Industrial Revolution



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Industrial Revolution

  • Thomas Baffuto
  • Pleasantville High School
  • For hundreds of years there was very little change in technology in Europe.
  • People lived and worked with the same simple tools that their ancestors had used.
  • .
  • Little had changed since the time the ancient Romans lived 1,500 years before.
  • Candles lit homes, animals provided help for transportation, and craftsmen used their skills to make hand-constructed goods needed in the primitive society.
  • Why Britain First?
  • Favorable Natural Conditions
  • Coal
  • Iron
  • waterways

Why Britain First?

  • Stable Government
  • Excess capital from world trade
  • Strong military to protect trade
  • Large food supply/ agricultural revolution
  • RANK THE CAUSES OF ENGLAND’S INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE
  • 1:
  • 2:
  • 3:
  • 4:
  • 5:
  • 6:
  • BE SURE TO HAVE A REASON
  • FOR YOUR CHOICE

Agricultural Revolution

Agricultural Revolution

Agricultural Revolution

  • Improved methods of farming
  • Dutch/Dikes/use of fertilizers
  • Townshed/crop rotation
  • Jethro Tull/Seed drill
  • Enclosure movement/more efficient farms/high profits/experimentation/less workers needed
  • Selective breeding

Population Explosion

Why was there a population Explosion in the 1700s?

  • Declining death rates
  • increased birth rates
  • Increase in food production
  • Better health why? More food lead to healthy women= healthy babies
  • Better hygiene and sanitation
  • Improved medical care

New technology

New Technology

  • Energy/steam engine/Thomas Newcomen
  • Improved Iron/smelting iron/Abraham Darby/better quality, less expensive

Changes in the Textile Industry

  • 1st industry: Textiles
  • Cotton cloth from India
  • Putting out system/slow, inefficient
  • John Kay: Flying Shuttle
  • James Hargreaves: Spinning Jenny
  • Richard Arkwright: Water Frame to speed up spinning.
  • Factory system workers and machines brought together to produce large quantities of goods

Revolution in Transportation

  • Building of turnpikes/private roads/tolls
  • George Stephenson: steam powered locomotives to pull carriages along iron rails
  • Liverpool to Manchester 1st
  • Robert Fulton:steam boat/ 5 miles an hour

Importance of railroads

  • Spurred industrial growth
  • Cheap method of transportation
  • Created hundreds of thousands of new jobs
  • Boosted agricultural and fishing industries, which could transport goods to distant cities.
  • Distant jobs
  • Nationalism
  • Resorts in country sides

Living conditions

  • Rapid urbanization
  • Masses of people migrated to cities
  • Cities not prepared
  • Tenements: multistory buildings broken into apartments
  • No running water, no heat, no sewage or sanitation system
  • Fire hazard
  • Frequent epidemics/poor ventilation/Cholera

Working conditions

  • Industrialization creates new jobs
  • Low pay/long hours
  • Factories dirty and unsanitary
  • Poor lighting/no heat/poor ventilation
  • Workers trying to keep pace with machines/no safety devices
  • Harsh and severe discipline
  • Child labor/women workers

These are some Social Effects of Industrial Revolution

  • Urbanization- the growth of large cities
  • Rise of a working class
  • New roles for children
  • New roles for women
  • IN THE FOLLOWING SLIDES DETERMINE IF THESE EFFECTS WERE
  • “POSITIVE OR “NEGATIVE”

Slide #1:Urbanization

  • As fewer workers were needed on the farm, workers moved to the cities to find jobs in factories. Overcrowding and pollution increased.
  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE?

Slide #2: Rise of a Working Class

  • In the cities, workers often found themselves working long hours for low pay and in dangerous factories. Many factory owners became rich while workers did not.
  • www.historywiz.com
  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Slide #3: Rise of a Working Class

  • There was a wide difference in wealth between the factory owners (haves) and the workers (the have nots)
  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Slide #4: New Roles for Children

  • While children used to work on the farm, many now worked in dangerous conditions in factories. They were prized by factory owners because they could fit into tight spots and would not complain.
  • www.historywiz.com
  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Slide #5: New Roles for Children

  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Slide #6:New Roles for Women

  • While women did chores on the farm, they were also able to take care of children during the day. During the Industrial Revolution, women would either work in the dangerous factories or stay home and take care of the children, thus becoming very dependent on men.
  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Slide #7: New Roles for Women

  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Child Labor

  • 10 year boys
  • Spinning machines
  • Barefoot
  • 60 to 72 hour work week
  • Fix broken threads on the bobbins
  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Child Labor

  • 9 yrs old
  • 4 sides
  • 48 cents
  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Francis Lane: 8yrs/pneumonia twice

  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Coal Miners

  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Coal Dust

  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

10 – 12 year old miners

  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Coal Mine driver: 11 yrs old

  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Fishery 3:30am to 5:30pm

  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

8 years old

  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

London Factory Girls

  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Indiana factory 9pm

  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Glass factory 10 yrs old

  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

5 yrs old / trolley jumper

  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

Glass factory 2

  • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ?

The Working Class

  • Few ties to community in the city/lost, bewildered
  • Weavers and other skilled craftsmen resisted the new labor saving machines
  • Luddites: smashed and burned factories
  • Protests meet harsh repression
  • Spread of Methodism: new religious movement founded by John Wesley/ Sunday School/read and write/moral ways

The New Middle Class

  • Benefited the most
  • Lived in solid well built homes
  • Dressed and ate well
  • Middle class women were encouraged to become ladies
  • Lady like activities/maids
  • Valued hard work
  • No sympathy for the poor

Benefits/Problems

  • Benefits
  • Material wealth
  • Labor unions
  • Problems
  • Poor working conditions
  • Unhealthy living conditions
  • Class warfare

How did the English government address the social problems created by the Industrial Revolution?

  • The following slides show the reforms made by the English government to address the problems of the Industrial Revolution
  • EVALUATE WHETHER THE REFORM (CHANGE) FIXED THE SPECIFIC PROBLEM OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Reforms to the Problems of Cities

  • Paved streets, sewers, electric street lights
  • Police forces and better fire departments
  • Cleaner water supplies
  • Effective or Not?

Reforms to the Problems of the Working Class

  • Workers formed unions to bargain on their behalf with employers
  • Rising wages for most workers and a minimum wage was established
  • Most men received the right to vote
  • Effective or Not?

Reforms to the Problems of Children

  • Elementary Education Act of 1880 provided free public school education for all children
  • Laws were passed limiting the working day of children
  • Effective or Not?

Reforms to the Problems of Women

  • Laws were passed banning women from working in coal mines
  • Women began to join skilled professions such as doctors, lawyers, researchers and inventors
  • Women joined groups demanding better rights and the right the vote
  • Effective or Not?

Government Regulation to curb the abuses of the IR

  • Sadler Commission was convened in England by the Parliament to investigate Child Labor
  • Factory Act of 1833: limited the hours that children could work depending on their age
  • Ten Hours: limited to ten hours the time worked by woman and children in the factories to 10 hours per day
  • Mines Act: limited child labor in the mines
  • Employers Disability Act of 1880: paid compensation to workers injured on the job

Did these new laws/policies fix the problems?

  • Evaluate a policy or law in England that was adopted to fix a social problem/change mentioned in the previous slides.

New Ways of Thinking

  • Laissez Faire Economics
  • Laissez faire thinkers support a free market and oppose government regulation
  • Major Historical figures:natural law governs economics
  • Adam Smith
  • Thomas Malthus
  • David Ricardo

Adam Smith

  • The Wealth of Nations
  • Free market would eventually help everyone not just the rich.
  • More goods at lower prices, higher quality
  • Natural laws of supply and demand/competition
  • Growing economy would encourage new business

Thomas Malthus

  • “An Essay on the Principle of Population”
  • Population would outpace food supply
  • checks on population: war famine, disease
  • Grim outlook/pessimistic
  • Incorrect in Europe
  • Correct in Africa

David Ricardo

  • “Iron Law of Wages”
  • Poor people had too many children
  • Wages go up population goes up
  • Wages go down because of a over supply of labor
  • vicious cycle: poor would never escape poverty

The Utilitarians

  • Jeremy Bentham
  • Greatest happiness for the largest amount of people
  • All actions should be judged by their utility
  • John Stuart Mill/gov’t intervention/the right to vote

Emergence of Socialism

  • Condemned the evils of capitalism/free market
  • Large gap between rich and poor
  • End poverty and injustice people as whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the means of production
  • Redistribute the wealth of the nation
  • The Utopians/Robert Owen

Karl Marx and Scientific Socialism

  • 1848 Marx and Friedrich Engals
  • Communist Manifesto
  • Haves vs. the have nots
  • Economic history
  • Middle class named the bourgeoisie
  • Lower class he called the proletariat
  • Bourgeoisie own the means of production(land, labor ,capital)
  • Need a revolution( it would occur in an industrialized society)
  • Setup a classless society

Negative Effects of the Industrial Revolution

  • Long hours/low wages
  • Child labor
  • Pollution/burning of coal/water pollution
  • Lack of education
  • Unsafe working condition/machines have no safety devices
  • Poor ventilation/ lack of heat
  • Spread of diseases
  • Fire hazard/ crime/sanitation/sewers
  • tenements

Positive Effects of the Industrial revolution

  • Improved transportation Railway Age
  • Steam engines railroads/ships
  • Rising standard of living
  • Better food
  • Affordability of consumer goods


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