In order to excel in 7th grade rela and beyond



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Group 11 TIME

102 consecutive

103 era

104 headlong

105 impromptu

106 initiate

107 permanent

108 prior

109 respite

110 urgent


Group 12 GAIN

111 acquire

112 procure

113 scavenge

114 *apathy

115 derelict

116 desolate

117 devoid

118 lax

119 lethargic

120 scanty

121 trifling



Group 13

KNOWLEDGE

122 astute

123 consult

124 docile

125 enlighten

126 illiterate

127 mentor

128 naive

129 rustic

130 unwitting


Group 14 (UN)FAIR

131 arbitrate

132 bias

133 bigot

134 impartial

135 indifferent

136 compel

137 enthrall

138 evict

139 oblige

140 oppress

141 overwhelm


Group 15 CHARACTERISTIC

142 aloof

143 attribute

144 exotic

145 homage

146 irrelevant

147 mottled

148 precise

149 sleek

150 subtle


Group 16 FIRST

151 debut

152 pioneer

153 premiere

154 *benefactor

155 bounty

156 estimate

157 flourish

158 inherit

159 lavish

160 lucrative

161 privilege


Group 17 FEAR

162 canny

163 consternation

164 eerie

165 intimidate

166 *intrepid

167 vigilant

168 wary

169 alternative

170 latitude

171 solitude
Group 18 BAD

172 abduct

173 acrid

174 blatant

175 derogatory

176 negligent

177 obnoxious

178 ruthless

179 devout

180 sacred

181 scrupulous
Group 19 ROLE

182 agent

183 appoint

184 authority

185 counterpart

186 garrison

187 monitor

188 sovereign

189 *supervise

190 *vocation


Group 20 FEELING

191 bleak

192 deplore

193 *dismal

194 grievous

195 loath

196 whim

197 abode

198 dilapidated

199 hovel

200 maintain

201 renovate


Group 21 DEAD

202 casualty

203 deceased

204 dispatch

205 *inanimate

206 lethal

207 mortal

208 slaughter

209 vulnerable
Group 22 (UN)STEADY

210 capricious

211 impetuous

212 pluck

213 staunch

214 aspire

215 covet

216 gratify

217 incentive

218 obsession

219 pander
Group 23 HEALTH

220 addict

221 epidemic

222 impunity

223 plague

224 toxic

225 unscathed

226 kindle

227 omen

228 orbit

229 smolder

230 sphere


Group 24 CRITICIZE

231 reprimand

232 repudiate

233 spurn

234 blithe

235 delectable

236 delicacy

237 exuberant

238 personable

239 rapture

240 revelry

241 zest



Group 25 FALSE

242 delude

243 devious

244 figment

245 mythical

246 preposterous

247 sham

248 camouflage

249 hoard

250 lurk

251 maneuver

252 murky


Group 26 FLORA/FAUNA

253 canine

254 citrus

255 forage

256 garland

257 lush

258 plumage

259 predatory

260 species
Group 27 ABILITY

261 adequate

262 competent

263 *proficient

264 administer

265 bestow

266 capitulate

267 complement

268 *emit

269 heed

270 *sacrifice
Group 28 DESTROY

271 annihilate

272 detriment

273 devastate

274 devour

275 disrupt

276 maul

277 mutilate

278 rupture
Group 29 SITUATION

279 ensue

280 incident

281 inevitable

282 plight

283 *prospective

284 strait

285 authentic

286 candid

287 conclusive

288 plausible
Group 30 LESSEN

289 abate

290 dwindle

291 ebb

292 impede

293 subside

294 wean

295 abyss

296 aquatic

297 ballast

298 buoyant

299 inundate



300 submerge

Have a GROWTH Mindset


Daily Procedures


  • Enter class BEFORE the bell. “Early is on time. On time is late.”



  • Bring the following items to class EVERY DAY:




  1. Pen

  2. A Sharpened Pencil

  3. KNOWSYS definitions (on phone is acceptable)

  4. IR book (on phone is acceptable)

  5. Tracker

  6. Everything Notes

  7. Binder

  8. Cellphone [optional] (for KNOWSYS app and research)

  9. Flashdrive



  • Make your desk look like this:



Binder

IR Book



Comp.

Book


P

E

N


---Extra materials go on the floor behind the heels of your feet. Not in the aisles.---




  • Do the instructions on the board IMMEDIATELY. Entering the class is NOT social time. It’s business time. Get yourself in a GROWTH mindset.



  • WORK FIRST. Only emergency needs are handled before class. If you have questions, save it for class because other students probably have the same question and we can use the opportunity to address the issue as a team.



  • You must always do something productive. If you finish the instructions on the board early:practiceKNOWSYS, read, work on your next IR essay, study your “Everything” notes, check your tracker, and/or help a teammate. It is never okay to do nothing.


RELA Grade

All Work


  • Marked by a “W” in the gradebook. Has 0% weight of the final grade.




  • This category is to track whether or not a student is keeping up with certain procedural tasks. 100% means that they completed the task. 0% means they have not. Again, neither score has a positive or negative bearing on the actual grade.




  • This category might also be used to track “pre-test” data for the purpose of comparing to post test scores in order to determine a student’s growth.


Formative


  • Marked by an “F” in the gradebook. Counts for 40% weight of the final grade.




  • This is reserved for assignments and quizzes that are meant to show that a student is building the skills necessary to master the content of a particular unit.




  • On average, there is ~1 formative assignment per week.



Summative


  • Marked by an “S” in the gradebook. Counts for 60% weight of the final grade.




  • This is how students demonstrate mastery over the content of a particular unit. This comes in the form of essays, cumulative tests, and projects.



Policy


  • If an assignment is not turned in, it will be recorded as a 0%.




  • If an assignment is turned in but incomplete or illegible, it will receive a score of 11%.




  • Any assignment can be redone for full credit unless otherwise stated. The student MUST attend tutoring to redo the assignment. The teacher may require that a student demonstrate that they have studied or reviewed the appropriate information before redoing an assignment.




  • Once grades are due for progress reports and report cards, no changes can be made.

Before you turn in work, ask yourself:
Is it neat? If no,

Complete? Then go,

And a treat Until

To read? It’s so!



Frequently Asked Questions
1) What should I do if I finish my assignment early? Can I do work for another class?
You may ONLY do RELA work in RELA class. If you finish an assignment early, you may work on your daily homework. In other words, you can study your vocab words, read your independent book, or work on the outline for your next essay.It is never okay to do nothing.Therefore, you should ALWAYS bring your KNOWSYS words/definitions and independent reading book to class. EVERYDAY.ALWAYS.
2) What should I do if I am absent?
The best thing to do is look online on the calendar on my teacher webpage. You can find the lesson plan for the day you missed. Read over it, do what activities you can, and think of a few questions you might have about what you missed. This way, when you come back to class you will already have a good idea about what you missed and I can help you catch up much faster.
3) I need help! What can I do?
Come to tutoring as often as you feel you need to. Ask questions in class. Email me questions. Read this manual a few times. Call a friend. When in doubt, read something. Take some of the advice below.

ADVICE


  • Keep a pen behind your ear at all times.




  • Read. Then read some more. When in doubt: read. Read on the bus. Read on the toilet. Read when you feel like reading and definitely read when you don’t feel like reading. Also: read. Read things you are interested in. Read something completely off the wall. Read something on a wall. Stand on your head and read. Read to a friend. Read to someone you love. Read out loud in a funny voice. Also, also: read.




  • If you have a negative thought, try adding the word “yet” to the end of it. Like, “I am just not good at RELA… yet”. When you do this, you express confidence in yourself that you will be better at some point in the future.




  • Have a sense of humor. Laugh.




  • Be curious. Ask questions. Find something cool about things that on the surface are rather dull.




  • Don’t panic.Take a deep breath from time to time. Even if you’re calm, deep breathing helps you relax.




  • S.L.A.N.T.




  • Rest. Go to bed before 10pm. Turn off your electronics before 9pm. Let your brain switch off.




  • Exercise everyday. Ride your bike to school or run a lap around your house every morning.




  • Eat. Healthy food will make you feel happy all day. Candy makes you feel happy for a moment and then weak and tired all day. A good breakfast is a fruit and a protein. So maybe a banana and some almonds, or bacon and watermelon. Toast with peanut butter (unless you’re allergic, of course) and an apple.





Writing Guide
Narrative / Expository / Persuasive OVERVIEW






Narrative


Expository


Persuasive

Purpose



To entertain through...

*drama


*humor

*action


*beautiful language



To inform by…

* explaining

* describing

* researching



To persuade by…

* taking a stand

* supporting a claim

Attribute


Fictional / Made up



Non fiction



Opinion (with support)



Examples

Novels

Plays


Poems

Mythology



News


Textbooks

Recipes / Instructions

Reviews

Speeches


Editorials

Advertisements


Terms

Controlling Idea

Plot Structure

Characterization

Conflict


Theme

Figurative Language

Tone

Mood


Imagery

Sensory Details

Flashbacks

Foreshadowing

Symbolism

Archetypes

Point of View

Genres


Plot Twist

Paradox


Thesis
Textual Evidence


Graphic Elements
Cause / Effect Structure
Compare / contrast

Structure


Research
Bibliography
Plagiarism

Claim
Ethos / Pathos / Logos Support


Argument
Fallacies
Reasons for Your Opinion Structure
Point by Point Structure
Analysis



The [Writing] Process
No one—and that includes professional writers and English teachers—sits down and writes a perfect piece on their first try. All writing (and thinking, really) has to go through the PROCESS. It doesn’t matter if you are working on an email or your wedding vows, trying to solve a murder case or untie a knot in your shoelaces—you must use this same process!


  1. PREWRITE:

Find a way to gather your thoughts into one place. A good way is to use a GRAPHIC ORGANIZER like the 3 boxes, the outline, bubble-maps, a T-chart, or a checklist.




  1. COMPOSE:

This is where you write your first draft. You don’t worry about spelling or grammar at this stage. You just get as many ideas onto the paper as you can. Don’t overthink it. Just write what is on your mind concerning that topic. The more the better.




  1. EVALUATE:

This is when you read your draft. You ask yourself many questions about the quality of your thinking, for example:


Does this part make sense?

Do I like this part?

Should I change this part?

What would make this part better?

Does this part stay on topic?
It is strongly recommended that you have someone else read what you wrote and ask them the same questions.


  1. REVISE:

This is where you add, change, rearrange, or delete sentences in your writing based on how you and your friend answered the questions in step 3. This is the hardest part of writing, and of course the most important. The more time you spend on this step—moving sentences around, deleting off topic material, inserting better words, expanding on a point, clarifying your ideas, using more evidence and examples, varying your sentences by using commas and semicolons—the better the writing will be.




  1. EDIT:

Only at this point do you worry about spelling and grammar. Does every sentence begin with a capital and end with punctuation? Is every word spelled correctly? Is it legible?




  1. PUBLISH:

You may have to go through steps 2-5 many times before you reach this final stage. In the publish stage, you



finally share the writing with the world (or teacher) in its BEST POSSIBLE FORM. That means it is neat—good penmanship, clean unwrinkled paper. Everything is ordered appropriately according to the form you are writing. It is done, and you are proud of it.

THE RUBRIC
Category #1: Organization / Progression


  1. Appropriate form / structure




    1. Arrange your narrative essay into a plot (Exposition, conflict, rising action, climax, resolution).

    2. Arrange your expository and persuasive essays into paragraphs (intro, body, conclusion).




  1. Controlling idea




    1. In narratives, you should have a theme and a conflict that everything in the story relates to.

    2. In expository and persuasive writing, use a phrase from the prompt and give 2 to 3 examples.

    3. Do you have a CONTROLLING IDEA? Do you “stick to it” throughout the whole essay?




  1. Transitions




    1. Use words such as “First / Next / Last”, “For example”, “For instance” to go between ideas. (see pg. 47)


Category #2: Development of Ideas


  1. Specific details




    1. Give unique examples and avoid talking broadly about the topic. Avoid using pronouns (he / she / it / they /their)—use the actual names instead.




  1. Thoughtfulness




    1. Go beyond the obvious and explore the idea in a creative manner.

      1. In narrative writing, use figurative language like similes and metaphors.

      2. In expository and persuasive writing, make a connection between your opinion and the evidence.




  1. Development




    1. Explore new contexts and situations for your ideas to apply.


Category #3: Use of Language/Conventions


  1. Word choice




    1. Replace “dead” words (i.e. “good”, “thing”, “interesting”, etc.) with active words, words that add real MEANING and TONE to the writing. Avoid using pronouns (he / she / it / they /their).




  1. Tone




    1. Use an appropriate emotion or voice depending on the format and audience.

    2. Some tones include: formal, informal, outraged, enthusiastic, humorous, sarcastic, and serious.




  1. Sentence variation




    1. Use short sentences (1 idea), medium sentences (2 ideas in a compound sentence with a comma/conjunction), and long sentences (3 ideas with a semicolon AND a compound sentence or dependent clause combination).



Mr. Essayman



BODY #3



BODY #1




Body #2

* ALL Body Paragraphs are all based on the THESIS.

* Feed Mr. EssaymanTEXTUAL EVIDENCE.

THESIS



EXPOSITORY INTRODUCTION [3-4 lines]
The purpose of an introduction is to quickly get your reader interested in your topic and to demonstrate what your essay will be about. In order to do this, you will need a HOOK, QUICK SUMMARY, and CONTROLLING IDEA.


  • HOOK: start the writing with a sentence that grabs the reader’s attention. Some ways to HOOK the reader are:

Make a surprising statement: I would rather die than lose the freedom to think.

Provide a description of the issue: The society that Jonas lives in is one deprived of imagination.

Relate an ANECDOTE: I have been in one of those classrooms where you aren’t allowed to be



creative, and you spend all of your time trying to say the things you think the teacher wants to hear; Jonas’ society is a lot like that.

The “Turn-around” : Some people say that it would be worth giving up a few freedoms in



order to live a peaceful life, but I think there isn’t much point in safety if you have nothing to live for.


  • QUICK SUMMARY

Add another sentence (or two) that describes the situation you are dealing with in the essay. A good quick summary will include 1) the book title and author 2) the main character 3) the main conflict 4) the theme.


EXAMPLE:
The society in Lois Lowry’s novel, “The Giver”, is one where people are no longer trusted to make decisions; everything about their entire lives is already laid out for them.


  • CONTROLLING IDEA / THESIS

The last sentence of the introduction is where you will write the CONTROLLING IDEA, which is what the whole essay will be about in 1 sentence. The CONTROLLING IDEA is basically your OPINION about the topic. Use words from the prompt to create your controlling idea.


EXAMPLE
Prompt: Write an essay explaining whether or not you’d want to live in Jonas’ society.

Thesis: I would not want to live in Jonas’ society because they rob people of their imaginations.




*** See how the words for the thesis came from the prompt?***

EXPOSITORY BODY [5-8 lines each]
The BODY is where you prove that you are a thinking person. It is where you take your OPINION and make it stronger by using evidence and reason.
1st sentence:

Main idea (for this paragraph) that connects to your CONTROLLING IDEA (from the introduction).


Dreams are an important way for us to access our imagination

2nd sentence:

Provide TEXTUAL EVIDENCE. TEXTUAL EVIDENCE is simply a quote from a source, usually word for word from the text. Make sure you provide some context for that quote.


EXAMPLE:
On page 34, Lois Lowry writes, “Jonas didn’t contribute much. He rarely dreamed.”

3rd sentence:

Put the TEXTUAL EVIDENCE in your own words, or explain why you used this evidence.


EXAMPLE:
The fact that Jonas does not dream shows how people in his society don’t have an imagination at all.
4th sentence (and beyond):

Elaborate by making connections,delievering anecdotes, providing examples, and demonstrating reasoning. BE SPECIFIC.


EXAMPLE:
I know that for me, dreams are and endless source of entertainment. One time I dreamed that I saved my friend from a pack of vampires with a nuclear-garlic-launcher. I couldn’t wait to tell them all about it, and we laughed as I described what happened scene by scene. I feel sorry for Jonas and his society because they are robbed of the wild, random imagination of their own dreams.
EXPOSITORYCONCLUSION
The purpose of the conclusion is to remind the reader of your CONTROLLING IDEA and then to connect your topic to the reader. In other words, it is your last chance to give the reader “something to walk away with” so that they will remember your writing in the future.


  • RESTATE THE CONTROLLING IDEA

It helps to use this formula: “ “It has been shown” + [CONTROLLING IDEA]

You can also use “These details demonstrate” or “As has been discussed”.
NEVER EVER start a conclusion with “In conclusion…”
EXAMPLE:
It has been shown that the worst thing about Jonas’ society is they are robbed of their imaginations.


  • MAKE A CONNECTION STATEMENT TO THE READER


Challenge the reader to take action…
Don’t take your imagination for granted! Use it everyday to brighten the world around you.
or show them how your ideas apply to other situations…
George Washington Carver had to use his imagination to come up with all of those ways to use peanuts; imagine if he only ate them and left it at that?

or make a text-to-world connection.


Could you imagine living in a world where we could not think, or create, or imagine? Life would be dull and monotonous, and no new technology would ever be invented.

Putting it All Together

Prompt: Write an essay explaining whether or not you’d want to live in Jonas’ society.

SAMPLE ESSAY
Many people would want to live in Jonas’ society—a peaceful place where everyone has a purpose and is treated with respect—but I would hate it there. The society in Lois Lowry’s novel, “The Giver”, is one where people are no longer trusted to make decisions; everything about their entire lives is already laid out for them.I would not want to live in Jonas’ society because they rob people of their imaginations.

Dreams are an important way for us to access our imagination. On page 34, Lois Lowry writes, “Jonas didn’t contribute much. He rarely dreamed.” The fact that Jonas does not dream shows how people in his society don’t have an imagination at all.I know that for me, dreams are and endless source of entertainment. One time I dreamed that I saved my friend from a pack of vampires with a nuclear-garlic-launcher. I couldn’t wait to tell them all about it, and we laughed as I described what happened scene by scene. I feel sorry for Jonas and his society because they are robbed of the wild, random imagination of their own dreams.Life for them must be horribly dull.

It has been shown that the worst thing about Jonas’ society is they are robbed of their imaginations.Could you imagine living in a world where we could not think, or create, or imagine? Life would be monotonous and unfullfilling. Don’t take your imagination for granted! Use it everyday to brighten the world around you.

Score

O – 4 The essay has a clear controlling idea and follows the appropriate form.
D – 2 The essay has only 1 supporting idea for the thesis. While this idea is developed well, a better essay has at least 2 or 3 ideas that fully demonstrate thoughtfulness on the topic.
U – 4 The student uses appropriate word choice and tone, and sentence variation.
OVR: 3

SENTENCE VARIATION

THREE THINGS TO KNOW about sentences…


  1. A sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark, or exclamation point.




  1. Sentences can be short, medium, and long depending on how many independent clauses it has (1, 2, or 3).




  1. Sentence variation means mixing short, medium, and long sentences in your writing.



HOW TO HAVE SENTENCE VARIATION:
STEP #1
Make SHORT sentences by creating a simpleINDEPENDENTclause.An independent clause is just another way of saying “one complete idea”.Basically, anything with a noun and a verb.
EXAMPLES: “The dogbarked.”Or “The telephonerang.”
You can even add adjectives, if you feel inclined to do so:
EXAMPLE: “The lovely rose bristled in the powerful wind.”

STEP #2
Make MEDIUM sentences by using a COMPOUND SENTENCE. A compound sentence has TWO independent clauses (ideas).In a compound sentence, you LINK the two ideas together by using a comma and a conjunction.
EXAMPLES:

“My best friend is Jeff, but Jeff’s best friend is Calvin.”

“I knocked on her door, and she answered it right away.”

“There wasn’t any mail in the box, so I went back inside empty-handed.”



Instead of a COMMA+CONJUNCTION, you could just as easily use a semicolon.
EXAMPLES:

“My best friend is Jeff; Jeff’s best friend is Calvin.”

“I knocked on her door; she answered it right away.”

“There wasn’t any mail in the box; I went back inside empty-handed.”


STEP #3
A LONG sentence is when you have THREE independent clauses, mixing in comma+conjunctionanda semicolon.
EXAMPLES:
“I was afraid of the water; I have avoided it for years, but this time things would be different.”
“He tried so hard in school, but always came up a little short; maybe he just needs some encouragement?”

STEP #4
Add TRANSITION WORDS…


Also besides furthermore in addition accordingly as a result consequently

for this reason otherwise subsequently therefore by the same token conversely instead

on the contrary similarly nevertheless above all chiefly for example for instance
in this case in other words after all finally by and large in any case on the whole

and transitional phrases…


on one hand … on the other hand…
On one hand, I can see that you really want to do something to help the students at Creekwood. On the other hand, I feel that this particular strategy will not work. “
; however,
“I know that you have our best interests in mind; however, this plan of yours might actually do the opposite.”

***SENTENCE VARIATION is mixing up short, medium, and long sentences and adding transitional words or phrases. This makes your writing much more fun to read and listen to. It sounds sophisticated and mature. ***
Compare these two paragraphs by reading them aloud:
Paragraph #1:

My hero is Ruby Bridges. She represents the letter “S” in HEROES. She was very self-reliant. She was the first black child to go to an all-white school in New Orleans. She was hated by many people for this. She demonstrated the ability to rely on herself by walking into the school with her head held high every single day.

Paragraph #2:

My hero is Ruby Bridges. She represents the letter “S” in HEROES;in other words, she was self-reliant. For example, she was the first black child to go to an all-white school in New Orleans; however, shewas hated by many people for this. Nevertheless shedemonstrated the ability to rely on herself by walking into the school with her head held high every single day.

Notice that even though both paragraphs use the same words, the second paragraph looks and sounds better. Paragraph two is the way mature writers write because of sentence variation.



The Art of Elaboration

Elaboration is all about saying “enough” about a topic. But how do you know when enough is enough?



DON’T ask: “How many sentences do I need to write?”

DO ask: “What does my reader want to know?”

“What is something interesting I can say about this topic?”



“How can I make my thinking clear to another person?”

“Is it really possible to say TOO MUCH about a topic?”

Example: I think that a major internal conflict in my book is that the main character is sad.

  • This statement generates many unanswered questions, like:



    • Why is the character sad?

    • Why do you think this is a major conflict?

    • Why should anyone care why the character is sad?

    • How does this relate to other conflicts in the story?

A good writer will ELABORATE by…

1) Presenting more context: Jane’s mother died in a car accident ten years ago, but she still is trying

to cope with the tragic loss.

2) Providing an example: For example, in chapter 5 Jane weeps at a grave because her mother died ten years ago.

3) Relating an anecdote: I too have experienced the loss of a loved one. I remember how sad it was

at my grandmother’s funeral. But my grandmother had lived a full life; Jane’s mother was ripped away from her too soon.

4) Making a connection: Jane eventually learned to deal with her sadness, much like Cole Mathews from Touching Spirit Bearhad to learn to deal with his anger. Neither would ever go away. Both must be managed.

5) Creating analogies: The loss of Jane’s mother reminded me of how Mufasa died in the Lion king, in that Jane—like Simba—had a parent pulled away from them early in life. Both had to learn that their parents, though dead, are still with them. However the sadness will never go away.

6) Using figurative language: Jane was like a kid whose ice cream cone had melted over his hand; she couldn’t enjoy the sweetness of a mother’s presence, even though the memories stuck to her. But a child must wash their hands eventually, and likewise Jane must come to terms with the loss of her mother.

7) Sharing an emotion: As a reader, I could feel Jane’s sorrow and I too was almost brought to tears reading about her loss.

THE THREE BOXES
Use the GRAPHIC ORGANIZER when you are prewriting to help you organize your ideas.

CONTROLLING IDEA: ______________________________________



BODY Paragraph #1:
Main idea / TEXTUAL EVIDENCE

BODY Paragraph #3:
(same as body paragraph 1, but with a different main idea)





BODY Paragraph #2:
(same as body paragraph 1, but with a different main idea)


Connect to Reader:___________________________________­_________

EXAMPLE

CONTROLLING IDEA: The “Chronicles of Narnia” is really about escapism.



The children in the novel are scared.
Use chapter 1 for TE.




The novel was written during WWII.
Use “Operation Pied Piper” for TE.



The war was horrible and people needed a distraction.
Use “Can You Take It?” for TE.


Connect to Reader: People today still engage in escapism in many forms

SAMPLE EXPOSITORY PROMPT and ESSAY: SENTENCE by SENTENCE
PROMPT:

People tell us that we need exercise to stay healthy. Write an essay to about an activity that you think isfun as well as healthy.



Phrase from prompt to start the THESIS

I need to think of examples that are fun and/or healthy



ESSAY
[Introduction]
[HOOK] Are you looking for a fun, healthy activity?[Quick Summary] While there are many hobbies to select from, I prefer something that gets me moving.[THESIS] I prefer an activity known as basketball because it can be played with friends, it burns calories, and it is competitive.
[Body paragraph 1]

[Main idea] Basketball is great because you can play with friends. [Example] For example, when I was in graduate school I made friends with a gentleman named Sujay by playing basketball every day after class. [Example in own words] It was important for us to relieve stress by playing this stimulating game, and it helped us to develop a strong friendship. [Connect to thesis] Thanks to basketball, I have a lifelong friend.
[Body paragraph 2]
[Main idea] Basketball is a great way to lose weight. [Evidence] The constant running and jumping develops your cardiovascular system and burns calories. [Evidence in own words] Unlike baseball or football where there can be a lot of standing around, basketball is a non-stop activity. [Connect to thesis] This high level of action is sure to get you into shape.
[Body paragraph 3]
[Main idea] One thing I have always enjoyed is competition. [Example] For example, I once entered a 3 on 3 tournament at Fordham University. [Example in own words] The game went back and forth, and I even splashed a wide open 3 pointer at one point. However, my team did not win the tournament. [Connect to thesis] That was disappointing, but at the same time it was okay because we had fun just being a part of the competition.

[Conclusion]

These details demonstrate why you should join me in playing basketball. [Applies to other situations] Everyone young and old can enjoy basketball as part of a healthy, happy lifestyle. [Challenge] So don’t make any excuses—pick up a ball, find some friends, and get moving today!




EDITING MARKS


THE BLANK CIRCLE means “Make a Change”



TE



NY

!

?



You need to look at this part again and make some kind of correction. Maybe you are missing punctuation, capitalization, or a word. Maybe you misspelled something. Maybe you need to revise this part entirely.

TEXTUAL EVIDENCE CIRCLE means “Add Textual Evidence”
I write this on your paper when you need to support your opinion with some evidence, but you have not done so yet.

DOT DOTDOT CIRCLE means “Elaborate”
You have not said enough about this particular point. Add details, information, examples, etc. (see page 21 for more)

THE NY CIRCLE means “Not Yet”
This means that I cannot take your paper for a grade until you make some major changes to it. Start by looking at the other circles and comments. Ask yourself: is the paper really in the publish phase of the PROCESS?
THE EXCLAMATION POINT CIRCLE means “Wow That Was Cool!”
You have written something unique, interesting, and otherwise awesome and I noticed. In fact, everyone should know about this thing you wrote because it was profound and important.

THE QUESTION MARK CIRCLE means “I Don’t Understand”
You have written something that does not make sense to me or went off topic. You will have to make a change so that what you are trying to say is clearer to the reader.

THE PILCROW CIRCLE means “Start a New Paragraph”
This means you have written two main ideas in the same paragraph; separate into two distinct paragraphs.

#



THE CIRCLE WITH A NUMBER IN IT means “Your Grade”
Your grade reflects how well you demonstrated knowledge and ability on a given assignment. In many cases is it a reflection of your effort. It is something you have earned.

Style = PODU
P:



O:



D:



U:






1st Marking Period: Narratives and Imaginative Stories


FORMATIVE [F]

SUMMATIVE [S]

ALL WORK [W]


HEROES Project

September IR Essay


MP1 Pretest




Summer Reading Project

KNOWSYS Groups 1-5 TEST

(0.5 weight)

I-Staion Reading Diagnostic




HW LOG

(each night counts as 0.1 of a formative. 5 are due per week for 4 weeks, a total of 20 HW assignments for MP1, or 2 formative grades)



Imaginative Story Project Presentation



KNOWSYS Pretest




NoRedInk Assignments

(Each is worth 0.1 of a formative grade.. 5 due halfway through MP, other 5 due at MP end. 10 total for 1 total formative grade.)



MP1 Common Assessment



Expository Pretest


MP1 Common Assessment Check-Up





NoRedInk Diagnostic




KNOWSYS Quizzes 1-5

(0.2 weight each, for a total of 1 formative grade)





Declare October IR Book




September IR Essay Rough Draft

(Counts as 2 Formatives)








The Highwayman” Term Hunt








Total formative assignments: 10

Each formative is worth4% of final grade.

Total summative assignments: 3.5

Each is worth ~17%

KNOWSYS exam is worth ~8%



These assignments do NOT affect the final grade. However, please make sure you are keeping up with these procedural tasks.




Important Readings


  • Charles [textbook, page 258]

  • The Charge of the Light Brigade [textbook, page 582]

  • The Highwayman [textbook, page 587]

  • The Monsters are Due on Maple Street [textbook, page 138]

  • September IR Book The Other Side of the Sky

  • October IR Book [Student’s choice, 150 page minimum]





Assignment Checklist in Chronological Order with Descriptions


Assignment

Type

Description

___HEROES Project


F

Students research a historical figure and write a paragraph about how that person demonstrates one or more of our classroom values (see page 2). The paragraphs are typed and accompanied by a picture of the person. These are hung in the classroom year-round for reflection and guidance.

___Summer Reading Project



F

Students complete the summer reading handout during the summer.

___ MP1 Pretest


W

Students take a multiple choice expository pretest to determine their aptitude at the beginning of the marking period, used for comparison at the end of the marking period.

___Expository Pretest


W

Students will write an expository essay in the STAAR format.

___KNOWSYS Pretest


W

A multiple choice test over all of the words for the year.

___I-Station



W

An online reading diagnostic that helps determine and track students’ reading levels. This will be taken roughly once per marking period.

___MP1 Common Assessment Check-up



F

Multiple choice test given roughly halfway through the marking period to assess if students are acquiring the key concepts of this unit of study.

___ HW LOG



F

Students will track their study habits on a HW log (see page 6 for an example). This document will be turned in every day for 0.1 of a formative grade. It will also provide useful data for conferencing with students in order to improve their overall work ethic.

___ NoRedInk



F

Based on their diagnostic results, students will be assigned specific lessons using the online program NoRedInk. Each student will receive 10 such lessons for the marking period. These will be graded for completion.

___September IR Essay #1 Rough draft and final




S

Students will use the writing process to write an expository response to their September IR book. The prompt is:
Describe one major external conflict and one major internal conflict found in this book.
***The rough draft must be prepared at home. It is due by the end of the month. It is worth 2 formative grades.***
The final draft will receive some class time for revisions, and will be due 2 weeks later.

___ “Monsters Are Due on Maple Street” Storyboard.



W

Students will read the play “Monsters Are Due…” and, using the dialogue and stage directions as a basis, will create a 6 panel storyboard depicting the scenes from the play. Students will have to cite the textual evidence (Line #’s and quotes) that inspired each panel. Creativity, color, and neatness are appreciated.


___October Book Sign-Up


W

Students declare their October IR book.

___ Term Hunt



F

Students will either read the poem The Highwayman (PreAP) or the script for The Monsters Are Due on Maple Street (OL) with a team and find textual evidence (line # and quote) for the following literary terms:
1.Exposition 9. Sensory Detail

2. Inciting Incident 10. Imagery

3. Rising Action 11. Internal Conflict

4. Climax 12. External Conflict

5. Resolution 13. One example of figurative

language

6. Two ways the protagonist was characterized 14. Plot twist

7. Tone 15. Genre

8. Mood
Students will then write a paragraph analysis, answering the question:
What is the hidden message of this story? Use textual evidence to support your opinion.”

___MP1 Common Assessment



S

A multiple choice, cumulative test over all the terms and items covered in the MP1 section of this manual.

___Imaginative Story Project Presentation



S



Students will collaborate in groups to make a creative presentation of their imaginative stories. They may choose to combine story ideas from mulitiple members of their group, or use a single member’s story.The goal is to make a persuasive “sales pitch” to the class in order to invest into the story to make it into a movie. Therefore many students may elect to create movie trailers or perform scenes of their story to demonstrate its finer qualities.
Students will be graded based on:


  • How original, complete, and compelling the story is.

  • How much pizzaz and professionalism the presentation has.


The project may take several forms:


  • A Short Film (PreAP)

  • A movie trailer (OL)

  • A poetry chapbook

  • A short story.

  • A skit / scene performance.

  • A storyboard / comic / manga





[3] Rising Action:


  1. This is everything that happens between the

inciting incident and the climax.


  1. The characters are struggling to get what they

want, but the final decision has not yet come.


[4] Climax:
This has been called the “turning point” in the story. Basically, it is when the conflict of the story gets decided.Usually this means that the character gets what they want, or they will never get what they want.






[1] Exposition


  1. Shows the SETTING, the “time and

place”, in which the story occurs.


  1. Get the reader to understand the world in

which the story operates. Is it realistic? Or magical?Earth?Or a fantasy world?Thepresent?Or the past?Or the future?


  1. Introduce the important characters and

get the reader to care about who the characters are.


[2] Inciting Incident


  1. This is when the main conflict of the story becomes clear.




  1. It can be internal (inside the character—guilt, fear, etc.) or external

(outside the character—violence, society, etc.)


  1. Usually, it is centered around what the main character WANTS and

someone or something WANTS the opposite.


  1. This is when the story starts to get interesting.




[5] Resolution:


  1. This is what follows the climax to the last word of the story.




  1. A good resolution will provide clues to the THEME of the story. Common themes include:


Good vs. Evil: The “good guy” must defeat the “bad guy”.
Person vs. Society: The main character must stand up for what they think is right, even if society does not approve.
Coming of Age: The main character must “grow up” or “mature” in some way.

Love Conquers All: Whatever problems the characters have, it is solved through romantic or familial love.
The Great Journey: The main character must go on a quest to find something or to right a wrong.
Death: Someone or something has died, and the characters have to cope with the loss.


  1. Another kind of THEME can be a life lesson or moral such as

“never give up” or “don’t judge a book by its cover” or “be careful who you trust”, etc.




MP1: Terms to Know

Characterization


  • We understand a character’s personality through these 6 indicators: appearance, thoughts, actions, what they say (dialogue), what other characters say about them (reactions), and what the character wants.



Thoughts




DIALOGUE

Appearance





Other character’s reactions



Actions




  • A character’s WANT is the most important thing to know about the character because this will create the conflict that drives the narrative.




  • These 6 traits act as clues to help the reader understand the character’sMOTIVATION, RELATIONSHIPS, and DEVELOPMENT.


Plot
A plot is the sequence of events in a story. In order they are: exposition, inciting incident, rising action, climax, and resolution. The reader should have certain expectations for each section of a story’s plot. See the previous page for details. You need to know all plot terms: Exposition, Setting, Inciting Incident, Rising Action, Climax, Resolution, and Theme.


Summary
A summary is not the “beginning, middle, and end” of a story. A good summary contains the following: 1) the setting / genre 2) the main character 3) main conflict 4) how the conflict resolves (climax) 5) the theme or lesson of the story and 6) one or two important details. A plot chart is a good example of a complete summary.
Anything beyond these 6 items is TOO MUCH. Anything short of these 6 items is not enough.

Tone and Mood
TONE refers to the AUTHOR’s emotion, attitude, or voice.

MOOD refers to how the READER feels when experiencing the text.


TONE and MOOD may be formal, informal, intimate, solemn, somber, playful, serious, ironic, condescending, or many other possible attitudes. Each piece of literature has at least one theme, or central question about a topic, and how the theme is approached within the work is known as the tone.
Sensory Detail
Sensorydetails are descriptions that relate the human senses, such as touch, taste, smell, or sight.
EXAMPLE:As I gazed upon the heavenly three tiered chocolate cake, I could see tiny slivers of chocolate chips melting into the velvety, sweet icing (sight). It was difficult to resist the urge to run my finger (touch) through the icing and have a taste. (Taste)

Imagery

The way the text creates mental pictures and images in a reader’s mind.


EXAMPLE:
The images of her glowing smile and bright hopeful eyes will stay with me forever. The enchanting bride, gliding down the petal-strewn aisle, as the last bits of the young girl she was ever-fading behind her. Her adoring husband gazes at her full of promises of a life-time of happiness.

Point of View

The P.o.V. of a text refers to the position that the narrator is in relative to the story.


1st Person: The narrator is the main character in the story. Uses “I”.

2nd Person: The reader is the main character in the story. Uses “You”. Usually used in songs and poems.



3rd Person Limited: The narrator tells the thoughts and feelings of ONE character. Uses “he / she / they”.

3rd Person Omniscient: The narrator tells the thoughts and feelings of all the characters.Uses “he / she / they”.



Conflict

  • External—“Outside” of the Character




    • Man vs. Man: When two characters directly oppose one another, i.e. Harry Potter vs. Voldemort.

    • Man vs. Society: When a character struggles against the rules of society, i.e. Hunger Games.

    • Man vs. Nature: When a character struggles against an animal or weather event, i.e. “Touching Spirit Bear”.




  • Internal—“Inside” of the Character




    • Man vs. Himself: A character struggles with a personal problem such as fear, anxiety, the dealing with the loss of a loved one, or any other traumatic event that causes them problems from within.


Figurative Language
A SIMILEcompares two things using “like” or “as”.
EXAMPLES: “Quiet as a mouse.” “She was curled up like a worm.”
A METAPHOR compares two things by saying one IS the other.
EXAMPLES: “Shirley is such a wet blanket” or “You dirty dog!”
PERSONIFICATION iswhen a writer gives human qualities to objects or ideas.

EXAMPLES: "Oreo: Milk’s favorite cookie"or“The wind stood up and gave a shout.”




  • When you give human qualities to an animal, it is called ANTHROPOMORPHISM.

An IDIOMis a phrase whose literal meaning is absurd, but we understand what it means figuratively.


EXAMPLES: “Fred kicked the bucket” or “quit pulling my leg.”
A CLICHÉ is a kind of figurative language—simile, metaphor, personification, or idiom—that has been over used.
EXAMPLES: “Her lips were like a red rose” or “There are plenty of fish in the sea.”
A HYPERBOLEis an extreme exaggeration used to make a point. It is like the opposite of “understatement.”
EXAMPLES: “I’m so hungry I could eat a horse!” or “I’ve told you a million times” or “this is taking forever”.


Genres
The type of story you are reading. The GENRE of a story creates certain expectations for the reader. For example, you would expect that the setting of Science Fiction would take place in the future, or that a Mystery will involve some sort of crime. Here are some examples of GENRES:
Science Fiction Fantasy Drama Historical Fiction Comedy Suspense/Thriller

Mythology Mystery Classic Realistic Fiction Tragedy Horror




Plot Twist
An unexpected turn of events at the end of the story. Sometimes there is not a complete resolution following a plot twist.


Controlling Idea
Basically the same as a thesis (expository writing) or a claim (persuasive writing). A controlling idea is the idea that the entire narrative is about. When you are writing a narrative, everything should be about your controlling idea so that you do not go off topic. A controlling idea is closely tied to the THEME of a narrative.

GRAMMAR and MECHANICS


  1. Important Grammar reminders:




  • Underline titles of books and capitalize every word except the articles like “a”, “an”, and “the”.

  • Capitalize names of people and places. Capitalize “I”.

  • Don’t questions end in question marks?

  • Indent EVERY paragraph.



  1. Compound Sentence

A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction. When using a coordinating conjunction with an independent clause, you will always use a comma before the conjunction.
Coordinating conjunctions – For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So {FANBOYS}


Independent clause

Independent clause



EXAMPLE:

Paul proudly went to the library to vote for the next president , but the lines were too long and over-crowded.



Comma + coordinating conjunction

SEMICOLON EXAMPLE

Paul proudly went to the library to vote for the next president; the lines were too long and over-crowded.





Notice that the semicolon simply replaces the comma+conjunction.



  1. Dependent Clause

A dependent clause contains a subject and a verb, but cannot stand alone as a sentence. The dependent clauseMUST be joined with an independent clause.


Dependent clause

Independent clause



EXAMPLE:



As I watched the rocket hurtle into the early morning sky, I cheered the astronauts as they went off to explore space.




Dependent Marker Words can be added to the beginning of an independent clause to turn it into a dependent clause. Some examples are to the right

After, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, while.







  1. Prepositional Phrase

A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with the object of the preposition. The subject and verb of the sentence will not be a part of a prepositional phrase. EXAMPLES:


  • After the storm, the only evidence of Sandy was the debris and devastation it caused for the victims.

  • During clean up, many volunteers helped the victims find shelter from the tumultuous weather conditions.


  1. Adjective

Adjectives describe nouns by showing what kind it is or how many there are. If using more than one adjective together to describe a noun, you will add a comma separating the two adjectives. EXAMPLES: [Adjectives are underlined]


  • Glistening icicles, powdery snow, and chocolate cocoa are all signs of wintertime.

  • The harsh, unforgiving sun beat down upon the three sunbathers.



  1. Adverbs

Adverbs are words that tell HOW a verb was done. Adverbs may come before or after the verb in a sentence. Some, but not all adverbs end in ly. EXAMPLES: (adverbs are underlined)


  • Cannon and Courtney quickly jumped into the car and drove hurriedly to the airport to catch their flight to London.

  • As the kitten cautiously eyed its prey, a larger cat angrily snatched the mouse away and greedilyconsumed it.



  1. Appositive Phrase


Appositive phrases help to add details to your writing by inserting information into the sentence, separated by commas. The sentence should be able to make sense if the phrase was not included at all.
APPOSITIVE PHRASE
Earth, the only planet in our galaxy known to support life, is sometimes called the third rock from the sun.

  1. Quotations




  • Introducing: Allen said, “Hi, how are you?”




  • Interrupting: “It’s cold outside,” Mom yelled, “better take a jacket.”




  • Ending: “I will never give up,” Kera whispered to herself.





MP2: Expository Reading, Writing, and Research



FORMATIVE



SUMMATIVE


ALL WORK

Introductions and Conclusions



October IR Essay


Declare November IR Book




KNOWSYS Quizzes 6-10

(0.2 weight each, for a total of 1 formative grade)



November IR Project


Expository Pretest




September IR Essay Rough Draft

(Counts as 2 Formatives)


KNOWSYS Groups 6-10 Cumulative Test

(0.5 weight)



Materials inspections:
1) IR book 2) KNOWSYS definitions

3) Tracker 4) Binder

5) Pen and pencil

NoRedInk Exercises



Google Docs Project




MP2 Common AssessmentCheck-Up



MP2 Common Assessment





Revise HEROES Project









Class Novel Activity









Black Death Writing Structures Activity









Reading Benchmark









Total formative assignments: 10

Each is worth 4% of final grade.

(Each KNOWSYS quiz is worth ~1%)



Total summative assignments: 4.5

Each is worth ~14%

KNOWSYS exam is worth ~7%


These assignments do NOT affect the final grade. However, please make sure you are keeping up with these procedural tasks.





Important Readings


  • “What Do You Know About Sharks?” [textbook, page 906]

  • “Like Black Smoke: The Black Death’s Journey” [textbook, page 928]

  • “A World Turned Upside Down: How the Black Death Affected Europe” [textbook, page 936]

  • Crash Course Video Documentaries [Links on my website]

  • (On Level) Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe.

  • (PreAP) A Christmas Carol.

  • October IR Book The Other Side of the Sky

  • November IR Book [Student’s choice, 150 page minimum]


MP 2 Assignment Checklist in Chronological Order with Descriptions


Assignment

Type

Description

___Introductions and Conclusions



F



Students will practice writing introductions and conclusions in the correct form:
Introductions require: 1) Hook 2) Quick Summary 3) Thesis

Conclusions require: 1) Restatement of the Thesis and 2) World Connection

___MP2 Common Assessment Pretest



W

Students take a multiple choice expository pretest to determine their aptitude at the beginning of the marking period, used for comparison at the end of the marking period.

___Fall Reading Benchmark


F

Students take a multiple choice reading test from the district.

___October IR Essay


S

Students will use the writing process to write an expository response to their October IR book, The Other Side of the Sky. The prompt is:
“Describe one major external conflict and one major internal conflict found in the novel.”


___November Book Sign-Up


W

Students declare their November IR book.

___Black Death Writing Structures Activity



F

Students will complete multiple tasks including: analyzing cause and effect relationships in “Like Black Smoke: The Black Death’s Journey”, writing problem/solution paragraphs for “A World Turned Upside Down: How the Black Death Affected Europe”, and answering comprehension questions about both articles. All work will be graded holistically.

___Revise HEROES Project



F

Using their HEROES project from MP1, students will select an appropriate expository writing structures, re-research, and revise their original writing using all of their new skills of introductions, conclusions, grammar, graphical elements, and expository writing structures.

___MP2 Common Assessment Check-up



F

A multiple choice test given roughly halfway through the marking period to assess if students are acquiring the key concepts of this unit of study.

___November IR Essay #3



S

Students will use the writing process to write an expository response to their November IR book. The prompt is:
Describe the character/person who changed the most from the beginning of the book to the end of the book. Explain the change and what caused it.

___ NoRedInk



F

Based on their diagnostic results, students will be assigned specific lessons using the online program NoRedInk. Each student will receive 10 such lessons for the marking period. These will be graded for completion.

___Google Doc Project



S

In groups, students will create a webpage that records their research on a given topic. Students will be assessed on:
Expository Writing Structures

Research / Bibliography

Use of Graphical Elements


___Class Novel Activity



F

Activities may include chapter summaries, vocabulary work, literary term hunts, artwork, re-enactments, symbol analysis, comprehension pop-quizzes, etc.

___MP2 Common Assessment



S

A multiple choice, cumulative test over all the terms and items covered in the MP2 section of this manual.



MP2 TERMS TO KNOW

Graphical Features
Graphic elements are visual cues that assist the writer in organizing information in a way that will be easy for a reader to understand. Below are examples of graphical elements:
Footnotes are found at the bottom of the page. Usually these give more background information about a person or term without interrupting the text.
Sidebars are little boxes of text on the top, bottom, or side of a page. Here, the author can provide multiple examples of the topic.
Charts and Graphs sort information using numbers.
Subheadings are like miniature “chapters” in a text, letting you know that the following paragraphs are going to be about a particular topic.
Captions are written underneath a picture to explain what is in the picture.

Author’s Purpose


  • The author’s purpose can be found by asking the question, “Why did the author write this?”




  • GENERALLY, narratives are written to entertain, expository is written to inform, and persuasion is written to persuade.




  • The author’s SPECIFIC purpose can only be determined by looking for the THESIS of the writing, which can usually be found in the introduction or conclusion of the piece.



Symbolism
A symbol is when an OBJECT represents an IDEA.
EXAMPLES:
The American Eagle [object] represents freedom [idea].

A dollar bill [object] represents value/worth [idea].

The ying-yang [object] represents balance [idea].
Paradox
A statement that on the surface seems to contradict itself, but also conveys a strange kind of truth. Paradoxes are used to express ideas in a more interesting way than just stating it.
Examples: “I am nobody”

“Youth is wasted on the young”

“I can resist anything but temptation”

“This statement is false.”


RESEARCH IS…


  • the major focus of every college in the USA. Therefore, if you intend to not only attend but also excel in college someday, you will have to prepare yourself to do this very same activity.




  • …reading CREDIBLE sources to find facts about a particular topic.




  • …organizing those facts in a way that you can share them with others.




  • …using what other people have already learned as a basis for new discoveries and realizations.




  • …combining information from different fields of study to understand a topic more in depth.




  • …required in order to make your OPINION on any given topic stronger.


A BIBLIOGRAPHY…


  • …gives credit to your original sources.




  • …allows the reader to know where to look up the original information for themselves (fact checking).




  • …includes author’s name, publishing date, title, name of publisher, and page number(s).

EXAMPLE
Whittet, D. C. B. (2003). Dust in the Galactic Environment. CRC Press. pp. 45–46.


PLAGIARISM…


  • …is pretending someone else’s thoughts/ideas/words are yours; basically, it is stealing ideas.




  • …can be easily avoided by citing your sources in a bibliography. You can also give credit by providing the author’s name and their exact words in quotation marks, signifying that the idea belongs to the original author.




  • …is a crime! You can face serious consequences for being a cheater or being too lazy to give credit where it is due!

Expository Writing Structures
Cause and Effect Problem Solution






MP3: Persuasive Reading, Writing, and Problem Solving


FORMATIVE

SUMMATIVE

ALL WORK

Argument Analysis #1: Professional Athletes’ Salaries



January IR Essay


Declare January IR Book


Moral Dilemma Essay


KNOWSYS Groups 11-15 Cumulative Test (1/2 weight)



Declare February IR Book


Argument Analysis #2: Should We Explore Space?



February IR Essay


Declare March IR Book


Persuasive Letter



Persuasive Project Presentation



Persuasive Pretest


MP3 Common Assessment Check-Up



MP3 Common Assessment


Random materials inspections:




  • IR book

  • KNOWSYS definitions

  • Tracker

  • Binder

  • ID badge

  • Pen or pencil

  • “Everything” Notes



KNOWSYS Quizzes 11-18 (0.2 weight each)









Spring Reading Benchmark









Spring Writing Benchmark









Total formative assignments: 8.6

Each is worth ~5%

(Each KNOWSYS quiz is worth ~1%)



Total summative assignments: 4.5

Each is worth ~14%

KNOWSYS exam is worth ~7%


These assignments do NOT affect the final grade. However, please make sure you are keeping up with these procedural tasks.




Important Readings


  • “Pro Athletes’ Salaries Aren’t Overly Exorbitant” [textbook, page 958]

  • “Do Professional Athletes Get Paid Too Much?” [textbook , page 962]

  • “Why We Shouldn’t Go to Mars” [textbook, page 968]

  • “Remarks at the Dedication of the Aerospace Medical Health Center” [textbook, page 976]

  • Moral Dilemma Scenarios [Handout]

  • January IR Book [Student’s choice, 150 page minimum]

  • February IR Book [Student’s choice, 150 page minimum]


MP 3 Assignment Checklist in Chronological Order with Descriptions


Assignment

Type

Description

___January Book Sign-up



W

Students declare their January IR book.

___Persuasion Pretest



W

Students take a multiple choice expository pretest to determine their aptitude at the beginning of the marking period, used for comparison at the end of the marking period.

___ Argument Analysis #1: Are Professional Athletes’ Salaries Fair?



F

Students will conduct an ANALYSIS in four steps.
Step #1


  • GATHER DATA by reading “Pro Athletes’ Salaries Aren’t Overly Exorbitant” and “Do Professional Athletes Get Paid Too Much?” [textbook pages 958-967].

  • While reading, students will find textual evidencefor 1) Claim 2) Ethos 3) Pathos 4) Logos 5) A fallacy 6) the argument.

Step #2

  • ASK QUESTIONS about the data:

  1. What are the strengths and weaknesses of both arguments?

  2. What do YOU value most between ethos, logos, and pathos? Why?

  3. How much does the presence of fallacies make you distrust the argument?

Are some fallacies worse than others? WHY?

Step #3

  • DRAW CONCLUSIONS about the issue:

  1. Which article made the better argument? WHY?

  2. What, if anything, do you think should be done about professional athletes’ salaries?

Step #4

  • STRATEGIZE for a solution:

  1. Write a “What if…” statement that encapsulates what you think should be done about athlete’s salaries.



___Moral Dilemma Response



F

Students will read different scenarios where there is not an easy choice to make. They will use their persuasive terms (ethos, pathos, logos) to construct an argument attempting to persuade the person in these scenarios what to do.

___Argument Analysis #2: Should We Explore Space?

(Argument Analysis #2, continued)

F

Students will conduct an ANALYSIS in four steps.
Step #1


  • GATHER DATA by reading “Why We Shouldn’t Go to Mars” and “Remarks at the Dedication of the Aerospace Medical Health Center” [Textbook pages 968-980]

  • While reading, students will find textual evidence for 1) Claim 2) Ethos 3) Pathos 4) Logos 5) A fallacy 6) the argument 7) counterargument 8) Analogy 9) Anecdote 10) Rhetorical Question 11)Structure 12) Alliteration 13) Repetition


Step #2

  • ASK QUESTIONS about the data:




  1. Overall, which argument was stronger? Is it because it had better reasons, less fallacies, or both? Elaborate.




  1. How did the anecdotes impact you as a reader?




  1. Why did Kennedy use alliteration and repetition? Why didn’t Gregg Easterbrook use them?




  1. How well did each speaker anticipate counter arguments? Did one speaker do a better job than the other? Explain.

  2. What was your opinion before reading the two articles? What is it after? Why did (or didn’t) your opinion change?

Step #3


  • DRAW CONCLUSIONS about the issue:In a paragraph, state your final educated opinion about whether or not mankind should go to mars. Write this exactly as you would an introduction to a persuasive essay about this topic: Hook, Quick Summary, and CLAIM.


Step #4


  • STRATEGIZE for a solution:Write a “What if…” statement that encapsulates what you think should be done about space exploration.



___ January IR Essay



S

Students will use the writing process to write an expository response to their January IR book. The prompt is:
Describe one theme that a reader might take from this book. Explain how that lesson is developed over the course of the story.

___ Spring Writing Benchmark



F

Students will write essays for prompts provided by the district and answer multiple choice questions for revising and editing.

___ February Book Sign-Up



W

Students declare their February IR book.

___ Persuasive Letter



F

Students use their knowledge of persuasive terms and structure to write a letter persuading a specific audience to do or believe something.

___MP3 Common Assessment Check-Up



F

A multiple choice test given roughly halfway through the marking period to assess if students are acquiring the key concepts of this unit of study.

___ Spring Reading Benchmark



F

Students take a multiple choice test from the district.

___ February IR Essay



S

Students will use the writing process to write an expository response to their February IR book. The prompt is:
Describe a minor character/person in the book who had major importance. Explain.

___ Persuasive Project




S

Students will take intiative by identifying a problem or issue at Creekwood. They will conduct their own independent research alone or with a small team to fully analyze the situation. They will then come up with a creative solution or itiniative to combat the problem. Students will then present this information in the form of a speech and will need to include a visual aid.

Students will be holistically graded on:




    • The depth of their analysis

    • The creativity of their ideas.

    • The use of persuasive techniques (see page ?).

    • How compelling their presentation is.


___ March IR Book Sign-Up



W

Students declare their March IR book.

___ MP3 Common Assessment



S

A multiple choice, cumulative test over all the terms and items covered in the MP3 section of this manual.



MP3 Terms to Know

Analysis

People conduct an analysis in order to form an EDUCATED OPINION about that issue. This is conducted in four distinct steps:




  1. GATHER DATA: Read articles, research, count things, find facts, organize information.

  2. ASK QUESTIONS: Compare and contrast data, find significant details, identify surprising results.

  3. DRAW CONCLUSIONS: Formulate an educated opinion about the topic or issue.

  4. STRATEGIZE: Decide on an action plan to take based on your educated opinion.


Persuasion
Persuasion is the art of convincing people to think what you think or do what you want.
Claim
To persuade someone, you need a CLAIM. This is your opinion about a problem or issue that you want to address. This is what the writer wants you to do or believe.
Support

Image KEYWORDS Examples
LOGOS



FACTS NUMBERS RESEARCH


“90% of people diagnosed with lung cancer were smokers.”
“Studies have shown that reading for 1 hour everyday will result in a level 4 grade on state tests.”





PATHOS



EMOTION ENERGY EMPATHY ENTHUSIASM

“In this cause I am prepared to die, but there is no cause in which I am prepared to kill.” ~Gandhi
“Give me liberty, or give me death!” ~Patrick Henry







ETHOS



TRUST CREDIBILITY HONOR EXPERT


“You should get a check-up twice a year because doctors recommend it.”
“I have your best interests in mind, so you can trust me.”


Argument
Once you have a claim and all of your support, the whole thing all together is called an ARGUMENT.
Example:
I think people should stop throwing trash into the lake [CLAIM]. The garbage is polluting the water, which is causing a decline in the fish population [LOGOS support]. Consequently, people who have been fishing in the lake for years aren’t getting as many bites as they used to! [PATHOS support].The park ranger recommends placing all trash into the conveniently located recepticles [ETHOS support].

Anticipating a Counter-Argument
A strong argument always acknowledges the opposing point of view, or counter-argument. You might ask yourself, “Why would someone disagree with my opinion?” and then “How can I address their concern?”

Try a sentence starter:

“Some people think… but I say…”

“Contrary to my opinion, some would argue…however, I believe…”
Fallacies
The following techniques are the “dark side” of persuasion, often used by people intentionally to deceive or misguide you. Not only should you be aware of these strategies to protect yourself, you should also never use them on anyone else!

The overall term for these negative techniques is FALLACY. A FALLACY is something that is deceptive, misleading, or false in nature. Something that is basically a LIE disguised as a reasonable argument. It is, at best, downright illogical.



Ad Hominem:literally means “to the man”. This is an attempt to discredit an idea based on the person’s character, rather than on the argument itself. Often includes making derogatory remarks about the person or trying to show why the other person is untrustworthy.
EXAMPLES: “Billy failed his math test—so don’t put him in your science group” or “Don’t trust anyone over 30!”


Stereotyping:makes a broad statement about people based on gender, ethnicity, race, or political, social, and religious viewpoints.
EXAMPLES: “All kids are lazy” or “All teachers are mean.”


Bandwagon:on the surface, it looks like you’re making a good logos argument by saying that many people agree with the opinion. This is a fallacy because might does not necessarily make right—just because a lot of people think or believe something doesn’t automatically make it true.
EXAMPLE: “Everyone else is doing it!” or “Everyone loves that movie, so it must be the best one of the summer!”


Testimonial: this is when a well known or famous person acts as an expert on something that they are not really an expert at. On the surface, it looks like you’re making a good ethos argument, but the expert does not match the topic.
EXAMPLE: Athletes in Gatorade commercials… yes, they use the product, but they are not experts in nutrition or medicine. They are experts in the sport they play. Therefore their “testimony” is not really meaningful.


Appeal to Pity, Fear, or Vanity: On the surface, it looks like you’re making a good pathos argument, but the emotions of pity, fear, and vanity rarely lead to a useful action. Instead, these emotions tend to lead people to make impulsive or irrational decisions.
EXAMPLE: “Give this poor little puppy a home!” or “If you elect him, then the whole country will explode!”

Loaded Language: This is using overly positive or overly negative words to shape your argument.
EXAMPLE: “Mr. Block’s homework policy is as ruthless and vile as the tyrannical reign of the pharaoh!”

Repetition
Repetition is saying the same word, phrase, or idea over and over again.
It is generally a GOOD idea to use repetition in a speech. It creates drama and helps the audience remember key points.
Think of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr’s famous speech. We don’t remember all the details of it, but we certainly remember the “I have a dream!” part.
It is generally a BAD idea to be repetitive in an essay. The words are right there in front of a reader and they are more likely to become bored if you say the same things over and over again.

Alliteration
Repeated consonant sounds like “n”, “t”, “s”, etc. Useful for making certain lines sound more important and beautiful, therefore making them more memorable. Alliteration is often used in poetry and speeches for these reasons.
Example: Look at the repeated “w” and “s” sounds that form this final line of John F. Kennedy’s speech.
“…we will climb this wall with safety and with speed—and we shall then explore the wonders on the other side.”

Anecdote
A short, personal story that helps to support a topic. This is a good way to establish trust between a writer and their audience since it allows them to get to know you better—thereby establishing both ethos and pathos. But be careful—an anecdote is not the same as logos; just because something happened to you does not mean it is true for everyone.

Rhetorical Question
A rhetorical question is one that is aked that is not really meant to be answered. Usually the answer is pretty obvious. The point in asking such a question is to get a person to think about something or to make a point.
Examples: A parent is arguing with a child about the importance of good grades. The parent says "Do you want to

live at home in the basement for the rest of your life?"
Analogy
An analogy compares two completely different situations in order to support an idea. This is a potentially a powerful form of logos, but must be used carefully; the analogy must hold up to scrutiny or else be considered a fallacy.
Examples:
"If you want my opinion on the mystery of life and all that, I can give it to you in a nutshell. The universe is like a safe to which there is a combination. But the combination is locked up in the safe." Peter De Vries, Let Me Count the Ways
"Writing a book of poetry is like dropping a rose petal down the Grand Canyon and waiting for the echo." - Don Marquis
PERSUASIVE WRITING STRUCTURES
Option #1: “Reasons for Your Opinion” Structure (pg. R41)

This is a 4 paragraph structure:

1st P: Tan box



2nd P: Green boxes

3rd P: Blue boxes



4th P: Tan box

Option #2: “Point by Point” Structure (pg. R41)

This is a 4-5 paragraph structure:
1st P: Tan box, Introduction.
2nd P: Green + blue boxes,

Give a support AND

anticipate the counterargument.
3rd P: Green + blue boxes,

Give a support AND

anticipate the counterargument.

4th P: Green + blue boxes,



Give a support AND

anticipate the counterargument.
5th P: Tan box, Conclusion.



MP4: Mythology and Narratives


FORMATIVE

SUMMATIVE

ALL WORK

STAAR Reading prep



March IR

Declare April IR Book

Make-a-Myth



KNOWSYS 16-20Exam

(1/2 weight)

Mythology and Narratives Pretest


Green Knight Textual Evidence Hunt




KNOWSYS 21-25Exam

(1/2 weight)

Random materials inspections:



  • IR book

  • KNOWSYS definitions



Touching Spirit Bear Work



IR BOOK REVIEW PROJECT




MP4 Common Assessment Checkup



MP4 Common Assessment





KNOWSYS quizzes 21-25 (0.2 weight each)








Greek God Trial









KNOWSYS Post-Test









Weekly HW Log

Each entry = 0.1 formative, 5 due weekly.

4 weeks = 20 HW = Double Formative









Total formative assignments: 10

Each is worth 4%

(Each KNOWSYS quiz is worth 1%)


Total summative assignments: 4

Each is worth 15%

Each KNOWSYS exam is worth 7.5%



These assignments do NOT affect the final grade. However, please make sure you are keeping up with these procedural tasks.




Important Readings

  • “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” [textbook, page 692]

  • “Prometheus” [textbook, page 648]

  • March IR Book [Student’s choice, minimum 150 pages]

  • April IR Book [Student’s choice, minimum 150 pages]

  • Touching Spirit Bear


MP 4 Assignment Checklist in Chronological Order with Descriptions


Assignment

Type

Description

___Mythology and Narratives Pretest



W

Students take a multiple choice expository pretest to determine their aptitude at the beginning of the marking period, used for comparison at the end of the marking period.

___STAAR Writing / Reading Prep



F

These activities may include taking and reviewing practice tests, making corrections to benchmarks, or other activities to help prepare for STAAR.

___ March IR Essay



S

Students will use the writing process to write an expository response to their March IR book. The prompt is:
If this book had gone one more chapter, what would have happened? Explain.

___Greek God Trial



F

Students will research a Greek god or goddess and participate in a trial of Prometheus as a witness, lawyer, or jury member.

___ April IR Book Sign-up



W

Students declare their April IR book.

___ Green Knight Term Hunt



F

Students will locate textual evidence for the following terms. They will need to:


  1. Write the term

  2. Indicate the line #’s of the textual evidence.

  3. Summarize what happens on those lines.

  4. EXPLAIN how the evidence demonstrates the term.


Part I: The Cultural Value of Chivalry

Courage: Brave Enough to do what is right.

Manners: Showing kindess, etiquette, speaking formally.

Loyalty: Obeying your superiors

Honesty: Making and keeping promises
Part II: Literary Terms (8 total)

Tone Mood Sensory Details Imagery Symbol

Internal Conflict External Conflict Foreshadowing

___ Make-a-Myth



F

Students will write an original myth that satisfies the definition of a myth: it must 1) involve supernatural beings 2) explain how something in nature came to be and 3) attempt to pass down a cultural value. Use of literary terms is highly encouraged.


___ Weekly Homework Log


F

Students will fill out a homework log each night that describes the time spent on HW, what activities were completed, and must include a parent signature.

___MP 4 Common Assessment Check-Up



F

A multiple choice test given roughly halfway through the marking period to assess if students are acquiring the key concepts of this unit of study.

___ Touching Spirit Bear Packet



F

Students will complete 9 days worth of daily work that includes: reading a set # of pages, responding to comprehension question, and completing activities. A copy of this packet will be placed online.

___ IR Book Report Project



S

Students will be conduct a book talk in class with their peers. The goal is to reflect upon a year’s worth of reading, taking the time to realize where they have been and where they are going as readers.
The project will include:
1) A List of every book you read this year including in class novels (“Chronicles of Narnia” or “A Christmas Carol”, and “Touching Spirit Bear”). Should be 10 books in total.
2) A SUMMARY of each book:

* Main characters

* Setting / Genre

* Conflict

* Resolution / Theme

* One or two more important details to complete the overall picture.



3) “Top 3 Picks” that they would recommend for other students to read.

* Students will use these specifically during the “book talk”.

* All 3 picks must be accompanied with a set of REASONS why they would recommend it to others.
4) A Reflection & Connection that considers the following questions when writing these paragraphs.

CONNECTION: A text-to-text connection between two of the books on your list, described in detail. How are the texts similar? Different? Are they linked thematically, by archetypes, etc.?

REFLECTION: How have you grown as a reader throughout the school year? What has changed about the types of stories that you read? The difficulty of the stories? What are the aspects of stories (genre, plot, etc.) that you find important?

___KNOWSYS Post-Test



F

A 50 question multiple choice exam over every KNOWSYS word in 7th grade.

___ MP4 Common Assessment



S

A multiple choice, cumulative test over all the terms and items covered in the MP4 section of this manual.



MP4 Terms to Know

***ALL MP1 Terms*** Plus…
Archetype
Archetypes are sets of symbols that recur over and overthroughout literature and culture and are used to represent the same ideas, regardless of context. According to Carl Jung, they are created by the collective subconscious of all people.
EXAMPLES:
Storms represent chaos and change.

Water represents healing, death, and rebirth.

Light represents knowledge and goodness, while darkness represents ignorance and evil.

Islands are always places where characters have to come to terms with their true self.

The color white represents purity, and sometimes the supernatural.

The outcast is a character who has committed a serious crime and must be removed from society.

Foreshadowing
The author gives clues or hints about something before it actually happens in the story.
EXAMPLE from Touching Spirit Bear, p.17
How would you feel if a bear made its den beside this stream?”

Cole shrugged. “I’d kill it.”
This is an example of foreshadowing because it hints to the reader that Cole will confront the bear at some point in the future. He doesn’t actually attack the Spirit Bear until page 65.
Flashback
Interrupts the present of a story to go back in time, often to provide important information on a prior event.
EXAMPLES:


  • All of the Circle of Justice / Jail scenes in “Touching Spirit Bear”.

  • From Devil Storm, chapter 15, Tom remembering his wife occurs in a flashback: “Alnetta. Even after all this time, Tom could still see her laughing at him – making him laugh, too, it seemed like...”


Mythology
Mythology is a type of GENRE where the reader expects that the story will…
1. … involve beings with supernatural powers (i.e. the Greek Gods, the Green Knight).

2. …explain natural phenomenon (i.e. how the sun moves across the sky, how the Sahara Desert was formed, etc.).



3. …demonstrate the values of a culture (i.e. don’t fly too high or too low—moderation is best, obey your parents).

Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
Pre-Conventional Morality

Stage

Visual

Moral Orientation

Description

1



Obedience or Punishment



This is the stage that all young children start and a few adults remain. Obeying rules is important because it means avoiding punishment.



2



Self-Interest



As children grow older, they begin to see that other people have their own goals and preferences. Decisions are made based on the principle of “What’s in it for me?”



Conventional Morality



3



Social Conformity



By adolescences, most individuals have developed to this stage. There is a sense of what “good boys” and “nice girls” do and the emphasis is on living up to social expectations and norms because of how they impact day-to-day relationships.




4



Law and Order



By the time individuals reach adulthood, they usually consider society as a whole when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following rules, doing one’s duty and respecting authority.



Post-conventional Morality



5



Social Contract



People understand that there are differing opinions on what is right and wrong. People at this stage sometimes disobey rules if they find them to be inconsistent with their personal values and will argue certain laws if they are no longer working. Ademocracy is based on the reasoning of stage 5.




6



Universal Ethics



Few people operate at this stage all of the time. It is based on abstract reasoning and the ability to put oneself in other people’s shoes. At this stage, people have a principled conscience and will follow universal ethical principles regardless of the official laws and rules. Examples are following the Golden Rule and Nonviolence.







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