incorporating the Year Eleven and Twelve programs) Principal


Unit 1: How do living things stay alive?



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Unit 1: How do living things stay alive?

Area of study 1



How do organisms function?

In this area of study students examine the structure and functioning of cells. Although the internal structure of a cell varies, all cells require a relatively stable internal environment for optimal functioning. Whether life forms are unicellular or multicellular, or heterotrophic or autotrophic, whether they live in a deep ocean trench, a tropical rain forest, an arid desert or on the highest mountain peak, all individual organisms are faced with the challenge of obtaining nutrients and water, exchanging gases, sourcing energy and having a means of removal of waste products.

Outcome 1

On completion of this unit the student should be able to investigate and explain how cellular structures and systems function to sustain life.


Assessment tasks.

Assessment tasks for this unit will be selected from the following:

 A student designed extended practical investigation.
And at least three from the following:

 practical activities;

 multimedia presentation;

 response to a media article;

 oral presentations;

 annotated poster;

 data analysis;

 problem solving;

 tests.
Area of Study 2

How do living systems sustain life?

In this area of study students examine the structural, physiological and behavioural adaptations of a range of organisms that enable them to survive in a particular habitat and to maintain a viable population size over time.


They explore the importance and implications of organising and maintaining biodiversity and examine the nature of an ecosystem in terms of the network of relationships within a community of diverse organisms. Factors affecting population size and growth are analysed.
Outcome 2

On completion of this unit the student should be able explain how various adaptations enhance the survival of an individual organism, investigate the relationships between organisms that form a living community and their habitat, and analyse the impacts of factors that affect population growth.


Area of Study 3

Practical investigation

In this area of study students design and conduct a practical investigation into the survival of an individual or a species.

Outcome 3

On completion of this unit the student should be able to design and undertake an investigation related to the survival of an organism or species, and draw conclusions based on evidence from collected data.


Assessment tasks

For outcomes 1 and 2 may include:

• a report of a fieldwork activity

• annotations of a practical work folio of activities or investigations

• a bioinformatics exercise

• media response

• data analysis

• problem solving involving biological concepts, skills and/or issues

• a reflective learning journal/blog related to selected activities or in response to an issue

• a test comprising multiple choice and/or short answer and/or extended response.


A report related to the survival of an organism or a species using an appropriate format, for example a scientific poster, practical report, oral communication or digital presentation.


Unit 2: How is continuity of life maintained?

Area of Study 1



How does reproduction maintain the continuity of life?

In this area of study students consider the need for the cells of multicellular organisms to multiply for growth, repair and replacement. Students become familiar with the key events in the phases of the cell cycle. Students investigate and use visualisations and modelling to describe the characteristics of each of the phases in mitosis. Students describe the production of gametes in sexual reproduction through the key events in meiosis and explain the differences between asexual and sexual reproduction in terms of the genetic makeup of daughter cells. Students consider the role and nature of stem cells and their potential use to treat injury and disease.

Outcome 1

On completion of this unit the student should be able to compare the advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction, explain how changes within the cell cycle may have an impact on cellular or tissue system function and identify the role of stem cells in cell growth and cell differentiation and in medical therapies.


Area of Study 2

How is inheritance explained?

In this area of study students build on their understanding of the nature of genes and the use of genetic language to read and interpret patterns of inheritance and predict outcomes of genetic crosses. They gain an understanding that a characteristic or trait can be due solely to one gene and its alleles, or due to many genes acting together, or is the outcome of genes interacting with external environmental or epigenetic factors. Students apply their genetic knowledge to consider the social and ethical implications of genetic applications in society including genetic screening and decision making regarding the inheritance of conditions.


Outcome 2

On completion of this unit the student should be able to apply an understanding of genetics to describe patterns of inheritance, analyse pedigree charts, predict outcomes of genetic crosses and identify the implications of the uses of genetic screening and decision making related to inheritance.


Assessment tasks.

Assessment tasks for this unit will be selected from the following:
 A written report on field work.
And at least three from the following:

 practical activities;

 multimedia presentation;

 response to a media article;

 oral presentation;

 annotated poster

 data analysis;

 tests.
Area of Study 3



Investigation of an issue

The increasing uses and applications of genetics knowledge and reproductive science in society both provide benefits for individuals and populations and raise social, economic, legal and ethical questions. Human cloning, genetic modification of organisms, the use of forensic DNA databanks, assisted reproductive technologies and prenatal and predictive genetic testing challenge social and ethical norms.


Outcome 3

On completion of this unit the student should be able to investigate and communicate a substantiated response to a question related to an issue in genetics and/or reproductive science.


Assessment task.

A report of an investigation into genetics and/or reproductive science using an appropriate format, for example, digital presentation, oral communication or written report.

Unit 3: How do cells maintain life?

The cell is a dynamic system of interacting molecules that define life. An understanding of the workings of the cell enables an appreciation of both the capabilities and the limitations of living organisms whether animal, plant, fungus or microorganism.


Area of Study 1


How do cellular processes work?
On completion of this unit the student should be able to explain the dynamic nature of the cell in terms of key cellular processes including regulation, photosynthesis and cellular respiration, and analyse factors that affect the rate of biochemical reactions.
Area of Study 2
How do cells communicate?
On completion of this unit the student should be able to apply a stimulus-response model to explain how cells communicate with each other, outline human responses to invading pathogens, distinguish between the different ways that immunity may be acquired, and explain how malfunctions of the immune system cause disease.
Unit 4: How does life change and respond to challenges over time?

In this unit students consider the continual change and challenges to which life on Earth has been subjected. They investigate the relatedness between species and the impact of various change events on a population’s gene pool.


Area of Study 1


How are species related?

On completion of this unit the student should be able to analyse evidence for evolutionary change, explain how relatedness between species is determined, and elaborate on the consequences of biological change in human evolution.


Area of Study 2


How do humans impact on biological processes?

On completion of this unit the student should be able to describe how tools and techniques can be used to manipulate DNA, explain how biological knowledge is applied to biotechnical applications, and analyse the interrelationship between scientific knowledge and its applications in society.


Area of Study 3
Practical investigation.
On the completion of this unit the student should be able to design and undertake an investigation related to cellular processes and/or biological change and continuity over time, and present methodologies, findings and conclusions in a scientific poster.


BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

RATIONALE

In contemporary Australian society there are a range of businesses managed by people who establish systems and processes to achieve a variety of objectives. These systems and processes are often drawn from historical experience and management theories designed to optimise the likelihood of achieving success. In studying VCE Business Management, students develop knowledge and skills that enhance their confidence and ability to participate effectively as socially responsible and ethical members, managers and leaders of the business community, and as informed citizens, consumers and investors. The study of Business Management leads to opportunities across all facets of the business and management field such as small business owner, project manager, human resource manager, operations manager or executive manager. Further study can lead to specialisation in areas such as marketing, public relations and event management.
AIMS

This study is designed to enable students to:

 understand and apply business concepts, principles and terminology

• understand the complex and changing environments within which businesses operate

• understand the relationships that exist between a business and its stakeholders

• recognise the contribution and significance of business within local, national and global markets

• analyse and evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in different contexts

• propose strategies to solve business problems and take advantage of business opportunities


UNIT 1: Planning a Business


Businesses of all sizes are major contributors to the economic and social wellbeing of a nation. Therefore how businesses are formed and the fostering of conditions under which new business ideas can emerge are vital for a nation’s wellbeing. Taking a business idea and planning how to make it a reality are the cornerstones of economic and social development. In this unit students explore the factors affecting business ideas and the internal and external environments within which businesses operate, and the effect of these on planning a business.
Area of study 1: The business idea

In this area of study students investigate how business ideas are created and how conditions can be fostered for new business ideas to emerge.


Area of study 2: External environment

Students consider factors from the external environment such as legal, political, social, economic, technological, global and corporate social responsibility factors and the effects these may have on the decisions made when planning a business. Students investigate how the internal environment relates to the external environment and the effects of this relationship on planning a business.


Area of study 3: Internal environment

Students explore the factors within the internal environment and consider how planning decisions may have an effect on the ultimate success of a business.


Assessment tasks

Case study; structured questions; essay.

UNIT 2: Establishing a Business
Area of study 1: Legal requirements and financial considerations

In this area of study students are introduced to the legal requirements and financial considerations that are vital to establishing a business. They also consider the implications for the business if these requirements are not met.


Area of study 2: Marketing a business

In this area of study students develop their understanding that marketing encompasses a wide range of management practices, from identifying the needs of the target market and establishing a brand presence, through to considerations on price, product features and packaging, promotion, place, people, physical evidence and processes. They also consider effective public relations strategies and the benefits and costs these can bring to a business.


Area of Study 3: Staffing a business

Students consider the opportunities that the skills and capabilities of staff can contribute to the business, the legal obligations that must be addressed and the relationship between employers and employees within a business.


Assessment tasks

Case study; structured questions; essay.


UNIT 3: Managing a Business


Area of study 1: Business foundations

Students investigate potential conflicts between, and the different demands of, stakeholders on a business. They examine a range of management styles and management skills that may be used when managing a business and apply these to contemporary business case studies.


Area of study 2: Managing employees

In this area of study students investigate essential factors such as motivation and training involved in effectively managing employees during their time at a business to ensure the business objectives are achieved.


Area of Study 3: Operations management

In this area of study students examine operations management and consider the best and most responsible use of available resources for the production of a quality final good or service in a competitive, global environment.

Assessment tasks

Case study; structured questions; essay.


UNIT 4: Transforming a Business


Area of study 1: Reviewing performance – the need for change

In this area of study students develop their understanding of the need for change.


Area of study 2: Implementing change

In this area of study students explore how businesses respond to evaluation data. Using a contemporary business case study from the past four years, students evaluate business practice against theory, considering how corporate social responsibility can be incorporated into the change process.


Assessment tasks

Case study; structured questions; essay.



External Examination: 50%

Internally assessed coursework: 50%

CHEMISTRY

Introduction


Scope of study

Chemistry explores and explains the composition and behaviour of matter and the chemical processes that occur on Earth and beyond. Chemical models and theories are used to describe and explain known chemical reactions and processes. Chemistry underpins the production and development of energy, the maintenance of clean air and water, the production of food, medicines and new materials, and the treatment of wastes.


VCE Chemistry enables students to explore key processes related to matter and its behaviour. Students consider the relationship between materials and energy through four themes: the design and composition of useful materials, the reactions and analysis of chemicals in water, the efficient production and use of energy and materials, and the investigation of carbon-based compounds as important components of body tissues and materials used in society.


Rationale


VCE Chemistry enables students to examine a range of chemical, biochemical and geophysical phenomena through the exploration of the nature of chemicals and chemical processes. In undertaking this study, students apply chemical principles to explain and quantify the behaviour of matter, as well as undertake practical activities that involve the analysis and synthesis of a variety of materials.

In VCE Chemistry students develop a range of inquiry skills involving practical experimentation and research specific to the knowledge of the discipline, analytical skills including critical and creative thinking, and communication skills. Students use scientific and cognitive skills and understanding to analyse contemporary chemistry-related issues, and communicate their views from an informed position.


VCE Chemistry provides for continuing study pathways within the discipline and leads to a range of careers.


Branches of chemistry include organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry and
biochemistry. In addition, chemistry is applied in many fields of endeavour including agriculture, bushfire research, dentistry, dietetics, education, engineering, environmental sciences, forensic science, forestry, horticulture, medicine, metallurgy, meteorology, pharmacy, sports science, toxicology, veterinary science and viticulture.
Aims
This study enables students to:

• apply models, theories and concepts to describe, explain, analyse and make predictions about chemical phenomena.

• develop a range of individual and collaborative science investigation skills through experimental and inquiry tasks in the

field and in the laboratory

•develop an informed perspective on contemporary science-based issues of local and global significance.
• apply their scientific understanding to familiar and unfamiliar situations including personal, social, environmental and

technological contexts.

• communicate clearly and accurately an understanding of the discipline using appropriate terminology, conventions and

formats.


Entry
There are no prerequisites for entry to Units 1, 2 and 3. Students must undertake Unit 3 prior to undertaking Unit 4.

It is not recommended that students would enter Unit 2 without first completing Unit 1.

It is not recommended that students would enter Unit 3 without Units 1 and/or 2. If they do they would be required to undertake significant additional preparation as prescribed by their teacher.




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