Industrial and Economic Sociology II department of Sociology, Rhodes Third Term 2013



Download 342 Kb.
Date19.01.2019
Size342 Kb.
#75774
WORK & ORGANISATIONS

Industrial and Economic Sociology II

Department of Sociology, Rhodes

Third Term 2013

Professor Lucien van der Walt
l.vanderwalt@ru.ac.za

Room 15, Sociology Department

046-603-8172

Introduction
What is work?

This course on ‘Work and Organisations’ provides an introduction to the sociology of work in the capitalist economy. Work is an absolutely central part of society. No society can reproduce itself without ongoing productive activity by a significant number of its members. Under capitalism, work is mainly remunerated through wages. However, not all work is remunerated. Besides paid work for an employer, at a given workplace, there is a large sphere of unpaid work in the home and in the neighbourhood. Work itself – crudely, the actual performance of specific tasks in a given time and place by human effort, for others – is a process i.e. the labour process.


Focus of course

This course builds on earlier Industrial and Economic Sociology modules, by engaging the academic literature on themes, trends and changes in capitalist work during the 20th and 21st centuries, including by reference to the apartheid and post-apartheid periods; it feeds into future courses in both second and third year Industrial and Economic Sociology, as well as in postgraduate studies. The focus is the field of labour process studies i.e. studies of work itself, as well as broader studies of corporate (and state) modes of organising work.


Why study work?

Work (or the lack of work) is an also absolutely central part of people’s lives. In many industrial and semi-industrial societies, employed wage workers spend more waking hours at work, than with their families or communities.


Work is at the very heart of the economy, the site of creation, but the manner in which work is organised is of enormous significance to individuals, classes and countries.
The majority of those who work are today reliant upon wage labour, viewed globally. The absolute number of waged workers continues to rise sharply, with waged workers and their dependents comprising well over 3 billion people by the end of 20th century. By the mid-1990s, for instance, there were more industrial workers in South Korea alone than in the entire world at the time that Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels issued the Communist Manifesto (1848).
Work does not only provide the basis for both the reproduction of the current society. It is also a basis for resistance to that society: trade unions, for example, are workplace-based mass organisations that wield considerable power through their ability to disrupt production.
Yet globally, at least 20% of workers in labour markets are unemployed or underemployed. A lack of work has consequences as significant as work itself.
Why study work organisations?

The way in which work is organised is not a simple ‘technical’ matter of ensuring the most output for the least effort. The manner in which work is structured in contemporary capitalist and state society is deeply embedded in the larger structure of society. Thus, while work takes a range of forms here, it also tends to share certain characteristics:



  • A class-based corporate hierarchy (existing in the state machinery as well), in which the most essential jobs earn the least remuneration, have the least status and power, the lowest levels of creativity, control and safety, and the most job insecurity;

  • The reverse of this is the concentration of the control of the means of administration, coercion and production – as well as of income and power – in the hands of a small, powerful ruling ‘class’ or elite;

  • Continual work restructuring, driven by this ruling class, and taking a range of forms, among them Taylorism and Fordism – and this is normally coupled to growing bureaucratic control of employees;

  • Divisions of labour by race and sex, within the broad ‘working class’, which mean that certain groups are concentrated in certain occupations, and that incomes and power are also closely linked to race and sex, as well as class;

  • An ongoing social conflict, above all on class lines, over remuneration, status, the labour process, job security, and control over means of administration, coercion and production; trade unions are one expression of this conflict.


Focus of course

To put this another way: through examining the labour process, we are able to examine larger character of society.


This course therefore analyses the changing labour process:

  • To understand it, in its own terms;

  • To understand, through it, larger social and economic processes.

This is not a course on the general nature of capitalism and the state and of modern society, but through an examination of the labour process, the course is able to provide insights into those larger issues.


Understanding the labour process field

The study of the labour process has long been a central concern of a range of disciplines, among them business and management studies, branches of psychology, and history and sociology.


Debates in this field in Industrial and Economic Sociology centre upon the classic work of Harry Braverman, whose Labour and Monopoly Capital (1974) examined continuities and changes in capitalist production from the late 19th century onwards. Early work in the field of Industrial Sociology tended to either treat the labour process as a purely ‘technical’ matter of achieving the most with the least, or as simple ‘system’ based on an organic unity of interests and interdependence of functions between classes i.e. it naturalised particular ways of doing work as the necessary and inevitable features of modern mass societies.
By contrast, Braverman argued that the labour process under capitalism was continually evolving, and that it was shaped by a basic class struggle in the capitalist mode of production. His arguments stressed the rise of Taylorism as well as of Fordist mass production as means of subordinating labour in order to maximise profits and minimise resistance. These practices – Taylorism and Fordism (to which – see below – we can add Neo-Fordism) served to facilitate capital accumulation through the exploitation of wage labour: they were, in this sense, different ‘models of accumulation’.

Braverman’s analysis explicitly argued, too, that another and radically different form of modern workplace and economy was possible – if freed of capitalist logics.


His work formed the core of what became (Marxist) Labour Process Theory (LPT).
Some core debates and applications

However, Braverman’s claims regarding the ‘degradation’ of labour through deskilling and subordination through such systems as Taylorism and Fordism spurred significant controversies, including over the extent of worker ‘deskilling’ associated with Fordism and Taylorism, the extent of actual, direct, management control over the labour process, and the impact of work organisation on workers’ politics and identities. Sex divisions are relevant here too: how could a pervasive sex division of labour be explained, if at all, through LPT’s stress on the rise of the ‘mass worker’ in the context of class struggles?


And, to what extent could his model explain a range of other work processes, that were not obviously subordinated to the logic of capital accumulation, such as state schools? Bureaucracy played an obvious role in Taylorism and Fordism, as did the state, but to what extent did these institutions have their own irreducible dynamics and effects – as Weber and Bakunin suggested? For example, the Marxist regimes of East Europe themselves embraced Taylorism, Fordism and bureaucracy.
Related to this: how applicable were Braverman’s claims to a variety of contexts, such as that of South Africa? How do colonial and apartheid contexts shape both the ‘workplace regimes’ in place, and also constrain the possibilities for different labour processes to emerge?
Capitalist restructuring from the 1970s also seemed (to some) to herald the end of Fordism, and a move to more democratic and participatory ‘post-Fordist’ forms of production; to others, restructuring entailed simply an elaboration of Fordism: ‘neo-Fordism’. Either position raises questions of the applicability of LPT to the contemporary world, as well as questions regarding the nature of contemporary society/s. The debate between these positions will thus also be investigated.
Related to this: the course engages in larger debates over the future of wage labour. Is the world of work, or the working class, withering away? Some writers like Jeremy Rifkin speak of a ‘post-industrial’ society emerging, and hail The End of Work: the decline of the global labour force and the dawn of the post-market era. Others, like Kim Moody, however, stress the basic continuities with earlier periods of capitalism: the working class is bigger and more powerful than ever, capitalist (and state) industrialisation more dominant, and ‘neo-Fordism’ and associated ‘lean production’ pervasive. To what extent does change proceed in neat ‘stages’ as opposed to in a complex ensemble of forms including both continuities and ruptures?

As global unemployment and underemployment rises, and as conflicts amongst workers sharpen, does wage labour continue to provide a key source of identity and resistance? Do the tools of LPT – and the politics of class – remain relevant? Should we study work beyond politics and production and focus on consumption, and its impact on identity?



How have these global changes, along with the changes internal to South Africa itself, affected the possibilities for, and forms of, post-apartheid workplace regimes? Can we speak of ‘post-Fordism’ in South Africa? And to what extent can events like the Marikana massacre at the Lonmin mine be explained by reference to these larger changes in the world of work?

Recent theoretical views

A recent fashion for ‘postmodernist’ analyses is also considered. Postmodernism is not a coherent or monolithic paradigm; it has too many strands to consider in this course. So, in examining the postmodernist engagement with LPT, the course will focus on the most influential postmodernist theorist of organisations: Michel Foucault.
Foucault’s work stressed the power relations within organisations, and asserted the role of surveillance in shaping subjectivity and a ‘disciplined subject’, which if true has significant implications for the possibilities of – and forms of – resistance within work organisations.
Postmodernists working on the labour process (and elsewhere) have often claimed that resistance (in various forms) has declined over time, as organisational ‘surveillance’ has intensified and improved, enabling the ongoing (re)creation of workers who discipline themselves, as well as their peers, in ‘post-bureaucratic’ orders. (These are not identical to the ‘post-Fordist’ and ‘post-industrial’ positions, although there are some overlaps).
These postmodernist claims will be critically interrogated – for example, how accurate are its claims, and how convincing its analyses? – and the question of whether LPT remains relevant, examined.
Alternative models and aspirations

Finally, in line with Braverman’s stress on the contingent and embedded nature of the capitalist labour process, the course will close with a section discussing radical attempts by workers to fundamentally reshape the labour process from below. If the capitalist (and state) labour process is hierarchical and inegalitarian and fragmented, subordinated to the imperatives of accumulation (and domination), then its antithesis is self-management through direct workers’ control and participatory planning.
This vision has been a common thread in working class movements, taking a range of expressions, such as the anarchist/syndicalist work of Bakunin and Kropotkin, and has also been implemented in many real-world instances. Notable examples include the anarchist/syndicalist revolution in Spain in the late 1930s, and the factory occupations in Argentina in the early 2000s.
This section will critically examine these approaches, and pose the question of strategy: given the effects of the capitalist labour process, what would a workers’ movement strategy for self-management entail?

Learning Objectives and Outcomes
At the end of this course, you should have achieved the following:

  • Developed a solid understanding of labour processes and work organisations more broadly;

  • Developed a clear understanding of debates and themes within the labour process literature;

  • Developed an independent capacity to critically evaluate the debates and themes;

  • Developed the ability to make sociological sense of work organisations in South African society;

  • Developed the skills to effectively communicate your ideas on the labour process and work organisations.

Course Content
The course is divided into seven main sections:

Week 1: Labour Process Theory: from structural-functionalism to Braverman

Weeks 2 and 3: Technology, Skills and Resistance


      1. Global perspectives

      2. The ‘classic’ apartheid workplace regime

Weeks 4 and 5: Post-Fordism and Post-Industrialism, or Neo-Fordism?

      1. Global perspectives

      2. Post-apartheid workplace regimes

Week 6: Post-Modernist Theories of Work: critical assessment

Week 7: Alternative Workplace Orders: factory committees and self-management



Tutorials and Essay
There are compulsory weekly tutorials, at each of which written work is due, starting in the first week. This work is for marks.


  • Papers to be submitted to tutors, at the start of the tutorial (10% of the class mark)


Topics will be handed out separately and via RUConnect.

You will also be expected to write a 2 500 word essay. The due date is Friday 30 August 2013. .




  • Essays to be submitted in the Industrial Sociology II Box by 16:00 (20% of the class mark)

Topics will be handed out separately and via RUConnect




  • Final assessment will be the 3 hour examination paper in November for this course (70%)

All the compulsory readings are a requirement for class discussions, tutorials and essay questions.



Lecture notes and readings

Lecture notes will NOT be placed on RUConnect.


This is not a distance learning programme, and taking lecture notes is an essential skill to be learnt at university – and a core course competency. There is no substitute for class time contact.
All compulsory and highly recommended readings will be placed on RUConnect.
Reading is essential to the course.
You may NOT cite in your assignments ANY readings that are not listed in the course outline. Ability to engage prescribed and unfamiliar readings is a core course competency.

Plagiarism cases
Plagiarism, without exception, will get zero. Ignorance of plagiarism rules is not an excuse.
Repeated plagiarism will lead to a disciplinary hearing and if found guilty, your name will be placed on file in Sociology as well as cognate disciplines.
In extreme cases, the matter will be escalated to University level, with suspension and expulsion from the university as possible outcomes.

Course Programme and Readings

Week 1: Labour Process Theory:

From structural-functionalism to Braverman
Defining work; defining organisations; hierarchy; work and work organisations in capitalist society; turning ‘labour power’ into ’labour; the labour process; Braverman on Taylorism, Fordism and ‘degradation’ of work; technology and social relations; Braveman and the ‘universal market’; understanding class and class structure.
Compulsory reading (read in specified order):

Webster, E., Buhlungu, S. and Bezuidenhout, A. 2001. Work and Organisations. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. Pp. 6-15.

Brown, R.K. 1992. Understanding Industrial Organisations: theoretical perspectives in industrial sociology. London, New York: Routledge. Pp. 165-182.

Thompson, P. 1989. The Nature of Work: an introduction to debates on the labour process. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, London: Macmillan. 2nd edition. Pp. 83-87


Highly recommended:
Thompson, P. and McHugh, D. 2002. Work and Organisations: a critical introduction, Palgrave Macmillan. 3rd edition. pp. 4-14
Recommended readings:

Braverman, H. 1998. Labour and Monopoly Capital. New York: Monthly Review. New Edition (See ‘Introduction to the New Edition’ by J.B. Foster, plus ‘Appendix 1’ and ‘Appendix 2’ by Harry Braverman).

Hyman, R. 1975. Industrial Relations: a Marxist introduction. Macmillan: Houndmills, Basingstoke, London. Ch. 1.

Jarvis, D. 1999. Making Sense of Workplace Restructuring. Durban: Trade Union Research Project. Ch. 1.

Kitay, J. 1996. ‘The Labour Process: still stuck? Still a perspective? Still useful?’ Unpublished Mimeo. [1997 version in the Electronic Journal of Radical Organisation Theory Volume 3 No. 1].

Littler, C. 1982. The Development of the Labour Process in Capitalist Societies. London: Heinemann. Ch. 3.

Littler, C. 1985. ‘Taylorism, Fordism and Job Design’. In Knights, D., Willmott, H. and Collinson, D. (Eds.). Job Redesign. Aldershot: Gower.

Rowlinson, M. and Hassard, J. 1994. ‘Economics, Politics, and Labour Process Theory’. Capital & Class. No. 53.

Spencer, D. 2000. ‘Braverman and the Contribution of Labour Process Analysis to the Critique of Capitalist Production: twenty-five years on’. Work, Employment and Society. Vol. 14 No. 2.

Thompson, P. 1989. The Nature of Work: an introduction to debates on the labour process. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, London: Macmillan. 2nd edition. Chs. 1 and 2.

Thompson, P. and McHugh, D. 2002. Work Organisations: a critical introduction. 3rd edition. London: Macmillan. Pp. 360-362, 365-368.



Weeks 2 and 3: Skills, Resistance, Divisions
Core criticisms of Braverman: worker resistance; contesting and defining ‘skill’; tacit skills; ‘despotic’ and ‘hegemonic’ workplace ‘regimes’; technical and bureaucratic control; consent, resistance and unions; the ‘frontier of control’; bureaucracy, the state and work; labour market segmentation; gender and the ‘other division of labour’; gender inequality; non-capitalist modern work; ‘Racial Fordism’ and the ‘apartheid workplace regime’ in South Africa.

Week 2: Skills, Resistance, Divisions: global perspectives
Compulsory readings (read in specified order):

Brown, R.K. 1992. Understanding Industrial Organisations: theoretical perspectives in industrial sociology. London, New York: Routledge. Pp. 190-227.

Thompson, P. 1989. The Nature of Work: an introduction to debates on the labour process. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, London: Macmillan. 2nd edition. Pp. 181-196, 203-209

Thompson, P. and McHugh, D. 2002. Work and Organisations: a critical introduction, Palgrave Macmillan. 3rd edition. Pp. 33-39, 369-372.


Highly recommended:
Van der Walt, L. and Schmidt, M. 2009. Black Flame: the revolutionary class politics of anarchism and syndicalism. San Francisco: AK Press. Pp. 47-60, 100-105, 108-113.
Recommended readings:

Armstrong, P. 1988. ‘Labour and Monopoly Capital’. In Hyman, R. and Streeck, W. (Eds.). 1988. New Technology and Industrial Relations. Oxford: Blackwell.

Alvesson, M. and Billing, Y. 1997. Understanding Gender and Organisations. London: Sage. Chs. 1, 2, 7.

Burawoy, M. 1985. The Politics of Production. London: Verso. Chs. 1-3.

Edwards, R. 1979. Contested Terrain. London: Heinemann.

Geschwender, J. A. 1999. ‘Gender, Occupational Sex Segregation, and the Labour Process’. In Wardell, M., Steiger T.L. and Meiksins, P. (Eds.). Rethinking Labour Process. New York: State University Press.

Goodrich, C. [1921] 1975. The Frontier of Control: a study in British workshop politics. London: Pluto. Reprint with introduction by R. Hyman. Chs. 2-4 plus Hyman’s introduction.

Jarvis, D. 1999. Making Sense of Workplace Restructuring. Durban: Trade Union Research Project. Ch. 3.

Kanter, R. 1977. Men and Women of the Corporation. New York: Basic Books. Introduction, Chs. 1, 6, 7, 8, and 9.

Knights, D. and Willmott, H. (Eds.). 1988. New Technology and the Labour Process.

London: Routledge. Chs. 1, 2, 4 and 6.

Lloyd, C. and Payne, J. 2002. ‘Developing a Political Economy of Skill’. Journal of Education and Work. Vol. 15 No. 4.

Rule, J. 1987. ‘The Property of Skill in the Period of Manufacture’. In Joyce, P. (Ed.). The Historical Meanings of Work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sturdy A, Knights, D., and Willmott, H. (Eds.). 1992. Skill and Consent: contemporary studies in labour process. London: Routledge. Chs. 2, 7.

Thompson, P. 1989. The Nature of Work: an introduction to debates on the labour process. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, and London: Macmillan. 2nd edition. Chs. 4, 5.

Thompson, P. and McHugh, D. 2002. Work Organisations: a critical introduction. 3rd edition. London: Macmillan. Ch. 10.

Witz, A. and Savage, M. 1992. ‘The Gender of Organisation’. In Savage, M. and Witz, A. (Eds.). Gender and Bureaucracy. Oxford: Blackwell.

Wood, S. 1987. ‘The Deskilling Debate, New Technology and Work Organisation’. Acta Sociologica. Vol. 30 No 1.



Week 3: Skills, Resistance, Divisions: the apartheid workplace
Compulsory readings (read in specified order):

Webster, E. and Leger, J.P. 1992. ‘Reconceptualising Skill Formation in South Africa’. Perspectives in Education. Vol. 13 No. 2.

Kraak, A. 1996. ‘Transforming South Africa's Economy: from racial-Fordism to Neo-Fordism?’ Economic and Industrial Democracy. Vol. 17 No. 1.
Recommended readings:

Alexander P. 2000. Workers, War and the Origins of Apartheid: labour and politics in South Africa. London, Ohio, Cape Town: James Currey, Ohio University Press, David Philip. Pp. 1-9, 28-31, 85-87.

Bezuidenhout, A. 2005. ‘Post-colonial Workplace Regimes in the Engineering Industry in South Africa’. In Webster, E. and von Holdt, K. (Eds.). Beyond the Apartheid Workplace: studies in transition. Durban: UKZN Press.

Burawoy, M. 1985. The Politics of Production. London: Verso. Ch. 5.

James, W.G. 1992. Our Precious Metal: African labour in South Africa's gold industry,

1970–1990. Cape Town: David Philip; London: James Currey. Chs. 1, 9.

Kraak, G. 1993. Breaking the Chains: labour in South Africa in the 1970s and 1980s. London: Pluto Press. Pp. 77-102.

Lewis, J. 1984. Industrialisation and Trade Union Organisation in South Africa, 1924-

55: the rise and fall of the South African Trades and Labour Council. Cambridge

University Press. Chs. 1, 10.

Munck, R. 1988. The New International Labour Studies: an introduction. London, New Jersey: Zed Books. Ch. 4

von Holdt, K. 2003. Transition from Below: forging trade unionism and workplace change in South Africa. Scottsville: University of. Natal Press. Chs. 1-2.

Webster, E. 1984. Cast in a Racial Mould: labour process and trade unionism in

the foundries. Johannesburg: Ravan.

Webster, E., Alfred, L., Bethlehem, L., Joffe, A. and Selikow, T. (Eds.), 1994. Work and Industrialisation in South Africa: an introductory reader.Johannesburg: Ravan. Topics 3, 4, 5.

Webster, E., Buhlungu, S. and Bezuidenhout, A. 2001. Work and Organisations. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. (sections on apartheid workplace).







Weeks 4 and 5: Post-Fordism and Post-Industrialism,

or Neo-Fordism?
Lean production; flexible specialisation; post-Fordism, post-industrialism and the knowledge society – or not?; ‘end of work’ thesis; continuity and change in labour systems; JIT, QCs, TQM and ‘zero defect’; the ‘universal market’ revisited; changing working class or disappearing working class?; global division of labour; South African workplaces today.
Week 4: global perspectives
Compulsory Readings:

Wood, S. (Ed.). 1989. The Transformation of Work? London: Unwin. Ch. 1.

Pillay, D. and van der Walt, L. 2012. ‘Introduction: assessing the politics of organised labour in Asia, Africa and Latin America at the start of the 21st century’. Labour, Capital and Society. Vol. 44 No. 2.
Highly recommended:
Moody, K. 1997. Workers in a Lean World: unions in the international economy. London, New York: Verso. Ch. 5.

Turl, A. 2007. ‘The Changing Working Class: is the U.S. becoming post-industrial?’ International Socialist Review. Issue 52.


Recommended readings:

Agnew, J. Shin, M., and Richardson, P. 2005. ‘The Sage of the “Second Industrial Divide” and the History of the “Third Italy”: evidence from export data’. Scottish Geographical Journal. Vol. 121 No. 1.



Braverman, H. 1998. Labour and Monopoly Capital. New York: Monthly Review. New Edition (See ‘Introduction to the New Edition’ by John Bellamy Foster, plus ‘Appendix 1’ and ‘Appendix 2’ by Harry Braverman). Chs. 13, 15, 16.

Hamlin, D. 2004. ‘Flexible Specialisation and the German Toy Industry, 1870-1914’.

Social History. Vol. 29 No 1.

Hyman, R. 1987. ‘Strategy or Structure: capital, labour and control’. Work, Employment and Society. Vol. 1 No. 1.



Jarvis, D. 1999. Making Sense of Workplace Restructuring. Durban: Trade Union Research Project. Chs. 4, 6.

Knights, D. and Collinson, D. 1985. ‘Redesigning Work on the Shopfloor: a question of control or consent’. In Knights, D. Willmott, H. and Collinson, D. (Eds.). Job Redesign. Aldershot: Gower.

Palloix, C. 1976. ‘The Labour Process: from Fordism to Neo-Fordism’. In CSE (Eds.). The Labour Process and Class Strategies. London: CSE Books.

Phelps, N. 2002. ‘When was Post-Fordism? The uneven institution of new work practices in a multinational’. Antipode. Vol. 34 No. 2.

Piore, M. and Sabel, C. 1984. The Second Industrial Divide. New York: Basic Books.

Chs. 1-2, 7-8, 10-11.

Ramsay, K. and Parker, M. 1992. ‘Gender, Bureaucracy and Organisational Culture’. In Savage, M. and Witz, A. (Eds.) Gender and Bureaucracy. Oxford: Blackwell.

Rifkin, J. 1995. The End of Work: the decline of the global labour force and the dawn of the post-market era, New York: Putman book. Chs. 1, 10

Seddon, D. and L. Zeilig. 2005. ‘Class and Protest in Africa: new waves.’ Review of African Political Economy. Vol. 32, No. 103.

Thompson, P. 1989. The Nature of Work: an introduction to debates on the labour process. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, and London: Macmillan. 2nd edition. Pp. 83-88, Ch. 8.

Thompson, P. and McHugh, D. 2002. Work and Organisations: a critical introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. 3rd edition. Chs 11-12.

Thompson, P and Warhurst, C. 1998. ‘Hands, Hearts and Minds: changing work and workers at the end of the century’. In Thompson, P. and Warhurst, C. (Eds.). Workplaces of the Future. London: Macmillan Press.




Week 5: The Post-Apartheid Workplace

Compulsory Readings:

Von Holdt, K. and E. Webster. 2005. ‘Work Restructuring and the Crisis of Social Reproduction: a southern perspective.’ In Webster, E. and von Holdt, K. (Eds.). Beyond the Apartheid Workplace: studies in transition. Durban: UKZN Press. Pp. 1-20.

Chinguno, C. 2013. Marikana and the Post-Apartheid Workplace Order. SWOP Working Paper No. 1. Society, Work and Development Institute (SWOP). University of the Witwatersrand.

Recommended Readings:

Barchiesi. B. 2007. ‘Privatisation and the Historical Trajectory of ‘Social Movement Unionism’: a case study of municipal workers in Johannesburg, South Africa’. International Labour and Working Class History. No. 71.

Bezuidenhout, A. 2005. ‘Post-colonial Workplace Regimes in the Engineering Industry in South Africa’. In Webster, E. and von Holdt, K. (Eds.). Beyond the Apartheid Workplace: studies in transition. Durban: UKZN Press.

Hunter, M. 2000. ‘The Post-Fordist High Road? A South African case study’. Journal of Contemporary African Studies. Vol. 18 No. 1.

Masondo, D. 2005. ‘Trade Liberalisation and Work restructuring in the Post-Apartheid South Africa: a case study of BMW’. InWebster, E. and von Holdt, K. (Eds.). Beyond the Apartheid Workplace: studies in transition. Durban: UKZN Press.

Omar, R. 2005. ‘New Work Order or more of the Same? Call centres in South Africa’. In Webster, E. and von Holdt, K. (Eds.). Beyond the Apartheid Workplace: studies in transition. Durban: UKZN Press.

Magoqwana, B. and S. Matatu. 2012. ‘Local Government Call Centres: challenge or opportunity for South African labour?’. In Mosoetsa, S. and Williams, M. (Eds). Labour in the Global South: challenges and alternatives for workers. Geneva: ILO.

Phakathi, T.S. 2005. ‘Self-Directed Work Teams in a Post-apartheid Gold Mine: perspectives from the coal face’. In Webster, E. and von Holdt, K. (Eds.). Beyond the Apartheid Workplace: studies in transition. Durban: UKZN Press.

Scully, B. 2012.‘The Decline of Work or The Decline of Workers? A review of Franco

Barchiesi’s Precarious Liberation’. South African Review of Sociology. Vol. 43 No. 1. Pp. 92-97



von Holdt, K. 2003. ‘From the Politics of Resistance to the Politics of Reconstruction? The union and ‘ungovernability in the workplace’. In Adler, G. and Webster, E. (Eds). Trade Unions and Democratisation in South Africa. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.

Von Holdt, K. 2005. ‘Political Transition and the Chnaging Workplace Order’. In Webster, E. and von Holdt K. (Eds.). Beyond the Apartheid Workplace: studies in transition. Durban: UKZN Press.

Webster, E., Buhlungu, S. and Bezuidenhout, A. 2001. Work and Organisations. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. (sections on post-apartheid workplace).


Week 6: Post-Modernist Theories of Work: critical assessment
Postmodernism; Foucauldian approach; discourse; debating electronic surveillance and the ‘panopticon’; resistance; individualism; subjectivity; ‘disciplined subjects’; the space and forms of resistance; individualism; subjectivity; the generation of information; multiple process or master process; Braverman, Weber and surveillance; patterned power structures vs. decentred power networks.
Compulsory Readings:

Lyon, D. 1994. The Electronic Eye: the rise of surveillance society. Cambridge: Polity Press. extracts.

Thompson, P. 2003. ‘Escape from Fantasy Island: a labour process critique of the “Age of Surveillance”’. Surveillance and Society. Vol. 1 No. 2.
Highly recommended:
Thompson, P. and McHugh, D. 2002. Work and Organisations: a critical introduction. Palgrave Macmillan, 3rd edition, pp. 132-131.
Recommended Readings:

Barry, D. and Hazen, M. 1996. ‘Do You Take Your Body to Work?’. In Boje, D., Gephart, R. and Thatchenkery, T. (Eds.). Postmodern Management and Organisation Theory. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Dandekar, C. 1990. Surveillance, Power and Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press. Chs. 1, 2, 4, 5.

Deetz, S. 1992. ‘Disciplinary Power in the Modern Corporation’. In Alvesson, M. and Hassard, J. and Parker, M. (Eds.) 1993. Postmodernism and Organisation. London: Sage. Chs. 1, 9-11.

Foucault, M. 1977. Discipline and Punish. London: Penguin. Part 3 Ch. 1.

Jermier, J., Knights, D., and Nord, W.R. 1994. Resistance and Power in Organisation. London: Routledge. Introduction and Chs. 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9.

Parker, M. 2002. Against Management. Cambridge: Polity.

Reed, M. 1992. The Sociology of Organisations: themes, perspectives and prospects. New York: Harvester. Ch. 5.

Thompson, P and McHugh, D. 2002. Work Organisations: a critical introduction. 3rd edition. London: MacMillan. Ch. 8.

Tinker, T. 2002. ‘Spectres of Marx and Braverman in the Twilight of Postmodernist Labour Process Research’. Work, Employment and Society. Vol. 16 No. 2.

Wilmott, H. (Eds.). Critical Management Studies. London: Sage.


Week 7: Alternative Workplace Orders:

factory occupations and self-management
Bakunin, Kropotkin and the division of labour; participatory planning; balanced job complexes and the ‘integration of labour’; self-management vs. ‘workers’ participation’; nationalisation vs. collectivisation; anarchism; syndicalism; counter-power and counter-culture; ‘recovered factories’; horizontalism.
Compulsory Readings:

Gorz, A. 1973. Workers' Control is More Than Just That’. In Hunnius, G., Garson, D. and Case, J. (Eds). Workers' Control: a reader on labor and social change. New York: Random House.

Souchy, A. 1974. ‘Workers' Self-Management in Industry’. In Dolgoff, S. (Ed). The Anarchist Collectives: workers’ self-Management in the Spanish Revolution, 1936–1939. New York: Free Life Editions, Inc.

Van der Walt, L. and Schmidt, M. 2009. Black Flame: the revolutionary class politics of anarchism and syndicalism. San Francisco: AK Press. Pp. 56-71.
Highly recommended:
Kropotkin, P. [1892] 1990. The Conquest of Bread. London: Elephant Editions. Chs. 10, 15, 16.

Majavu M. 2008. ‘Africa: life after colonialism’. In Spannos, C. (Ed). Real Utopia: participatory society for the 21st century. San Francisco: AK Press.

Souchy, A. 1974. ‘Collectivizations in Catalonia’. In Dolgoff, S. (Ed). The Anarchist Collectives: workers’ self-management in the Spanish Revolution, 1936–1939. New York: Free Life Editions, Inc.
Recommended Readings:

Abad de Santillan D. [1937] 2005. After the Revolution: economic reconstruction in Spain. Durban: Zabalaza Books.



Albert, M. 2003. Parecon: life after capitalism. London, New York: Verso. Chs. 5. 6. 9. 11.

Ackelsberg M. A. 1993. ‘Models of Revolution: rural women and anarchist collectivisation in Spain’. Journal of Peasant Studies. Vol. 20 No. 3.



Amsden, M. 1978, ‘Industrial Collectivisation Under Workers’ Control: Catalonia, 1937–1939’. Antipode: a radical journal of geography. Vol 10 No 3.

Bakunin, M. [1871] 1993. The Capitalist System. Champaign, Illinois: Libertarian Labour Review.

Benello, C.G. 1993. From the Ground Up: essays on grassroots and workplace democracy. Montreal: Black Rose Books Ltd.

Casanova, J. 1989. ‘The Egalitarian Dream: unionism and collectivisation during the

Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939’. ACIS : Journal of the Association for



Contemporary Iberian Studies. Vol 2 No 2.

Davis, M. 1984. ‘The Stop Watch and the Wooden Shoe: scientific management and the Industrial Workers of the World.’ In Green, J. (Ed.). Workers' Struggles, Past and Present: a Radical America reader. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Goodrich, C. [1921] 1975. The Frontier of Control: a study in British workshop politics. London: Pluto.Reprint with introduction by R. Hyman. Chs. 2-4 plus Hyman’s introduction.

Guillen A. [1988, 1992]. n.d. Anarchist Economics: the economics of the Spanish libertarian collectives, 1936-39. Durban: Zabalaza Books.



Lavaca Collective. 2007. Sin Patron: stories from Argentina's worker-run factories. Chicago: Haymarket Books.

Munck, R. 1988. The New International Labour Studies: an introduction. London, New Jersey: Zed Books. Ch. 8.

Shivji, I.G. 1976. Class Struggles in Tanzania. New York: Monthly Review. (sections on post-Mwongzo factory occupations).

Wallis, V. 1978. ‘Workers’ Control and Revolution’. Self-Management. Vol 1 No. 1.








Download 342 Kb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2022
send message

    Main page