First city-state to use mechanical printing press and you could get books
Created university to promote science, medicine and law
HOW DID THE CITY-STATE OF GENOA HELP SHAPE THE RENAISSANCE WORLDVIEW?
Port city surrounded by high walls to protect inhabitants from invaders
Major city of trade and commerce
Played strong role in crusades for transporting crusading armies to the Holy Land
Genoa citizens paid well for this service
Genoa’s traders quickly developed markets at key ports on the Black sea and trade flourished as did the navy, shipbuilders, traders
Venice and Genoa were rivals and fought to gain control of lucrative trading posts
Government and Social System
A republic governed by rival clans or families
Families agreed to a truce in 13th century and split the city into sections each could control
Genoa’s strength declined to loss of key port (Constantinople) by the Black Sea
Genoa experienced the Renaissance in art and architecture later in 15th century
8. List 3 points for each of the city states (Florence, Venice and Genoa) why they were important in shaping the renaissance worldview? Florence Venice Genoa
HOW DID THE RENAISSANCE BEGIN? Renaissance Introduction
Renaissance is a French word renaitre, meaning “rebirth” or “to be born again”
It began in the Italian city states in the year 1350, marking the end of the Middle Ages and lasted until the year 1600.
Many advanced ideas of the Greek and Romans had been lost or ignored in Europe for 1000 years.
European scholars rediscovered classical documents and discovered new ideas and ways of looking at the world
It was an era defined by the discovery of new knowledge and ideas that gave birth to a new worldview, a new perspective on life, new cultures, lifestyles and perspectives.
The Renaissance began as a result of a number of events including the oppression of the people by the Church and Feudal system, increased interaction and the sharing of new ideas and knowledge of different cultures made possible by such events as the opening of the Silk Road, the Crusades, urbanization as a result of the Black Death and increased trade. Another cause was the resurfacing of ancient literature that had been hidden for thousands of years after the fall of the Roman Empire.
How did the ideas of the Italian Renaissance spread throughout Europe? How did Humanism affect the Renaissance worldview?
9. Humanism was a major factor in the Renaissance time period. Describe what humanism is.
Scholars became more aware of classical writings of the Greeks, Romans and Islamic cultures
Scholars felt these classical writings were superior to their own thinking and writings
Classical writing suggested that life on Earth during people’s lifetimes had value vs previous thinking preparing for the afterlife was more important than daily life
Classical writings also suggested that people as INDIVIDUALS could do great things in their lives and not be limited to strict social roles of the middle ages
Humanism thus was born – it focused on human beings, their values, abilities and individual worth and human society that could be improved
Humanism led to new attitudes, people started to surround themselves with beautiful art and architecture, wanted a rich and full life now as well as preparing for the afterlife
Humanism also led people to learn new languages such as Greek, Latin and Hebrew so they could read the original documents (to find the truth for themselves) not just the translators version
Where and How did Renaissance ideas begin to spread? The following 3 factors prevented the Renaissance from spreading beyond Italy until early 15th century.
Outside of Italy much of the land was used for agriculture
It was governed by the Feudal System which limited and oppressed the peasant population.
The Monarch and Nobles wanted to maintain their power so they did everything they could to keep the people ignorant and oppressed.
They were not open to new ideas.
There were numerous wars between different countries during the Middle Ages
The Church played strong role in Northern Europe. They had immense power and did not want to lose this power
They did everything they could to make sure that the people were censored from outside influence.
The only information or education that was available was provided by Church officials and they made sure that the people learned only what they wanted them to learn, they did not want the people to think for themselves
What allowed the Renaissance ideas after early 15th century?
Ideas of Renaissance spread beyond Italy in the early 15th century because:
Decline of feudalism helped monarchs gain more power and allow people more freedom to explore changes in society and new ideas in arts, sciences and philosophy
War between France/Germany and Italy brought the Renaissance movement into the spot light: northern Europe hired many Italy craftsmen and scholars to come to their courts to show what they could do and to increase the sophistication of their people
Growth of humanism and power of the monarchs led to competition for the authority over the people against the RC church
Invention of the printing press, books could now be produced and distributed for anyone to read instead of the previous copying the book by hand. Allowed anyone to learn to read.
10. List 3 reasons why the renaissance was slow to spread before the 15th century and why it began to spread in the 15th century.
Before 15th century
Early 15th century
How did Scholars and Philosophers spread the ideas of Humanism?
Scholars would go to Italy to attend universities where they interacted with others and exchanged knowledge and ideas. These scholars would return to their home villages and share what they learned with others, thus spreading those ideas and knowledge with others
Some best known scholars/philosophers:
Petrarch (1304 – 1374)
Best known for translating ancient classical Greek and Roman text
He believe in god and believed that there was value in life on earth
Consider the greatest renaissance Christian humanist
He believe role of church was to teach and support faith and faith part of life
Wanted bible translated into common language so ALL people could read it
Value of studying literature was the discussion and sharing ideas and not rote memorizing
Guillaume Budé (1467-1540)
Believe lawyers should study the original text of roman law and apply that to new cases instead of applying French interpretations that had been passed down for 1000 years
Michel de Montaigne (1533 – 1592)
Wrote his ideas of how people should act (honour, respect, love, courage themselves and others) in short opinion pieces known as the essay
Interested in education reform
How did Artists help spread the ideas of the Renaissance?
Artist began to change their painting style
Renaissance art focused on religious themes in 14th and 15th century
Use realistic proportions, perspective, facial expressions and new knowledge of body proportions gained from human dissection
During 15th century non-religion subject (greek and roman myths) were painted as well as the concept of humanism (individual portraits)
Artist now paid by wealthy families to due individual and family portraits
Artist were marketable commodity and began to sign their name and even incorporate their own portrait into the picture in the background
Created more realistic image of human form
Shared techniques with other artists
Free to paint subject matter as how they saw it (within limits)
Paid for work, gained class status and respected
created technique to cast bronze statues
first person to use perspective in a design, he converted math into art and architecture
used linear and aerial perspective
one of the great renaissance artist, painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer
created Sistine Chapel, statue of David, Pièta
bodies or sculpted near perfect showing muscle and veins
Thoughts were banned by the Roman Catholic Church and were not published until shortly before he died due to fear of retaliation by Church
François Viète (1473-1543)
Wrote books on trigonometry and geometry
Provided solutions to doubling cubes, trisecting angles all used for engineering and architecture
Peter Henlein (a german) (15th century)
Invented spring-powered clock
Clocks were used instead of sun dials, hour glasses and the church bell
How did Writers influence the Renaissance Worldview?
Writers collected, studied and translated ancient Latin and Greek texts and documents into languages making them available to more people.
These people were then able to read the information become exposed to the new ideas and in turn shared the knowledge they gained with others.
Sense of pride and national identity began to develop in states leading to writers writing in their own languages
Therefore, standardization of language developed in areas of vocab, spelling and grammar
Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400)
Wrote Cantebury Tales, wrote about social and political circumstances
Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
Wrote Utopia, advocated religious tolerance, he influenced education
François Rabelais (1494-1553)
Wrote Pantagruel, a satire that poked fun at the institutions in society, he wanted to entertain and educate people, his booked banned by church
William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
Writing that was inventive use of language and their insights into human nature, wrote for people from all classes
11. Complete the following chart. What contributions did philosphers, artists, writers, and mathematicians/scientists contribute to humanism and the renaissance movement. Include 3 points for each and contributing individuals.
1. 2. 3.
1. 2. 3.
1. 2. 3.
1. 2. 3.
How did the ideas of the Renaissance change Social and Economic Systems? During renaissance
feudal system broke down,
rural peasants moved to urban areas,
middle class of trade and manufacturing,
increase number of people learn to read, write and do arithmetic
creation of the middle class contributed to the growth of a capitalist society based on trade and MONEY (barter system was used up to this time)
religion remained central to people’s lives but middle class/merchants wanted to improve their lives and surrounding by beautifying it through support of the arts and architecture - this made everyone’s lives better
belief system changed from their lives were no longer destined to remain the same as their parents and ancestors, bug could see that through hard work and taking advantage of opportunities they could improve their lives and social class – individuals could create their own identity
12. Define the concept of a capitalist society:
13. List 4 changes to the Social and Economic systems during the Renaissance.
Poor males/females had no opportunity for education
Wealthy women were not usually allowed to be educated, but some were, most never received education past marriage
Women were under authority of their father or husband, if widowed could live independently if they had money, if not they had to move in with a male relative or join a convent
Some notable writers of the renaissance were: Agrippa of Nettelsheim, Maria de Zayas Y Sotomayer, Christine de Pizan
Some women supported and promoted Catholicism, felt they should be able to preach and teach the scriptures but were not allowed to be part of the decision making process
17. How were woman viewed differently during the Renaissance than they are today?
Provided by RC church focused on grammar, rhetoric and logic; taught nobles, clergy to read, write and arithmetic
Renaissance brought new learnings to a wider audience, developed new ideas and new discoveries both from old documents and intercultural sharing/contact
Renaissance brought the idea of individual human life and personal potential to the for front and good citizens that could leader their communities and carry out civic work. . .they asked questions and sought answers not accepting what they were told