Indian Aesthetics Syllabus

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Aesthetics Notes Sem 3
Dhvani Siddhant

  • Should be understood with Vyangyartha and Vakyartha (Vyang+arth , Vakya+arth)

  • Vyangyartha – implied meaning, suggested meaning (hidden meaning); it means what the poet wants to suggest you; the meaning of the poem is more important than the words used in the poem

  • Vakyartha- simple meaning of the word which we are reading, conventional meaning or expressed meaning.

  1. Uttam Kavya – in such kavyas Vyangyartha is more important than Vakyartha. Suggested meaning is more important

  2. Guni- Bhuta Kavya- in such kavyas Vakyartha is more important than Vyangyartha. expressed meaning is more important

  3. Chitra Kavya – suggested meaning are negligible in such kavyas.

  • According to Anandavardhana Vyangyarth is rea meaning of Poetry/ Kavya.


  • Introduced in Auchitya-Vichar-Charcha

  • Called theory of coordination or theory of propriety as it coordinates all the factors of the Natyashastra

  • To use all the elements of the poem which beautifies the poem in appropriate place is called Auchitya.

  • Comes from Hindi word ‘Uchit’, which means appropriate. To use Rasa, Alankar, Riti etc in appropriate place in poetry is called Auchitya.

  • According to Kshemendra, whatever is improper, detracts from Rasa, hence is to be abandoned (an-uchit)

The theory of propriety or appropriateness claims that in all aspects of literary composition, there is the possibility of a perfect, the most appropriate choice - of a subject, of ideas, of words, of devices. The concept of propriety with reference to custom, subject, character and sentiment recurs in almost all theorists and is often discussed in association with figures of speech, guna/dosa and ritis. It has been used for propriety in delineating bhavas according to characters, and in the choice of margas (for example, in the use of compounds, etc.) according to the speaker, content and type of literary composition. Ksemendra made Aucitya the central element of literariness. He defines Aucitya as the property of an expression (signifier) being an exact and appropriate analogue of the expressed (signified).
In verses 8-10 of his book, Ksemedra enumerates the areas, locations or sites of literary compositions where the concept of aucitya is pertinent: Pada (phrase), vakya (sentence), prabandhartha (meaning in whole compositionj, guna (excellences, qualities), alamkara @oetic figure), rasa (state, of being), kuraka (casa ending), kriya (verb), linga (gender or marking) vacana (number), visesana (qualification), upsarga (prefix), nipata (redundancies), kala (time, tense), desa (country), kula (family), vrata (custom), tattva (truth), sattva (mherent self), abhipriya (motive), svabhava (nature), Sara samgraha (essential properties), prdtibha (inmate ability), avastha (condition,state) vicaka (thought), namn (name), asirvada (blessings).

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