Consumers are likely to consider products that use celebrity’s endorsement.
Consumer’s buying decision is influenced by the presence of celebrities in the ads.
3.3 The Population
This study is a field work based study, which aims to evaluate the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement strategy in Indian soft drink industry. So the population of the study is India.
3.4 The Sample
Sampling is the most important process under the research methodology. Sampling strategy is mainly used for the selection of the appropriate sample under the research work for the purpose of primary data collection. Range of sampling strategy under research methodology section is available. Broadly this can be categorized into probabilistic sampling methods and non probabilistic methods (Goddard and Melville 2004, p. 115).
A sample of 92 respondents is taken from the concerned population. Sample is drawn by using convenience sampling method. Conveniencesamplingis also termed as grab, haphazard, accidental oropportunity sampling. In thismethod, the researcher makes use of subjects, which are easy to approach. As the name illustrates, subjects are chosen because of convenience. For example, students make use of their classmates in a research study or a TV reporter interviews public on the street. Under this respondents were selected considering the ease to approach. Here volunteer students, businessmen and housewives were taken as respondents for the research.
Here in this research, two sorts of data are used; one is primary data and other is secondary data. Primary data are the fresh data collected for the current research only.The primary data collection techniques comprise of data collection through observation, interviews, psychosomatic measurements, questionnaires, focus groups etc. So as to collect information related to present research, we have adopted questionnaire method. This data collection method used here for our study can be expressed as primary method. Primary data can be described as the data, which has been collected for the first time and for a specific need of a particular research. Such data is collected for the already stated purposes and the choice of method of the data collection depends on the researcher (Axinn and Pearce, 2006).
In the present study, very common method of data collection is used, that is the questionnaire. Questionnaire is designed taking into consideration the research objectives. The entire questionnaire is divided into five main sections concerning the variables under study. First section projected to assess utility and popularity of soft drinks among the respondents. Second section attempts to evaluate consumer perception towards celebrity endorsement. Section three is to have a look into the relationship between the buying decision and celebrity endorsement. Under fourth section, we try to review the importance of celebrity endorsement from the advertiser’s perspective. In the fifth section attitudes of the consumers towards the soft drink celebrity endorsers and different soft drink brands are measured on a five point scale measure. We are going to use simple data analysis techniques like charts, averages and Micro soft Excel tools. A five-point Likert scale is also used for measurement of attitudes. The scale consisted of five levels (1 = poor; 2 = Fair; 3 = Good; 4 = Very good; 5 = Excellent).
3.6 Data collection
Questionnaires were used for collecting data. This questionnaire is divided into five sections with 16 closed ended questions. Description of the sections is as under:
Questions from 1 to 4 assess utility and popularity of soft drinks.
Questions from 5 to 7 try to evaluate consumer perception for celebrity endorsement.
Questions from 8 to 11 illustrate the relationship between the consumer buying decision and celebrity endorsement.
Questions from 12 to 14 sketch the significance of celebrity endorsement for the advertiser in consumer’s opinion.
Questions from 15 and 16 measure attitudes of the consumers towards the soft drink celebrity endorsers and different soft drink brands on a five point scale.
3.7 Validity and Reliability
To minimize the chances of acquiring erroneous results to our research questions prominence on two scrupulous research designs have been given focus i.e. reliability and validity.
Validity: Validity focuses on the evaluation of the findings and their quality. It largely includes 3 sorts of validity;, internal validity, construct validity and external validity (Golafshani, 2003). There are generally few strategies to create validity in any research i.e. usage of multiple ways of evidence and set up series of evidence for the research. In this report, two methods have been used to collect the data one is through questionnaire (quantitative form) and the other is by conducting interview among the employees (qualitative form). To form a chain of facts and data throughout the report references to all the sources and foundation of research have been made and the medium of collection is also mentioned. After crafting the interview channel, it has been approved by the supervisor before accomplishing the interview to the respondents (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Lowe, 2006).
Reliability: It refers to the consistency and uniformity of the results obtained from the research to the likelihood that similar results could have been attained if the actions used in the research were virtual (Bergh and Ketchen, 2009). Reliability focuses on the exactness and certainty of a particular finding. The crisis which might arise and could affect the results of the study is the lack of knowledge of the respondents or if the respondent is drained, hassled or have negative approach towards the interview could influence pessimistically on the study. During the research, the researcher has struggled to discover the most appropriate respondent with the right understanding in respect to the research area. The interview was scheduled at the time when the respondents were comfortable to minimize the stress issue, though it was possible that they might be stressed out due to some other factor (Gill and Johnson, 2010). To make the interview session simple and effortless, a guide for it has also been designed which reveals the model of the questions. The reports have been organized in a way that any of the researchers can salvage any of the desired matter. The menace of personal biases is also a factor that can influence the result to some extent so; the derived results should be questioned from the respondent as well as the researcher’s own value and approach.