-12 August, 1999.

Enumerates the characteristics of the Islamic economy. Points out that the Islamic economy would require an effective supreme audit institution with an expanded scope of mandate. The expansion in the scope of mandate would include performance auditing, audit of privatization, audit of public debt, evaluation of policies, audit of expenditure management systems, evaluation of regulators and environmental audits.

For auditors. Based on practical experience and contemporary literature. Documented.

542:6 KHAN, MUHAMMAD AKRAM, "Performance Auditing for Islamic Banks," Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (5:1-2), Nov 1997- April 1998, pp. 23-36.

Performance auditing holds a promise for the Islamic banks which can adopt it for examining the accounts of their clients and assess the truth and fairness of their accounts. Performance in real sector can tell the banks if their clients have managed the business in the most economical, efficient and effective manner. Another application of performance auditing is that the Islamic banks can use it as a tool for enhancing their own effectiveness.

For bankers and auditors. based on contemporary literature. Documented.


600 Industrial Organization

620 Economics of Change

622 Privatization


622:1 POMERANZ, FELIX, "Privatization and the Ethics of Islam", The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Herndon, VA., (14:2), Summer 1997, pp. 264-269.

Explains the process of privatization and various ethics-related issues such as human distress, distribution of income and social needs of the people. Argues that the Islamic economic system will like to tackle the issue of privatization in an entirely different manner.

For Muslim economists and accountants. Based on contemporary literature. Documented.

623 Globalization


623:1 KHAN, M. ALI, "Globalization of Financial Market and Islamic Financial", Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (8:1), Oct. 2000, pp. 19-67.

Reflects on implications of financial globalization for Islamic financial institutions. Presents the 18th century case for and against commerce, the 19th century case for and against a central institution acting as lender of the last resort and modern theoretical developments in finance and insurance based on the law of law numbers and centered around the concept of arbitrage, naive and efficient diversification of risk, moral hazard and adverse selection. Argues that understanding of globalization would help the future development of Islamic financial institutions.

For economists. Based on contemporary literature. Documented.

623:2 ROUBAIE, AMER al-, "The Global Age: An Application to Societal Change in Muslim Societies," al-Shajara: Journal of ISTAC, Malaysia, (3:1), 1998, pp. 85-117.

Argues that the Western onslaught of globalization is not mindful of the cultural and social differences of various societies and if followed carelessly can lead to crushing of Muslim identity. As compared to this the Muslim civilization in its heyday created an environment whereby local cultures and values could co-exist with the Islamic civilization. In the present age when the Muslim societies are very weak, they should reform their educational system to meet the challenge of Western campaign for globalization.

For economists and sociologists. Based on contemporary literature. Documented.


624 Entrepreneurship


624:1 SAEED, M., "Entrepreneurship in an Islamic Ethical Framework," New Horizon, London, (82), Dec 1998, pp. 11-13.

Highlights the role of moral and ethical values in entrepreneurship development in an Islamic framework. Focuses on issues such as R&D as a pre-requisite for entrepreneurship as well as development of entrepreneurial ventures as learning organizations.

For general readers. Based on primary sources. Undocumented.

700 Land Management

710 Land Utilization

711 Ecology and environment in Islamic perspective


711:1 ABBADI, ABDUS-SALAM, al-, "Religious Teachings on the Use of Earth's Resources: A Muslim Perspective," in Religion and the Use of Earth's. Resources, Rome: Pontifical Council, Vatican City, 1996, pp. 13-42

Summarizes the Islamic teachings with reference to protection of earth's resources and environment. Draws very heavily on the Qur’anic verse, ahadith and fiqh. A comprehensive collection of the relevant material.

For general readers. based on primary sources. Documented.

711:2 AKHTAR, M. RAMZAN, "Towards an Islamic Approach for Environmental Balance", Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (3:2), June 1996, pp. 57-77.

Studies the Islamic viewpoint about environment and presents the idea of environmental balance. Asserts that this balance can be maintained with the help of Islamic ethics and institutions. Demonstrates positive role of the private sector in terms of environment-friendly behavior, fellow-feeling and simple living. Similarly, discusses the legislative, monitoring and resource management roles of the state for protecting the environment. Provides an appropriate analytical framework for the understanding the environmental question.

For economists. Based on primary sources. Documented.

711:3 IZZIDEEN, MAWIL Y., "Islamic Environmental Ethics, Law and Society" in J. R. Engel and J.G. Engel (eds.), Ethics of Environment and Development, London: Belhaven Press, 1990, pp. 189-198

Explains the Islamic point of view on environments. Derive several rules from the Qur'an and the Sunnah about the sanctity of the ecological balance in the Islamic framework.

For environmental scientists and economists. Based on primary sources. Documented.

711:4 KHAYYAT, ABDULAZIZ, al-,"The Role of Believers in Ensuring an Equitable Distribution of the Earth's Resources: A Muslim Point of View," in Religion and the Use of Earth's Resources, Rome: Pontifical Council on Interreligious Dialogue, Vatican, 1996, pp. 125-144

Highlights the values and norms of Islam for ordinary Muslims with respect to protection and use of earth's resources. Also points out policy implications for the state.

For general readers. Based on primary sources. Documented.

711:5 TALL,, SUFIAN, el-, "Religious Teachings on the Protection of Earth's Resources : A Muslim Point of View” in Religion and the Use of Earth’s Resources, Rome: Pontifical Council on Interreligious Dialogue, Vatican, 1996, pp. 95-118.

A comprehensive discussion on Islam's attitude toward preservation of earth's resources. Shows how the contemporary development strategy has devastated the environment. Pleads for an ethical approach toward development.

For general readers. Based on primary sources. Documented.

800 Manpower; Labor; Population

810 Manpower Supply

812 Manpower planning


812:1 CARIKCI, EMIN, The Economic Impact of Temporary Manpower Migration in Selected OIC Member Countries, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1987, 90 pp.

Covering the period from 1975-83, analyzes the economic impact of international labor migration on the economies of Bangladesh, Pakistanand Turkey. Focuses on macroeconomic aspects.

For economists. Based on published statistics. Documented.

840 Demographic Economics

841 Family planning in Islam


841:1 OMRAN, ABDEL RAHIM, Family Planning in the Legacy of Islam, London: Routledge, 1992, 284 pp.

A comprehensive compilation on the question of family life and family planning in Islam. Compiles opinions on the legality or otherwise of family planning, contraceptives, abortion, artificial insemination, test-tube babies and other related issues. The general slant of the book is that over centuries the Islamic scholars have supported family planning in general although there had been differing opinions on other issues. The opinions collected sprawl over the entire Muslim history up to the recent times.

A reference book on the subject. For religious scholars and general readers. Based on primary sources. Documented.

841:2 SHAHAB, RAFIULLAH, Bahbud e Abadi ka Islamic Tasawwur (Islamic Concept of Population Welfare) (Urdu), Lahore: Dost Associates, Al-Karim Market, 1992, 166 pp.

Argues that family planning is legitimate in Islam. It helps in improving the welfare of the individuals.

For jurists. based on primary sources. Documented.


850 Human Capital

851 Training and human development for Islamic


851:1 AHMED, MAHMOOD, "Management of Training by Islamic Banks in Bangladesh," Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (15;4), Oct-Dec 1998, pp. 52-61.

A case study of training by Islamic banks. Points out some problems associated with training management and suggests to make feedback report from work place, resist over-lapping of nomination by maintaining training card, evaluate the parties concerned with training, hold general discussion on training management and performance.

For trainers and bankers. Based on practical experience. Documented.

851:2 HUQ, M. AZIZUL, “Islamic Banking in Bangladesh: Manpower Development and Establishment of a Regional Training and Research Institutein Islamic Banking and Insurance, Dhaka: Islami Bank Bangladesh, 1990, pp, 33-52. Paper presented to the International Seminar organized by the International Association of Islamic Banks and Islami Bank Bangladesh at Dhaka on 27 October 1989.

Outlines the evolution of Islamic banking in Bangladesh and highlights the problems by the two Islamic banks. Emphasizes the need for training of staff. Gives a blueprint for a regional training institute of the staff of Islamic banks

For practitioners of Islamic banks. Undocumented.


852 Human resource development in Islamic perspective


852:1 KHAN, M. FAHIM, Human Resources Mobilization through Profit-Loss-Sharing Based Financial System, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1992, 64 pp.

Argues that the Islamic financial system has a built-in powerful model of human resource mobilization than the existing models of employment and human resources mobilization discussed in conventional economics. Proposes the establishment of a development bank for human resource mobilization. An appendix describes the Islamic financial system in brief.

For economists and policy makers. Based on primary sources. Documented.

852:2 SADEQ, A. H .M., "Islamic Ethics in Human Resource Management", in Khaliq Ahmad and AHM Sadeq (eds.), Ethics in Business and Management, London: Asean Press, 2001, pp. 285-302

The major principles of Islamic ethics are: brotherhood, benevolence, justice, fulfilling contracts, peoples' rights, fair compensation, cooperation, trust and honesty. He translates these principles into various management practices relating to human resource development such as recruitment, training, performance evaluation, compensation, work and stress , corporate culture, and leadership.

For management scientists and general readers. Based on primary sources. Documented.

852:3 SAFIULLAH, SHEIKH M., "New Managers in the Egyptian Public Sector During the Nasser Era", in Ehsan Ahmed (ed.), Role of Private and Public Sectors in Economic Development in an Islamic Perspective, Herndon, VA: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1996, Pp. 167-182

Argues that capitalist trained managers were used for implementing socialist policies by Nasser of Egypt. The experiment did not work out. For implementing Islamic system, the public servants must be trained in Islamic norms.

For policy makers. Based on contemporary literature. Documented.

900 Welfare Programs; Consumer Economics

920 Consumer Economics

921 Consumer behavior in the Islamic framework


921:1 ZARQA, M. ANAS, "Consumer Behavior in an Islamic Economy", in Monzer Kahf (ed. ), Lessons in Islamic Economics, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1998, pp. 371-380. Presented to the Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5 August 1991.

Argues that the consumer behavior theory is insufficient to explain the behavior of Muslim consumer. Suggests that the Islamic injunctions related to consumption should be integrated within a socio-legal behavioral framework. Recommends empirical study of the Muslim behavior.

For economists. Based on contemporary literature. Undocumented.

Author Index

Abbadi-Al, Abdus-Salam 711:1

Abdallah, Ahmaed Ali 316:1

Abdin, Al-Tayib Z. -Al 322:1

Abdulmalik, Atif A. 315:1

Abu Ghuddah, Abdul Sattar 523:2

Abu-Rashed, Jamal 012:1

Abusulayman, Abdulhamid 054:1

Adnan, M. Akhyar 541:6, 541:7

Adrees, Mohammd 313:1

Ahad, Rahmatullah 316:2

Ahmad, A.R.Yusri 311:4

Ahmad, Ausaf 023:1, 111.:1, 122:1, 312:7, 312:8, 313:2, 317:3

Ahmad, Khaliq 531:1, 531:2, 531:3

Ahmad, Khurshid 011:1, 0121, 012:2, 311:5, 312:9, 312:10

Ahmad, Mushtaq 531:4

Ahmad, Shaikh Mahmud 311:6

Ahmad, Syyid Fayyaz 531:5

Ahmed, A. Zeinelandin 424:1

Ahmed, Habib 521:1

Ahmed, Hasanuddin 327:1

Ahmed, Mahmood 512:1, 851:1

Ahmed, Nasiruddin 312:11

Ahmed, Osman Babikir 313:3

Ahmed, A.Zeinelabidin 424:1

Ahmed, Ziauddin (Dr) 312:12

Ahsani, A.H. 311:7

Akhtar, M. Ramzan 012:3, 316:3, 711:2

Akkas, S. M. Ali 051:1, 326:1

Alam, Jahangir 312:13

Alam, M. Badiul 312:14

Alam, Manzoor 054:2

Ali, Ahmad Mohamed 315:2

Ali, Hasan Ali 515:1

Ali, Muazzam 312:15

Ali, Shaukat 317:4

Amine, M. B. M. Al- 314:1

Amjad, Muiz 311:8

Anjum, Iqbal 424:2

Ansari-Pour, M. A 311:9 .

Anwar, Muhammad 312:6, 314:2, 534:1

Ariff, Mohamed 121:1, 313:4, 326:2

Ashkar, A. A. Fattah El- 317:5, 326:3

Ashraf, Jawad 311:10

Ashraf, S. M. A. 312:17, 312:18, 332:1

Askari, Hossein 313:5

Askary, Saeed 541:8

Aslam, Owais 311:11

Awan, Kazim Raza 133:1

Ayoub-Bey, Nasr-Eldin 531:6

Ayub, Muhammad 311:12, 311:13

Ayyubi, Salahuddin 311:14

Azid, Toseef 322:2

Aziz, Abdul 133:2

Aziz, Hassanudden . 314:3

Bacha, O. Ismath 313:6, 521:3

Bacha, Obiyathulla H 521:2

Balz, Kilian 317:6

Banaga, Abdelgadir 542:3

Bashar, M. L. A. 041:1, 513:1, 533:1

Bashir, A. Hameed 521:4

Bashir, Abdel Hamid 122:2

Bdour, Radi El- 023:2

Bendjilali, Boualem 316:4, 421:1, 521:5, 521:6

Bhatty, M. Ajmal 332:2, 333:1

Billah, M. Masum 331:1, 331:2, 332:3, 332:4, 332:5, 332:6, 332:7, 332:8, 332:9, 332:10, 333:2, 512:2, 531:7, 531:8

Boroujerdi, A. Rahinmi 012:4

Boudjellal, Mohammed 327:2

Bucheery, Raja A. 542:4

Buckley, Susan L 311:15 .

Buckmaster, Daphne 312:19

Buyukdeniz, Adnan 316:5

Carikci, Emin 812:1

Chapra, M. Umer 011:2, 011:3, 012:5, 057:1, 311:16, 312:20, 312:21,

Cheema, Aftab Ahmad 312:22

Choudhry, Nurun N. 317:7

Choudhury, Masudul Alam 023:3, 032:1, 032:2,132:1, 322:3, 424:3

Cizacka, Murat 047:1, 312:23, 313:7, 327:3

Clode, Michael 312:24

Cowan, David 312:25

Cox, Stella 312:26, 313:8

Dar, Humayon A. 512:3, 522:1

Darrat, Ali F. 313:9

Delorenzo, Yusuf Talal 512:4, 531:9, 531:10

Devenish, Simon 312:27

Dhaouadi, Mahmoud 112:1

Dien, M. Izzi 043:1

Din, Seif I.Tag El 111:2, 314:4

Diwany, Tarek El 311:17 -

Drummond, James 312:28

Dualeh, Suleiman 535:1

Ebrahim, M. Shahid 023:4, 522:2

Ehrenkreutz, Andrew 042:1

Elahi, Afzal 523:3

Embong, Abdullah 054:3

Faris, Nabih Amin 321:1

Fiennes, Tony 317:8

Freeland, Richard 313:10

Fugard, Robert 313:11

Gafoor, A. L. M. Abdul 312:29, 312:30

Gamal, Mahmoud A. El- 312:31, 531:11

Gambling, Trevor 541:9

Gari, Mohamed Ali El 312:32, 531:12

Ghazali, Aidit 032:3

Ghazali, El-Abdelhamid 311:18

Ghazi, Mahmood Ahmad 512:5

Gooden, Sarah 317:9

Gulaid, Mahmoud A 313:12 .

Gusau, Sule Ahmed 326:4

Gwandu, A. A. 324:1

Habib, Ahmed 522:3

Halabi, Abdel Karim 312:33

Halim, Abdul 313:13

Hamat, Mustapha 541:10

Hamdi, Abdur Rahim 312:34

Hameed, Shahul 541:11

Hamid, A. F. Abdul 122:3

Hamid, M. A. 312:35

Hamid, M. El-Fateh 523:4

Hanafy, Abdallah A. 531:13

Haneef, M. A. M. 012:6, 017:2, 017:3, 018:1

Hannan, Shah Abdul 312:36, 317:10

Haque, Nadeemul 313:14

Haque, Ziaul 059:1

Haron, Sudin 311:19, 312:37, 521:7, 521:8, 535:2

Haroon, Yousaf Sh. 313:15

Hasan, M. Kabir 023:5

Hasan, M. Kamal 531:14

Hasan, Samee Al- 332:11

Hasanuzzaman, S. M. 012:7, 031:1, 032:4, 133:3, 311:20, 512:6, 512:7

Hassan, Hussein Hamed 523:5

Hennigan, Peter Charles 327:4

Hume, James 313:16

Huq, Ismat Ara 311:21, 311:22

Huq, Muhammad Azizul 851:2

Husain, Syed Mohammad 313:17, 523:6

Husin, Awang Adek 313:18

Hussain, Muhammad 123:1

Iftikhar, Asif 311:23

Inayat, Nadeem 312:38

Iqbal, Munawar 017:4, 022:1, 023:6, 312:39, 312:40, 312:41

Iqbal, Zamir 312:42, 313:19, 313:20, 313:21, 313:22, 313:23, 313:24

Irfani, A. Malik 512:8

Islahi, Abdul Azim 015:1, 031:2

Ismail, A. Halim 313:25

Isobel, Lobo 312:43

Izzideen, Mawil Y. 711:3

Jassem, Aqeel A. Al- 421:2

Jomo, K.S. 058:1

Junaid, S.A.H.A Al- 514:1

Kaff, S.H.Al- 014:3

Kahf, Monzer 014:4, 017:5, 056:1, 322:4, 322:5, 322:6, 323:1, 323:2, 325:1, 326:5, 522:4, 523:7

Kallek, Cengiz 031:3, 041:2, 041:3

Kamali, M. Hashim 313:26

Kamaruddin, A.R. 223:1

Kamel, Saleh 312:44

Karim, Adiwarman A. 522:5

Karim, Rifaat Abdel 541:12

Kazmi, Aqdas Ali 311:24

Keen, Steve 311:25

Kennedy, Charles 312:45

Khaki, M. Aslam 143:1

Khan, Atiq-Uz-Zafar 331:3

Khan, M. Ali 623:1

Khan, M. Fahim 022:2, 023:7, 133:4, 133:5, 312:46, 312:47, 313:27, 313;28, 318:1, 421:3, 522:6, 852:1

Khan, Mansoor H. 133:6

Khan, Mohsin S. 311:26

Khan, Muhammad Akram 012:8, 017:6, 122:4, 311:27, 311:28, 312:48, 541:13, 542:5, 542:6

Khan, Sher Nauroze 015:2

Khan, Shujaat A. 111:3

Khan, Tariqullah 017:7, 314:5, 442:1, 512:9, 521:9, 521:10, 523:8

Khan, Waqar Masud 312:49

Khan, Zafar Ahmad 312:50

Khayyat, Abdulaziz Al- 711:4

Knight, W.Donald 315:3

Kuran, Timur 059:2, 059:3, 059:4, 059:5, 059:6, 059:7, 059:8, 059:9, 059:10, 123:2, 311:29

Lakhani, M. Yasin 314:6

Latif, Hafiz M. 331:4

Lawai, Husain 313:29

Lewis, Mervyn K. 311:30, 312:51

Loqman, Muhammad 531:15

Mahdi, Mahmoud Ahmad 316:6

Mahdi, Syed Iqbal 122:5

Malik, M. Hafeez 313:30

Mannan, M .A. 134:2, 314:7

Mansuri, Tahir 311:31

Martin, Jeremy 312:52

Meenai, Anwar Ahmed 133:7, 312:53, 312:54, 312:55

Mikailu, Aminu S. 121:2

Mills, Paul S 311:32 .

Mirakhor, Abbas 057:2, 133:8, 312:57

Mohsin, Mohammad 022:3

Muhammad, B. A. Sabir 514:2

Muhammad, Yar 424:4

Naqvi, S.N.H. 012:9, 521:11

Nasim, Pervez 316:7

Naughton, Tony 317:11

Naz, M.S. 533:2

Noibi, Mansur A. 312:58

Nur, Elmi M 311:33 .

Nuti, Dmenico Mario 521:12

Nyazee, I.A.Khan 531:16

Obaidullah, Mohammad 313:31, 313:32, 313:33,313:34, 314:8, 314:9, 314:10, 314:11,314:12, 522:7

Omar, F. Abdullah Al 312:59

Omar, Fuad, Al- 113:1

Omran, Abdel Rahim 841:1

Pal, Izzuddin 059:11

Patrikis, Ernest 317:12

Pervez, Imtiaz A. 311:34, 312:60, 313:35

Pfeifer, Karen 018:2

Pomeranz, Felix 622:1

Qardawai, Yusuf-Al 311:35

Qayum, Khalid 312:61

Rad, Parviz S. 056:2

Rahi, A.W. 523:9

Rahman, Gohar 311:36, 311:37,

Rahman, S. M. H. 014:5, 312:62, 315:4

Rahman, Tanzilur 311:38, 311:39, 312:64, 512:10

Ray, Nicholas D. 312:65

Rosly, Saiful Azhar 311:41, 312:66, 313:36, 313:37

Roubaie, Amer Al- 135:1, 623:2

Roy, Olivier 059:12

Saadallah, Ridha 522:8

Sabra, Adam 042:2

Sadeq, A.H.M. 111:4, 116:1, 321:2, 327:5, 852:2

Saeed, M. 514:3, 624:1

Safiullah, Sheikh M. 852:3

Salama, Abidin A. 014:6, 313:38, 316:8

Salamon, Hussin 314:13, 314:14

Salleh, Muhammad Syukri 135:2

Samad, Abdus 312:67

Sarkar, M. A. Awwal 312:68, 512:11, 521:13

Sayed, Afzal 328:1

Scoon, Farid 312:69

Shahab, Rafiullah 323:3, 841:2

Shahid, Khawaja Nasim 012:10

Shajari, H. 311:42

Shakir, Ikram 332:12

Shaltut, Khalil 316:9

Sharif, M.I.M 312:70

Shirazi, Nasim Shah 322:7, 322:8

Siddiqi, Adeel 313:40

Siddiqi, Asma 312:71

Siddiqi, M.N. 312:72

Siddiqui, Shahid Hasan 311:43, 312:73, 312:74, 312:75, 312:76, 312:77

Siddiqui, Shamim Ahmad 022:4

Sirageldin, Ismail 054:4, 116:2,

Siraj, M.A.Hadi Al- 311:44, 512:12

Stewart, Glenn M 012:11 .

Subair, Kola 122:6

Sulaiman, Ibrahim 048:1

Suwailem, Sami Al- 314:15, 314:16, 524:1, 531:17

Tahir, Sayyid 022:5, 023:8, 054:5, 111:5, 311:45, 313:41

Tall, Sufian, El- 711:5

Tasin, Muhammad 143:2, 721:4

Thani, Muhammad 323:4

Thomas, Abdulkader 054:6, 535:3

Thomas, Richard 313:42, 523:10

Toutounchian, Iraj 317:13

Turen, Seref 522:9

Turki, Mustafa M 312:78 .

Ugurel, Ilhan 223:2

Umar, M. Abdul Halim 523:11

Uthman, M. Zainy 135:3

Uthman, Usamah A 317:14, 328:2 .

Uthmani, M.Taqi 311:46, 312:79, 313:43, 313:44, 316:10

Uzair, Mohammad 311:47, 312:80

Vogel, Frank E. 311:48, 313:45

Waheed, Atif 311:49

Wilson, Rodney 012:12, 058:2, 312:81, 312:82, 313:46, 315:5 , 531:18

Wright,Jr., J.W. 312:83

Yahya, Husni A.A. 316:11

Yaquby, Nizam S. 312:84

Yip, John 523:12

Yusof, M.Fadzli 333:3

Zaid, Omar Abdullah 312:85, 541:14

Zainalabidin, Tayyib 326:6

Zaman, Arshad 311:50

Zaman, M. Raquibuz 326:7

Zarqa, M. Anas 032:5 , 132:2, 314:17, 523:13, 921:1

Zein, S. Atef, El- 054:7

Ziauddin, M. 311:51



Subject Index


Abbasids

25

accounting standard



122

122


122

123


123

123


achievements of Islamic economics

16

Adl



15

agency problem

109

agenda for research



16

agriculture

18

67

69



74

al-Ameen Islamic Financing and Investment Corporation

86

All-India Council of Muslims' Economic Upliftment



86

Altruism

14

auditing standard



123

123


125

125


125

Australia

48

61

61



65

71

106



123

126


bai' al-dayn

79

bai' al-inah



79

bai' al-istijrar

73

84

bai' mu'ajjal



51

54

bai' salam



77

113


bai’ al-sarf

54

Bait-un Nasr Urban Cooperative Society



86

Bangladesh

18

19

48



55

55

55



57

57

57



57

61

61



61

61

65



72

95

98



113

131


131

132


132

benchmark

40

40

76



80

80

bills of exchange



54

80

BIMB



76

123


Buddhism

32

Build-Own-Operate



113

Build-Own-Operate-Transfer

113

Build-Own-Transfer



113

business ethics

30

47

118



118

capitalism

16

20

29



35

36

46



49

123


case studies

28

36



54

64

65



72

77

87



92

95

96



103

114


cash waqf

97

cash waqf.



26

Central Asia

59

central banks



53

89

90



91

Christian

23

30

30



50

Christian:economic thought

46

50

Christianity



32

46

46



50

co-efficient of variation

114

consumer behavior



17

133


conventional banks

57

57



59

59

60



60

62

65



65

67

68



68

78

89



110

122


123

conventional economic paradigm

15

conventional economics



14

14

15



15

20

25



30

45

132



cosmetic changes

30

57



cost of capital

39

40



40

76

cost-benefit analysis



24

courses on Islamic economics

20

currency risk management



78

Dalla al-Baraka bank

119

Dar al-Mal al-Islami



119

debt-debt swap

57

decreasing partnership



88

definition of Islamic economics

15

15

16



demand function

23

87



discounting

39

39



40

52

80



91

discounting factor

40

double entry book-keeping



125

Dow Jones Islamic Market Indices

74

East Asian crisis



90

East Export Trade Center

103

economic backwardness



14

economic cooperation

103

103


104

economic development

14

24

28



32

35

38



39

41

41



61

67

104



effect of zakah

23

92



94

Egypt


26

26

51



65

72

92



96

106


119

132


entrepreneurship

21

34



127

environmental balance

129

ethics and economics



30

exchange rate

54

83

expenditure tax



98

factors of production

21

27

28



family planning

131


131

family takaful

100

financial contracts



79

81

83



financial markets

55

62



69

72

72



75

76

82



financial ratio analysis

114


forward trading

54

80



85

120


futures market

77

German law



89

89

ghanima



95

gharar


83

84

114



119

120


globalization

14

17



127

127


government securities

90

haram



15

hedging risk

84

hiba


98

Hinduism

32

hisba


18

25

26



121

housing finance

71

86

86



87

87

88



88

88

88



HSBC

86

human resource mobilization



132

Ibn Khaldun

14

IDB


40

59

103



103

ijara


21

51

51



64

65

69



74

77

81



91

95

108



113

115


115

116


124

ijtehad


24

38

60



93

107


125

impact of zakah

96

implementation of zakah



17

37

indebtedness



14

49

116



indexation

42

42



45

91

117



India

79

86



86

96

97



Indonesia

36

64



95

103


123

inflation

29

37

42



45

45

46



47

52

57



62

inheritance

15

27

28



33

instruments of monetary control

90

insurable interest



98

insurance

18

28

69



85

85

98



98

99

99



99

99

99



100

100


100

100


100

101


101

101


101

102


120

122


122

123


127

interest

18

18

22



22

22

22



23

23

27



29

30

31



31

32

33



37

37

37



39

39

40



40

40

40



40

44

44



44

45

45



45

45

45



45

45

45



46

46

46



47

47

47



47

47

47



47

48

48



48

48

48



48

49

49



49

49

50



50

51

51



51

51

51



51

52

52



53

53

53



54

54

55



56

57

60



62

62

63



63

65

65



67

67

67



67

68

70



70

72

73



74

79

80



82

87

87



89

89

90



90

91

91



91

91

104



108

108


108

110


113

115


116

116


118

Iran


28

29

29



37

37

45



45

45

55



55

56

58



65

74

89



IS-LM model

23

Islamic accounting



123

124


Islamic Asset Management Limited

116


Islamic banking

18

32



33

35

44



46

49

50



50

51

52



55

55

56



56

56

56



57

58

58



58

58

58



59

59

60



60

60

61



61

62

62



62

62

63



63

64

64



65

65

66



66

66

67



67

67

68



68

68

69



69

70

70



70

70

71



71

72

75



80

85

85



88

97

106



107

110


111

114


119

125


132

Islamic debt securities

79

Islamic Development Bank



15

15

17



17

17

18



19

20

20



20

21

23



23

23

25



28

29

29



35

39

39



40

41

43



47

53

58



58

69

69



85

87

103



115

Islamic economic system

21

24

28



28

29

29



34

38

45



127

Islamic economics

14

14

15



15

15

15



15

16

16



17

17

17



17

18

18



19

19

19



20

20

20



20

24

25



27

27

30



30

30

31



31

31

31



31

32

32



32

33

36



63

64

113



118

121


Islamic economy

21

22



22

23

28



28

33

35



39

74

89



93

94

112



126

Islamic ethics

20

36

83



120

129


132

Islamic financial instruments

54

60

72



73

74

79



80

82

112



115

115


116

Islamic financial products

59

59

121



122

Islamic financing

17

62

71



74

77

78



111

113


Islamic modes of finance

56

67



69

76

124



Islamic stock exchange

89

90



Islamic stock market

82

Islamic values



17

34

36



109

117


Islamization of economy

30

64



israf

23

Istijrar



78

istisna


40

65

69



77

81

81



88

115


116

116


116

119


Jewish

30

Jewish:economic thought



30

46

jizya



95

Joint Stock Company

120

Jordan


17

35

65



88

96

114



Jordan Islamic bank

119


ju'ala

77

Justice



27

52

93



Karachi Stock Exchange

82

kharaj



94

95

kharaji lands



94

Khilafa


15

27

khiyar shart



84

Kitab al-Amwal

24

land-rent



21

law of property

29

LIBOR


40

40

76



80

80

80



Malaysia

18

20



20

21

24



28

34

35



36

37

37



37

41

41



41

41

50



52

61

65



68

68

68



70

72

72



72

72

74



75

75

76



79

81

82



82

84

91



93

95

95



97

97

100



102

103


103

104


106

108


116

120


122

126


127

Mamluk


26

26

26



manzil scheme

86

mark-up



61

68

68



91

111


113

methodology

15

15

19



24

24

24



30

57

methodology of Islamic economics



15

24

Microenterprise Development Bank



86

Middle Ages

23

money in Islam



18

51

52



80

91

91



91

100


moral filter

27

90



mudaraba

18

21



24

50

51



59

60

64



66

68

68



69

69

81



83

95

97



104

106


106

107


107

107


107

107


108

108


109

109


110

111


113

114


116

119


119

123


124

mudaraba companies

97

106


107

Muhammadu Bello

27

muqarada



79

murabaha

52

65

65



69

74

77



80

81

81



83

87

88



106

106


113

114


114

114


119

119


123

musharaka

21

50

51



64

68

69



72

79

81



83

95

104



106

106


110

111


113

116


117

119


119

123


Muslim minorities

28

mutual funds



53

79

national participation paper



74

nature of Islamic economics

14

16

16



28

New Zealand

106

nisab,


92

OIC


37

43

43



43

103


103

103


103

103


103

104


131

OICIS-NET

43

Oman


106

options


35

39

73



76

78

80



81

81

81



82

83

83



84

84

85



90

111


118

120


Ottoman

26

26



97

Pakistan

22

26

28



30

30

33



35

37

37



37

38

38



44

44

44



45

45

46



46

46

46



47

51

51



52

52

52



52

53

53



54

54

54



55

55

55



56

58

58



58

63

63



63

63

64



64

64

64



65

65

65



67

67

67



67

69

70



70

70

72



74

82

89



89

89

92



92

93

93



93

94

94



94

96

96



103

104


104

106


106

106


107

107


107

107


114

115


116

121


131

participating term certificates

22

Philippines



36

95

PLS



60

110


111

111


111

114


poverty

14

23



26

26

32



35

36

38



59

67

92



93

93

94



94

96

113



primary sources of Islamic economics

16

privatization



17

77

126



127

profit-loss sharing

22

22

23



47

50

53



91

110


112

113


profit-sharing

37

47



62

85

91



109

109


111

114


116

120


public borrowing

95

public debt



53

104


126

real estate market

25

research and development



66

69

research in Islamic economics



17

Responsibility

27

118


riba

18

27



28

33

42



44

44

44



44

44

45



46

46

46



46

48

48



48

48

48



48

49

49



50

50

51



51

51

51



51

52

52



53

53

53



55

57

61



62

63

63



77

80

81



83

99

114



119

120


riba al-fadl

48

50



53

riba al-nasi'a

50

riba-al fadl



27

48

Rububiyya



27

ruses


31

32

32



33

50

Saladin



26

26

salam



40

65

69



72

73

81



81

115


116

Saudi Arabia

96

106


121

securitization

75

77

79



SESRTCIC

24

43



104

share-cropping

21

Shari’ah maxims



24

84

Shari’ah Supervisory Board



60

71

89



124

Shehu Abdullahi

27

Shehu Uthman



27

Singapore

28

28

36



36

95

95



small business

21

social choice



24

social rate of return

90

Sokoto


19

21

25



27

27

95



South East Asia

36

36



speculation

29

77



83

84

84



89

90

90



State Bank of Pakistan

88

stock analysis



114

Sudanese Estate Bank

86

86

87



87

88

88



88

88

Sunnah



24

53

129



Supreme Court of Pakistan

44

44



swap

72

80



81

81

Tabung Haji



40

40

41



takaful

98

99



99

100


100

100


101

101


101

102


tamlik,

92

Tawhid



15

24

27



tax holidays

57

teaching Islamic economics



19

teaching of Islamic economics

19

20

Term Finance Certificates



82

Thailand

36

95

theory of firm



21

Time Multiple Counter Loans

45

time-multiple-counter-loans



51

TMCL


45

Topkapi


26

trade imbalance

14

treasury bills



53

Turkey


35

88

103



131

two-tier mudaraba

69

UK


64

70

71



86

86

89



90

90

106



UK.

86

90



90

ummah


31

41

underdevelopment



14

35

United Bank of Kuwait



86

Unity


27

unrestricted investment account holders

90

unrestricted investment accounts



78

urbun


81

119


USA

56

116



ushr

95

venture capital



59

106


waqf

26

28



93

95

97



97

97

97



wasiya

98

World Trade Organization



17

worldview of Islam

14

19

120



X-efficiency

92

zakah



15

22

23



23

29

31



32

33

37



38

69

92



92

92

92



92

93

93



93

93

94



94

94

94



94

95

95



96

96

96



96

96

98



125

125




1 “What is wrong with Islamic Economics? Analysing the present state and future direction” is being published by Edward Elgar, Gloucestershire, UK in 2013.


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