Instructional Strategies



Download 9.23 Mb.
Page2/26
Date28.04.2018
Size9.23 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   26
2011-2012
The Gradual Release Model of Instruction

Gradual Release Model: Key Concepts

Modeling Elements

  • Name the strategy, skill, or task.

  • State the purpose of strategy, skill, or task.

  • Explain when the skill, strategy or task is used.

  • Use analogies to link to prior knowledge.

  • Demonstrate how the skill, strategy, or task is completed.

  • Self-assess and highlight errors to avoid.




Guided Instruction

  • Students begin to try out what they have begun to learn.

  • The teacher still structures the process.

  • Often, students “use but confuse”.

  • The teacher is there to help with the tricky parts.

  • The teacher strategically uses questions, prompts, and cues.

Productive Group Work

  • The task is a novel application of the skill designed so that the outcome is not guaranteed.

  • Students interact with one another to build each other’s knowledge.

  • Students are consolidating their new understanding.

  • Students are accountable for helping each other work through the new skill.




Scaffolding …
requires the adult’s “controlling those elements of the task that are initially beyond the learner’s capability, thus permitting him to concentrate upon and complete only those elements that are within his range of competence” (Wood, Bruner, & Ross, 1976, p. 90).





Hook, Line & Sinker” Lesson Planning


What is it?
The Hook/Line/Sinker lesson design model rests on the claim that student understanding of social studies is best achieved by structuring content within “big ideas”. It links the prior learning of students (universal generalizations) to these big ideas (unit understandings) thus makes it easier for students to process new content into meaningful frameworks.
How Does It Work?
The Hook: Introductory activity that elicits students’ prior understanding of the universal generalization.
The Line: The “new learning.” Students acquire information to learn the unit understanding, which is new example of the universal generalization. Students process the new information through graphically organized notes.
The Sinker: An activity where students use a different medium to practice and extend their new grasp of the unit understanding
Why use it?
All new learning occurs first in existing frameworks and then expands and extends the frameworks. Traditional fact-based teaching largely ignores this principle. Planning with the Hook/Line/Sinker format attempts to employ it systematically in every lesson.

An Example:

Unit Understanding: The Pilgrims traveled to the New World from England seeking religious freedom and fleeing from persecution.
Universal Generalization: People move to improve their lives.
Hook: List-Group-Label- “Why do people move?” Work with a partner to make a list of all the reasons you can think of and sort them into categories that make sense to you. Label the categories.
Line: Read the section in your textbook that tells why the Pilgrims wanted to move to the New World. Make a T-Chart and use it to list the reasons, one column for “push” factors and the other column for “pull” factors.
Sinker: Write the following R.A.F.T:
Role: A Pilgrim settler in the New World

Audience: A relative back home in England

Format: A letter

Topic: How I feel living in the New World




Hook Strategies




Alpha Blocks

9

Alpha Boxes

10

Analogies from Personal Experience

12

Anticipation Guide

14

Book Bits

19

Carousel Brainstorming

20

Fast Facts

38

Gallery Walk

43

List/Group/Label

57

Look & List

58

Mindstreaming

65

Predict & Clarify

71

Quick Writes

75

Read, Write, Pair & Share

78

Rivet Vocabulary

85

Think-Pair-Share

92

Word Splash

99




Line Strategies




Alpha Blocks

9

Alpha Boxes

10

Annolighting

13

Attribute Graph

15

Character Quotes

23

Concept Circles

24

Concept of Definition Map

28

Cornell Notes

30

Double Bubble

35

Emotional Timeline

36

Experiential Exercise

37

Four Corners Debate

41

Frayer Model

42

History Frame

48

Inquiry Chart

53

Jigsaw

55

K.I.D.

56

Meeting of the Minds

61

Mind Mapping

63

Opinion-Proof

67

Predict & Clarify

71

Question Dice

74

Read, Write, Pair & Share

78

Ready, Set, Recall

79

Reciprocal Teaching

80

Save the Last Word for Me

86

Save One- Get One

88

Sentence Stems

89

Think-Pair-Share

92

Timeline

93

Visual Discovery

94

Vocabulary Pyramid

98




Sinker Strategies




3-2-1

7

Act It Out

8

Alpha Blocks

9

Alpha Boxes

10

Baggie Book

17

Bio Poem

18

Chalk Talk

21

Changing History

22

Concept of Definition Map

28

Definition Poem

32

Diamante Poem

33

Door Slaps

34

Fast Facts

38

Four Corner Analogies

39

Gallery Walk

43

Headline News Summary

45

Historical Tweets

47

Human Spectrum

50

I Am Poem

51

The Important Thing About…

52

Looping Cards

59

Mind Mapping

63

Mini Mural

66

Pick-a-Word

69

QSSSA

73

Quick Writes

75

RAFT

76

Read, Write, Pair & Share

78

Riddling Along

84

Sentence Stems

89

Sketch to Stretch

90

Terquain

91

Think, Pair, Share

92

Vocabulary Pyramid

98

Write Around

100




3-2-1

What is it?
The idea is to give students a chance to summarize some key ideas, rethink them in order to focus on those that they are most intrigued by, and then pose a question that can reveal where their understanding is still uncertain. Often, teachers use this strategy in place of the usual worksheet questions on a chapter reading, and when students come to class the next day, you're able to use their responses to construct an organized outline, to plot on a Venn diagram, to identify sequence, or isolate cause-and-effect. The students are into it because the discussion is based on the ideas that they found, that they addressed, that they brought to class.

How Does It Work?
Students fill out a 3-2-1 chart with something like this:

3 Things You Found Out


2 Interesting Things
1 Question You Still Have

Now, that's just the suggested version. Depending upon what you're teaching, you can modify the 3-2-1 anyway you want. For instance, if you've just been studying the transition from feudalism to the rise of nation-states, you might have students write down 3 differences between feudalism and nation-states, 2 similarities, and 1 question they still have.



Why use it?
Students are engaged in this activity because the discussion is based on the ideas that they found, that they addressed, that they brought to class.

An Example:


The Constitution

3

  • The Constitution is the highest law in the United States.

  • The Constitution explains how the government works.

  • The Constitution can be amended, or changed.

2

  • Thomas Jefferson did not sign the Constitution.

  • It has 4400 words.

1

  • How did so many people agree on what should be included in the Constitution say?




Act It Out


What is it?
Act-It-Outs (Teachers Curriculum Institute) are mini-dramatizations, typically where students “step into” an image that has been analyzed by the class during a Visual Discovery lesson. There are several formats.

How Does It Work?

  1. Choose a format. These may include 1) scripted, 2) role cards, 3) group presentation, or 4) impromptu act-it-outs. These vary in the level of student independence and experience they require.




  1. Structure the act-it-out for success. Scaffold the elements on the act-it-out to help students become accustomed to them over time. Choose “natural actors” first, assume the role of an interviewer to prompt students, and use images that are simple to act out. The goal is to help students improve their act-it-out skills over time in a low-risk environment.




  1. Focus on the unit understanding. Structure scripts, role cards, instructions for groups, or interview questions so the act-it-out will help students understand the “big ideas” of the lesson.


Why use it?

Act-it-outs promote engagement through novelty, collaboration and authenticity. They insure higher level thinking as students apply lesson content to a role.



An Example:

The Unit Understanding (what the teacher wants students to learn):

Industrialization and immigration led to a concentration of the nation’s population in large, urban centers.






Download 9.23 Mb.

Share with your friends:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   26




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2020
send message

    Main page