Improving Writing Descriptive Paragraph by Using Mind Mapping Technique and Brainstorming Technique



Download 1.34 Mb.
Page1/3
Date30.04.2018
Size1.34 Mb.
#43046
  1   2   3


Improving Writing Descriptive Paragraph by Using Mind Mapping Technique and Brainstorming Technique at SMK Methodist 8 Medan

Elfrida Br. Silalahi

elfridaslalahi@gmail.com
Abstract
This study concerns with the improving writing descriptive paragraph by using mind mapping technique and brainstorming technique. The objective of this study is to discover whether the use of mind mapping technique could significantly improve students’ ability in writing descriptive paragraph. With support from the theory by Buzan in mind mapping technique, and in Brainstorming technique Ibrian. This study was conducted by applying Classroom Action Research which was carried out in two cycles in eight every classes meetings. The subject of this study was the X.RPL students and X.TKJ of SMK METHODIST 8 MEDAN which consisted of 47 students. The quantitative data were collected by giving descriptive writing tests and calculating the mean of students’ scores. Based on the writing test score by using mind mapping technique and Brainstorming technique. Students’ score kept improving in every test. The mean of the students’ score in X.RPL by using Main mapping technique the second cycle (80. 55) was higher than the first cycle (74.95) and orientation test (69.65). The mean of the students score in X.TKJ by using brainstorming technique the second cycle score (77.96) was higher than the first cycle (71.00) and orientation test (64.03). The students were more active and more enthusiastic during the teaching learning process in the second cycle than the first one. The result of the research showed that the use of mind mapping technique and brainstorming technique significantly improved students’ ability in writing descriptive paragraph.
Keywords Descriptive Paragraph,Mind Mapping Technique and Brainstorming technique.
1.Introduction

Writing in English is one of four skills learned by students. In learning English, the students have to be able to achieve the language skills, namely listening, reading, speaking, and writing. It means that the students are demanded to be able use English to fulfill their daily needs such as reading the newspaper, communicating both spoken and written for solving their life problems. In other word, the purpose of English teaching to students is to reach communication targets. It refers to discourse competence including comprehension and production competences both of written and spoken text realized into four language skills and it will be used respond and produce the discourse in their society.

According to Siahaan (2010: 2) writing is the skill of a writer to communicate information to a reader or group of readers. Her or his skill is also realized by his or her ability to apply the rules of the language she or he is writing to transfer the information she or he has in her or his mind to her or his readers effectively. The ability includes all the correct grammatical aspects of the language she or he is writing. The types the information is transferring, and the rhetoric’s conducting in a communicative event too.

Mastering writing skill is not easy thing. Many students think that writing is complicated to study. It makes the assumption that writing may be considered as the most difficult of the language skill. As Oshima and Hogue (1991: 5) state that writing has always had problems which put students into trouble as shown by errors made in both of organizing of the composition and the language so that the students’ writing topic cannot be started correctly. The problems which are faced by students in writing namely many students do not learn that writing is a way to express their feeling or ideas. They difficult to think of what they are saying and they have to also look at their use of grammatical structures. In conclusion, organizing ideas or information is not easy.

In this study, the writer deals that writing as her topic because based on observation in SMK METHODIST 8 Medan, it is discovered. That are learning writing is still a problem especially in the descriptive paragraph. KKM English subject on SMK METHODIST is 70.

From the figure above in 1.1 and 1.2, the writer can describe that most of the students are unable to complete descriptive paragraph successfully. They are no confident to use their own language. Some problems such as they do not have many ideas to write, their grammar is not good, they do not have enough vocabulary, and their diction in writing is not satisfied. The teacher’s notes about the original scores of her students show that students in two classes RPL 20 students only 9 students get more 70 score and TKJ 27 students only 10 students to write well. In the other word the writer show in percentages that only 40% are able to write a descriptive paragraph well from two classes RPL and TKJ. Moreover, the students feel that teaching learning process is monotonous and uninteresting. As long learning process in writing skill teacher used conventional technique to teach students. The technique made students in monotonous and uninteresting. The teacher usually gave a little and told the students to write an easy about the title without try news technique to help them to think creatively and to associate ideas more easily. Because of that, many students are not able to write well. They consider that writing is difficult.

The appropriate approach, method, technique or strategy can solve the difficulties of students in writing. To solve students’ problem in writing, the writer tries to teach student’s in writing descriptive paragraph by using mind mapping technique or brainstorming technique. In teaching writing descriptive paragraph by using mind mapping technique or brainstorming technique, the students are expected to be able to find out the related words, ides, concepts or questions as many as possible to the topic given. It can guide students to think more creatively and to associate ideas more easily. Technique is the systematic procedure by which a complex or scientific task is accomplished.

There are some techniques of writing descriptive paragraph using incubation, brainstorming, shaping ideas, and grouping ideas, but writer choose the mind mapping or brainstorming technique to solve the problem in writing descriptive paragraph. According to Troyoka (1996:29) Mapping is also called clustering or webbing, similar to brainstorming is more visual and less linear. Many writers find that mapping free them to think more creatively by associating ideas more easily. Maid mapping not only an effective technique to use for helping teachers to teach because it is not difficult to apply but also this technique creates the class more enjoyable in teaching writing descriptive paragraph.

As mind mapping, brainstorming technique is used too for helping teacher to teach descriptive paragraph. Brainstorming is conference technique of solving specific problems, amassing information, stimulating creative thinking, developing new ideas, by unrestrained and spontaneous participation in discussion, (Troyka1996: 29-31)

The writer found some researchers that give explanation about the use of mind mapping technique in learning process to students and many things, and to support this thesis. Arina, (2012: 1) states in her research that this paper aims at presenting some alternative methods of teaching Business English stressing the fact that freedom, creativity, confidence walk hand in hand and are valuable tools in teaching using mind mapping technique that can improve creative thinking and building. Devis, (2010: 1) states in his research that in recent years, academics and educators have begun to use software mapping tools for a number of education-related purposes. Typically, the tools are used to help impart critical and analytical skills to students, to enable students to see relationships between concepts, and also as a method of assessment. The common feature of all these tools is the use of diagrammatic relationships of various kinds in preference to written or verbal descriptions. Cheng, (2010: 1) states in his research that Mind mapping is a presentation form of radiant thinking, utilizing lines, colors, characters, numbers, symbols, image, pictures or keywords, etc. to associate, integrate and visualize the learned concept and evoke brain potential. Through mind maps, one’s attention, coordination ability, logic, reasoning, thinking, analyzing, creativity, imagination, memory, ability of planning and integration, speed reading, character, number, visual hearing, kinesthetic sense, sensation, etc. are significantly enhanced. “Picture” is not limited by nationality and language and is the best tool for young children to explore new things and learning. Because pictorial representation is one of the most primal human traits and drawing ability is better than writing ability in young children, learning and expressing through mind mapping prevents difficulties of writing, grammar and long description in children. Thus, this study reviews related researches to figure out whether mind mapping can be applied by young children to develop their creative thinking.

From the explanation above, the research will be conducted to see how to apply of mind mapping or brainstorming technique can improved the students’ ability in writing, particularly writing descriptive paragraph.

The objectives of the study are to describe mind mapping technique, brainstorming technique and writing skill. To find out the students improvement in writing skill after being taught by using mind mapping technique and brainstorming technique.

According to Troyka (1996: 29-3) there some of techniques in writing descriptive they are; mind mapping technique, grouping ideas technique, shaping ideas technique, and using incubating technique. Writer is also, used technique. The technique is mind mapping technique and brainstorming technique. That is limited to see the improvement of students’ ability in writing descriptive paragraph by using mind mapping technique or brainstorming technique to the student’s in ten grade of the vocational school (SMK)
The findings of this study are expected to be useful:

Theoritically


  1. as one of the alternative methods in improving teaching writing, particularly teaching in descriptive paragraph.

  2. Mind mapping as one Perspective technique in teaching writing on the vocational class

Practically

  1. It will be useful for English teacher to apply the suitable technique for the class in teaching writing using mind mapping or brainstorming technique

  2. For the students, it helps them to write grammatically accurate and to improve their writing skill.


Writing Process

As Mccuen/Winkler (1987: 11-12) the writing process is also a recursive one.

Revising → Editing → Proofreading


  1. Revising means making gross changes mainly to the content but also to the form of a work. This means you change not only what you say, but also how you say it.

  2. Editing means making alterations mainly in form rather than content. Changes are made to smooth out a sentence, sharpen an expression, tone down a passage, all with the general aim of improving readability and style.

  3. Proofreading here is the final your read your work for literal correctness. You pore over the page looking for the misspelled word, grammatical slip, the misplaced comma, the cat’s paw print, and when you come across these venial flaws, you make the correction either by erasure or retyping.

Sinarsilvana, (2012: session 3) there are several stages in writing process:

  1. Stage 1: prewriting

Step 1: choosing and narrowing a topic

Step 2: generating content

Step3: determine purpose and audience


  1. Stage 2: planning

Step 1: organizing ideas

Step2: outlining



  1. Stage 3: writing and revising

Step 1: writing the first draft

Step 2: revising content and organization

Step 3: writing the final draft.
The Assessment of Writing

Heaton (1988: 138) says that the skills of writing include five general components or main areas such as the following:



  1. Content, the score of content depends of the students’ ability to write ideas, information in the form of logical sentences.

  2. Organization the organization refers to the students’ ability to write the ideas, information in good logical order. The topic and supporting sentences are clearly stated.

  3. Vocabulary, the ability to write word effectively and appropriate sentences.

  4. Language use, the ability to write correct and appropriate sentences.

  5. Mechanism, the ability to use correctly those conventions peculiar to written language e.g. punctuation.


Paragraph

Paragraph is a number of sentences grouped together and relating to one topic; or, a group of related sentences that develop a single point. Wren and Martin (1973: 315). The part we can call a paragraph with single point in paragraph itself. There paragraph call to is a piece of written text. It contains several sentences. Those sentences can be classified into three parts. They are the beginning, the body and the ending, Siahaan (2010: 4)

The three parts of the paragraph are:


  1. Topic sentence (The beginning)

Commonly has only one sentence. It is the most important sentence in the paragraph. It functions as the introductory sentence.

  1. Supporting paragraph (The body)

Each of them elaborates the topic sentence. That is explain the topic sentence by giving reasons, example, facts, and opinions.

  1. Concluding sentence (The ending)

It is a complete sentence. it concludes the development. It closes the paragraph. As the ending it is always at the end of the paragraph.

According to Wren and Martin (2013: 387) Paragraph is a number of sentences grouped together and relating to one topic; or, a group of related sentences that develop a single point. Oshima and Hogue (1988: 4) paragraph is a group of related statements that a writer develops about subject.


Principles of the Paragraph Structure

Wren and Martin (2012: 387-388) they divine the three principles of the Paragraph they are:



  1. Unity

The first and the most importance principle to be observed constructing a paragraph is that of unity. Just as each sentence deals with one thought, each paragraph must deal with one topic or idea- and with no more than one. The paragraph and every part of it must be the expression of one theme or topic.

  1. Order

The second principle of paragraph construction is order – that is, logical sequence of thought or development of the subject. Events must be related in the order of their occurrence, and all ideas should according their importance or order.

  1. Variety

A third principle of paragraph construction is variety. By which each is meant that, to avoid monotony, the paragraph of the composition should be of different lengths, and not always the same sentence construction.
Genres of Text

The genre-based approach to writing is based a functional model of language. The topic of genre based writing has become more than a technical academic writing to drill students in some areas of producing a good composition. Instruction genre is a type of procedure genre on which commonly used daily.



  1. Spoof

In the English culture, people often use a series of events in a certain process to tell a spoof. They do it by twisting some of the events in the process. The purpose of twisting the event is to create a humour. Accordingly, people twist a series of event in a process to create a text.

  1. Recount

Recount is also a narrative text. Basically, it is written out to make a report about an experience of a series of related event. Theoretically, the technique to write a recount is similar to the way a narration is written.

  1. Narrative

Narrative is any written English text in which the writer wants to amuse, entertain people, and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways.

  1. Procedure

Procedure is any written English text in which the writer describes how something is accomplished through a sequence of action or step.

Hortatory Exposition

Hortatory exposition is a written English text in which the writer persuades people that something should or should not be the case.



  1. Anecdote

Anecdote is any written English text in which the writer shares with the others an account of an unusual or amusing incident.

  1. Report

A report is a text which can be written out with a descriptive technique. It describes an object to the readers. The length of the text depends on the specific detail of the object being described. A report is a text containing two components. The first is the general classification of the object being described. The technique which is commonly used is a definition. This way commonly introduces the class of the object. It can also be about the species or the origin or the type, or the function the age, or the size, or the color, etc of the object. The common techniques used to describe the object accords with the orientation given in the general classification. The description is to tell a phenomenon under the discussion.

  1. Analytical Exposition

Analytical exposition’s function is to persuade the reader or listener that something is the case.

  1. Explanation

Explanation text’s function is to explain the process involved in the formation or workings of natural or socio cultural phenomena.

  1. Discussion

Discussion’s function is to present (at least) two points of view about an issue.

  1. News

News’ function is to inform the readers about an event of the day considered newsworthy or important.


  1. Description

Description is a written English text in which the writer describes an object. In this text, the object can be a concrete or abstract object. It can be a person, or an animal, or a tree, or a house, or camping. It can be about any topic. It tells people how to do something through a sequence of action and stages.
Description Writing

According to Oshima and Hogue (1988: 40) Description is a study how to organize a composition using the spatial order. Spatial order is arrangement of items in order by space. According to Pardiyono in Sumarsih and Sanjaya (2007: 34) state that description paragraph is a type of written text paragraph, in which has the specific function to describe about an object (living or non-living things) and it has the aim that is giving description of the object to the reader clearly. The purpose of proposing the genre-based model writing is to give a solution in the social process of describing explaining, arguing, narrating meanings. Thus, we should have the same perception that genre is seen as a set of generic processes in the first instance (describing, explaining, instructing, narrating, and arguing), which subsequently result in the production of meaning text SinarSilvana (2012: 1-2)

Description genre is describes a person, an animal a place or a thing that has distinctive features. The writing activity needs to focus on the classification of the object under study that may be part of a report genre, which represents factual writing. Factual writing is typically static and it describes the world around us and it pays attention to how something occurs and how a person, an animal, a place or a thing looks like in terms of physical features, or function.
Generic Structure

Siahaan (2011: 44) description is a text containing two components:



  1. Identification: identifies phenomenon to be described,

  2. Description: describes parts, qualities, characteristics


Significant Lexicogrammatical Features

  1. Focus on specific participants,

  2. Use of attributive and identifying processes,

  3. Frequent use of epithets and classifiers in nominal groups,

  4. Use of simple present tense.

SinarSilvana (2012: 8) Example of Schematic Structure of Description genre:
The Moon

The moon is a lump of rock that goes around the earth .It is a grey and brown. It is bumps and has crates .It has dust and mountains. The moon does not shine, the sun does. It is 38.000 kilometers from earth.
The analysis of the descriptive text

Identification: The Moon

Description: goes around the earth, it is grey and brown, it has dust and mountains, the moon does not shine the sun does, it is 38.000 kilometers.

Participant: focus on specific participant moon

Tense: Use simple present tense; e.g. the moon is a lump rock that goes around the earth, the moon does not shine, the sun does. It is bumps and has creates.
Technique

Technique is a method of doing something that needs skill, Hornby (1999: 1124). In order to accomplish certain goal of teaching foreign language a technique should be familiar to a teacher. Morris, (1976: 1321) technique is the procedure by which a complex or scientific task is accomplished, or the degree of skill or command of fundamentals exhibited in any performance.

There some technique can be used in teaching descriptive writing, (Troyka1996: 29-31)


  1. Using Incubation

When you allow your ideas to incubation, you give students time to grow and develop the text.

  1. Shaping Ideas

Shaping activities are related to the idea that writing is often called composing, the putting together of ideas to create a composition, one of the synonyms for essay.

  1. Grouping Ideas

When you group ideas, you make connection and find patterns. To do this, put each batch of related ideas into its own group.

  1. Brainstorming

A conference technique of solving specific problems, amassing information, stimulating creative thinking, developing new ideas, by unrestrained and spontaneous participation in discussion.

  1. Word Webbing

A technique that has lines and webbing the word to makes a text with one idea.

  1. Mind Mapping

To map, start with your topic, circled in the middle of a sheet of unlined paper.
Mind Mapping Technique

A mind mapping is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, task, or order items linked to and arranged radically around a central key word or idea. Mind map is used to generated, visualize, structure, and classify ideas, and as aid in study organization, problem solving, decision making and writing a mind map is often created around a single word or text, placed in the center to which associated ideas, word, and concepts, are added. Buzan in Sujana (2012: 5)
Mind mapping (or idea mapping) has been defined as visual, non-linear representations of ideas and their relationships Formal mind mapping techniques arguably began with these techniques involved using line thicknesses, colors pictures and diagrams to aid knowledge recollection. States that mind map is easy and natural, Brictimove and Nilson in Devis (2010: 3-4).

There four “recipe of mind map” namely; blank paper, pen or color pencil brain, and imagination.



Further he also gives some guidelines for creating mind map as follows:Buzan and Buzan 2000 in Devis( 2010:3-4)

  1. Start in the center with an image of topic, using 3 colors.

  2. Use images, symbol, codes, and dimension throughout your mind map.

  3. Select key words and print using upper or lower case letters.

  4. Each word/ image is best alone and sitting on its own line.

  5. The lines should be connected, starting from central image. The central lines are thicker, organic, and thinner as they radiate out from center.

  6. Make the lines the same length as the word/ image they support.

  7. Use multiple colors throughout the mind map, for visual stimulation and also to encode or group.

  8. Develop your own personal style of mind map.

  9. Using emphasis and show association in your main map.

  10. Keep the mind map clear by using radical hierarchy numerical order or outlines to embrace



Figure2.1

Mind Map of Mind map Astronomy

(Quoted Buzan, 1964)

However, unlike mind mapping, concept mapping is more structured, and less pictorial in nature. The mind map learning technique can be used in numerous ways by chiropractic school faculty in an attempt to provide diverse educational experiences.


Steps of Mind Mapping Technique

Here are the suggested steps in using a Mind Mapping technique, Buzan in Sujana (2012: 5)



  1. In the center of the page, write the title of the passage/article

  2. On the first layer, write the key words of subdivisions/subheadings which show parallel ideas.

  3. On the next layer, write the key words on each subheadin

  4. Draw lines to see the relationship among the ideas.


The Characteristic of a Mind Map

Wals, (2014: 8) there are some characteristics of mind map that are: first, the main idea subject or focus in crystallized in central image, second the main idea themes radiate form the central images as branches, third the branches comprise a key image or key word drawn or printed on its associated line, fourth, the topics of lesson importance are represented as twigs of the relevant branch, and the five, the branch form a connected nodal structure.



The Advantages of Mind Mapping

Mind mapping is very useful to improve student’s ability in studying because it has so many advantages, Olivia (2008: 8)

First, can helping students concentrate in memorizing information, second improves student’s visual intelligence and observation ability, third improves student’s ability, fourth summarizes the lesson briefly, five limits the time in making appropriate six, makes students enjoy in learning process, seven make enjoy in learning process and eight, guides the right and left brain work synergistically.


The Effect of Mind Mapping Technique on Descriptive Writing Skill

Almost students feel difficult in learning descriptive writing skill. They get confuse with the parts of descriptive writing itself, such as genre, generic structure, grammatical features. This is explanations the students know writing is very useful for them to expressing their idea, opinions, or thoughts. Thus, it is very importance to choose learning technique which can make them more enjoyable and more comfortable in teaching writing.



Mind mapping is a way teaching descriptive writing skill. Students will feel enjoy in making their descriptive writing because mind mapping technique uses multiple colors, image, branches, and lines to lead students in mastering the descriptive writing skill. Mind mapping technique make easy to improve writing skill to students. In learning process, teacher will gives some topics to students. The students should choose one topic to for their descriptive writing, for example plants. After that, teacher asks students to write the topic by using capital letter in the middle of paper and also draw picture/ image that represent the topic. Then, they draw branches from the topic. Each line consists of one word and one picture that related to “plants” such as colors, care, pest, or identification. From the explanation above mind mapping technique give effect to descriptive writing skill.


Figure 2.2

Mind Mapping

(Quoted www.main map 2014)
Brainstorming Technique

Brainstorming is one of the best ways to begin exploring the topic. Ibrian (2011:p.264) state, “Brainstorming is a technique used to encourage individuals to generate ideas and come up with a list of possible solutions to a certain problem. “then, Crawford, Saul, Mathew, and Makinster (2005:29) state, brainstorming can be done by individuals, pairs, small groups, or the whole class. The rule brainstorming is to think of many ideas, think of different ideas, and to suspend judgment until students have produced many different ideas. Brainstorming can help “open student’ mind” so they can think of ideas that might not normally have occurred to them. Not all of ideas they arrive at will be equal useful, but in thinking of many different ideas, they may discovered some valuable ideas among the less importance ones. Students who practice brainstorming often may become more prolific and less rigid thinkers.

Mary Ellen Ledbetter( 2010:18) states, “Brainstorming is the act of spontaneously jotting down ideas in preparation for various aspect of writing. Some prove to be useful; others can be thrown away. “ the other meaning is given by TayyabaZarif and Mateen (2013:P. 1090) states, “technique of brainstorming is depending on ability of human brain to make association. Let see when any science students see or hear the term “plant” automatically brain associate it with other words like leaves, root, and flower etc as learner see and listen term “city” so cognitive map of his/her mind associate it with building, road, shopping center, bridges etc.

Nunan (1999:97) states, “brainstorming can be done individually or in pairs group of students. In a brainstorming season , students list all the ideas they can think of related to the topic is given, either in writing or aloud, quickly and without much planning. Moreover, Al-blwi (2006) in Al-khatib (2012:30) states, “brainstorming is an innovative conference with special nature in order to produce a list of ideas that can be used as clues lead students to the development of the problem while giving each students the chance to express her ideas and share those ideas with others and encourage new ideas.

Base on the explanation above, the writer concluded that brainstorming is tossing out the idea and creativity which can be one individually, group/pair or whole class.
The rule of Brainstorming Session

Ibnian (2011:p.264) states, during brainstorming session, a number of rules should be taken into account including:



  1. No criticism of idea

  2. Building on what others have suggested

  3. Strange and wild ideas are accepted

  4. Welcoming the large quantities of idea.


The Steps of Brainstorming

Crawnford, Saul, Mathews, and Makinster (2005:29) state, there are six step of brainstorming, as follow:



  1. Introduce brainstorming to the whole class first

  2. Introduce the topic or problem very clearly.

  3. Give students a time limit to solve the problem.

  4. Encourage them to share any idea, no matter how odd, that is related to te problem. Remind them not to criticize each other’s ideas. Do not stay on any one idea for too long.

  5. Write down their ideas as they offer them.

  6. Later, have students brainstorm individually or pairs.


The Advantages of Brainstorming Technique

Brainstorming technique is great process because it invites student to think creatively. SayedinTayyabaZarif & Abdul Mateen (2013:1090), brainstorming gives some advantages as follows:



  1. Helps students to solve problems, an innovative solution.

  2. Helps students to benefit from the ideas of other through the development and build on them.

  3. Helps the cohesion of the students and build relationships among them and assess the views of o

Conceptual Framework

This variable illustrate as below:









……….





















Figure 2.3

Conceptual Framework
From the figure 2.3 above we can know there are some of techniques, they are; grouping ideas, word webbing, shaping ideas, mind mapping, brainstorming and using incubation that cause in writing skill. Thus, there figure concerned to mind mapping technique and brainstorming technique that using in descriptive writing skill.

This technique helps students enjoy the writing itself. By using this technique in teaching writing, the students are expected to be able to find out the related features, ideas, concept, and questions as many as possible to the topic given. It is applied by asking the students to make their own mind maps first. Then, they have to organize the words in their mind maps a paragraph. It is not important to bounder the ideas of the words of the students.

Mind mapping technique and brainstorming technique gives all students the opportunity to express their ideas. From the explanation above, it can be predicted that the use of mind mapping technique and brainstorming technique in writing descriptive paragraph can be more enjoyable, so students’ ability in descriptive writing skill will be improved.

Populations of this study were students in SMK METHODIST 8 Medan. The students at the ten, eleven and twelve grades there were 6 classes and the major of SMK METHODIST 8 Medan are RPL (Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak) and TKJ (Teknik Komputer Jaringan). Class one is X RPL there were 20 students, and class two is X TKJ there were 27 students, class three XI RPL there were 21 students, class fourth XI TKJ there were 26 students, class five XII RPL there were 21 students and XII TKJ there were 27. The total numbers of students were 132 students. The researcher interested to conduct research in this school because the same school has not conducted before. The writer chose population the students because the students’ still have low ability in writing skill.



Sample

Propose sample technique was taken two classes of this research ten grade X. RPL and X. TKJ the students are 47 students were chosen as sample.



The Instrument for Collecting Data

The data of this research was collected by using test. Where process of collect by computing students writing score. In collecting the quantitative data, the writer conducted written test. The students asked to write a descriptive paragraph by using mind mapping technique or brainstorming technique


2.The Procedure of Research

The procedure of data collection of this study was conducted by administrating two cycles; where in each cycle applied four steps: 1) planning, (2) action, (3) observation, (4) reflecting. Then each cycle out in four meetings. So, there were eight meeting all together. In conducting this research, the steps were as followed:



  1. Planning

Planning was an arrangement for doing something. It means the program of actions that was done. In planning, it is considered everything that was related to the action that was done and it is prepared everything that was needed in teaching and learning process. The activity of this phase included: prepared lesson plans, materials, media, (things or tools/ some poetries needed in teaching learning process), observation sheet, questioner sheet and writing test.

  1. Action

Action was the implementation of planning the entire plan was run based on the planning before. In this phase, mind mapping as a technique of teaching descriptive paragraph was used in teaching –learning process. But, before it was used, test I (orientation test) was conducted fist to find the basic students’ skill in writing descriptive paragraph.

  1. Observation

Observation was done together with action in the same time. It was intended to discover the information about behavior, attitude, performance, activities and even obstacles during teaching- learning writing descriptive paragraph through mind mapping technique ran in the classroom. In doing observation and evaluation, the researcher was helped by English teacher as the collaborator. The data were taken from questioner sheet, observation sheet and diary notes which used as the basic reflection.

  1. Reflection

Reflection was the evaluation of the action that was done. In this phase, the writer took the feedback of teaching and learning process from the result of observation. All the weakness and the strength while teaching learning process were written on the diary and the data taken from questionnaire sheet, observation sheet, and the tests conducted was used to improve the weakness and keep the strength for the next cycle.

This study applied quantitative research method. The quantitative data were taken from writing test scores. The data were taken from class X.RPL which consisted 20 students and X.TKJ which consisted 27 students.

This research accomplished in two cycles. Every cycle consisted of four steps of action research (planning, action, observation, and reflection). The first cycle was conducted in four meeting in X.RPL and X.RPL. The second cycle was conducted in four meetings in every class, so there were sixteen meetings all together.
The Quantitative Data

The quantitative data were taken from the score of writing scores of writing tests administered in three times; test I (in first meeting), test II (in cycle 1) and test III (in cycle 2)



The score of the students showed improvement continuously. The improvement of the student’s score in writing descriptive paragraph by using mind mapping technique can be seen in table 4.1 in X.RPL, and improvement of the student’s score in writing descriptive paragraph by using brainstorming in table 4.2 in X.TKJ.
Table 4.1

X.RPL

Students Writing’s Scores in Test I, Test II, and Test III

Using Mind Mapping Technique

No

Student’s Initial

Names

Test I

Pre-Test

Test II

Post-Test in Cycle I

Test III

Post-Test in Cycle II



ST

50

60

68



HS

53

58

66



TT

55

62

69



HS

58

60

63



NG

50

67

75



AA

64

69

77



KS

66

71

79



DH

66

71

81



DS

67

72

82



W

68

78

83



AT

60

78

83



AS

72

80

83



JD

75

80

85



CS

76

81

86



AS

79

84

86



TS

79

84

89



BM

82

85

90



RH

82

85

90



JS

85

88

90



VO

88

91

93

Total

1380

1504

1618


Table 4.2

X. TKJ

Students Writing’s Scores in Test I, Test II, and Test III

By using Brainstorming

No

Student’s Initial

Names

Test I

Pre-Test

Test II

Post-Test in Cycle I

Test III

Post-Test in Cycle II




RG

50

55

63



AM

53

58

66



DS

55

62

69



P

58

60

63



IW

60

67

75



AS

64

69

77



HT

66

71

79



DC

66

71

81



NM

67

72

82



RG

68

78

83



DS

68

78

83



CP

72

80

83



HS

75

80

83



WA

76

81

86



DS

79

84

86



AJ

79

84

89



CS

82

85

90



MA

82

85

90



RG

85

88

90



JS

88

91

93



WJ

56

67

70



LN

62

70

74



MN

60

72

78



BL

55

67

70



SS

50

70

74



HT

50

72

78

Total

1729

1917

2105


The Quantitative Data

This research was conducted in eight meetings. The writer gave test to the students in each meeting, but the students writing score were taken once at the end of each cycle. In test I the students got bad score, but from the beginning of the cycle I until the end of the cycle II, the students’ score were improved. It can be concluded that the students descriptive writing improved by using mind mapping technique from meeting to meeting.

The students’ writing scores in X.RPL by using mind mapping technique were analyzed by calculating the generic structures (identification and description) and linguistic features (the right tense, relational verb, adjective and content) of descriptive writing.

The writer chose 3 students as sample to describe writing scores by calculating them. The first student is YS got 50 score in pre-test which having description 12, using the right tense 8, using the relational verb 14, using adjective 6, content 10, and post –test I the score is 55 which having description 12, using the right tense 8, using the relational verb 14, using adjective 6, and content 15, and in post- test II is 63 which having description 12, using the right tense 8, using the relational verb 14, using adjective 14, and content 15. The second student is LB got 68 score in pre-test which having description 11, using the right tense 17, using the relational verb 8, using adjectives 17, and content 16, and pre-test I the score is 78 which having description 11, using the right tense 17, using the relational verb 18, using adjective 17, and content 16, and in post – test II the is 83 score, which having description 14, using the right tense 17, using the relational verb 18, using adjective 17, and content 16. The third student is WM got the score 88 in pre- test, which having description 20, using the right tense 20, using relational verb 18, using adjective 12, and content 18, in pre- test I the score is 91 which having description 20, using the right tense 20, using relational verb 18, using adjective 15 and content 18, and post- test II the score is 93 which having description 20, using the right tense 20, using relational verb 18, using adjective 17 and the content 18. The range of the scores improvement can be seen in the following table.


Table 4.3

Range of Score Improvement

No

Range of Score Improvement

Student’s Initial Name

Total

1

1-5

ST, AT, VO

3

2

6-10

AS, JD, BM, RH, JS, TS

6

3

11-15

AS, CS, HS, AA, HS, TT, NG, DH, DS, W, KS

11




Number of student

20

There were some differences between the lowest and the highest of students’ writing score within each test. The differences showed that there was a significant improvement of students’ writing. The comparison of students’ scores in each test can be seen in the following table.



Table 4.4

The Comparison of Students’ Writing Scores

Types of Score

Test I (Pre-Test)

Test II (Post-Test I)

Test III (Post-Test II)

Lowest Score

50

55

63

Highest Score

88

91

93

From the data above, it can be seen that students’ score kept improving. In test I (before treatment), the lowest score is 50 and the highest score is 88. In test II (cycle I), the lowest score is 55 and the highest score is 91. In test III (cycle II), the lowest score is 63 and the highest score is 93. Those scores showed the significant improvement of students’ achievement in writing descriptive paragraph.

The improvement of students’ writing score in writing descriptive paragraph by using mind mapping technique in X.RPL also can be seen from the mean of student’s score in writing test through this following formula:

Where:


 : the mean of student’s score

Σx : total score

N : the total number of student

The mean of students’ score in every writing test in X.RPL were:



    1. In pre-test, the total score is 1393, therefore





 = 69.65

    1. In post-test, the total score is 1499, therefore





 = 69.65

    1. In post-test II, the total score is 1611, therefore





 = 80.55
Table 4.5

The Improvement of Mean Score in Writing Test

No

Student’s Initial

Names

Test I

Pre-Test

Test II

Post-Test Cycle I

Test III

Post-Test Cycle II



ST

50

55

63



HS

53

58

66



TT

55

62

69



HS

58

60

63



NG

60

67

75



AA

64

69

77



KS

66

71

79



DH

66

71

81



DS

67

72

82



W

68

78

83



AT

68

78

83



AS

72

80

83



JD

75

80

83



CS

76

81

86



AS

79

84

86



TS

79

84

89



BM

82

85

90



RH

82

85

90



JS

85

88

90



VO

88

91

93

Total

1393

1499

1611

Mean

69.65

74.95

80.55

From the data above, the mean of students’ score in test I (pre-test) was the lowest of all the meetings. It was conducted before the treatment (the usage of mind mapping technique) applied. After conducting the treatment in cycle I and II, the mean of the students’ score improved from 69.65 to 80.55. It means that students’ descriptive writing is improved.

In this research, the indicator of successful achievement of students in writing descriptive paragraph is as the following; get score 70 as KKM in their writing test. The number of component students in writing descriptive text was calculated by applying the formula bellow:

Where:


P = Percentage of student getting score 70

R = Number of student getting score 70

T = The total number of student taking the test

The percentage of competent students in each writing test can be seen as follows:



  1. In test I (pre-test),



P = 40%


  1. In test II (cycle I)



P = 55%


  1. In test III (cycle II)



P = 80%
In the test I (pre-test), there was 40% (8 students) who got points up to 75. The percentage of writing competence kept improving when mind mapping as a technique was applied. In the test II (cycle I), 55% (11 students) got points up to 75 whereas in the test III (the cycle II) 80% (16 students) go points up to 75. From test I (pre-test) to test III (in cycle II), there was significant improvement of students’ writing competence (80%). It can be concluded that mind mapping as a technique could help students in improving their achievement in writing descriptive paragraph.


Table 4.9

The Improvement of Mean Score in Writing Test

No

Student’s Initial

Names

Test I

Pre-Test

Test II

Post-Test in Cycle I

Test III

Post-Test in Cycle II

1

RG

50

57

65

2

SS

50

68

72

3

Y

50

72

77

4

AM

53

58

66

5

DS

55

62

69

6

BL

55

67

70

7

WJ

56

67

70

8

WJ

56

67

70

9

P

58

60

63

10

IW

60

67

75

11

MN

60

72

78

12

LN

62

70

74

13

AS

64

69

77

14

HT

66

71

79

15

DC

66

71

81

16

NM

67

72

82

17

RG

68

78

83

18

DS

68

78

83

19

CP

72

80

83

20

HS

74

80

83

21

WA

76

81

86

22

DS

78

84

86

23

AJ

79

82

89

24

CS

82

85

90

25

MA

82

83

90

26

RG

84

87

90

27

HT

88

93

97

Total

1729

1917

2105

Mean

64.03

71.00

77.96

From the data above, the mean of students’ score in test I (pre-test) was the lowest of all the meetings. It was conducted before the treatment (the usage of brainstorming technique) applied. After conducting the treatment in cycle I and II, the mean of the students’ score improved from 64.03 to 77.96. It means that students’ descriptive writing is improved.

In this research, the indicator of successful achievement of students in writing descriptive paragraph is as the following; get score 70 as KKM in their writing test. The number of component students in writing descriptive text was calculated by applying the formula bellow:

Where:


P = Percentage of student getting score 70

R = Number of student getting score 70

T = The total number of student taking the test

The percentage of competent students in each writing test can be seen as follows:



  1. In test I (pre-test),



P = 33.34%



  1. In test II (cycle I)



P = 66.67%



  1. In test III (cycle II)



P = 85.18%


In the test I (pre-test), there was 33.34% (9 students) who got points up to 70. The percentage of writing competence kept improving when mind mapping as a technique was applied. In the test II (cycle I), 66.67% (18 students) got points up to 70 whereas in the test III (the cycle II) 85.18% (23 students) go points up to 70. From test I (pre-test) to test III (in cycle II), there was significant improvement of students’ writing competence (85.18%). It can be concluded that brainstorming as a technique could help students in improving their achievement in writing descriptive paragraph.
4.Conclusion

After analyzing the data, it was found out that the students’ writing scores increased from the first cycle to the second cycle. It means that there was an improvement on the students’ ability on writing descriptive paragraph by using Mind Mapping Technique and brainstorming technique. It states that the score improve from the first test to the last test continuously. Therefore, it is concludes that Mind Mapping Technique and brainstorming technique potentially improve the students ability in writing descriptive paragraph.


References
Al–khatib, B.A. (2012). The Effect of Using Brainstorming Strategy In Developing Creative Problem Solving Skills Among Female Students In Princess Alia University Collage. American International Journal Of Contemporary Research 2 (10),29-38.
Ariana, monica and Mirabella, Anamaria.2012. Mind Mapping and Brainstorming as Methods of Teaching Business Concept in English as a Foreign Language.Romania:Oradea.
Arikunto, P.2010.PenelitianTindakanKelas.Jakarta:BumiAksara.
Best, Jhon; and Khan, James.2002.Research In Education. New Delhi: The Edition.
Cheng,Wang et.al. 2010.A brief Review on Developing Creative Thinking in Young Children by Mind Mapping. Taiwan: International Business Research.
Crawford, A., Saul, E.W, Mathews.,&Makinster J. (2005). Teaching and learning Strategies for The Thinking Class. New York: Open Society Institute.
Heaton,J.B.1988.Writing English Language. Test. New York: Logman.
Ibnian, S.S.K. (2011). Brainstorming and Essay Writing in EFL Class. Theory and Practice in Languages Studies, 1 (3), 263-272.
Ledbetter,E.M. (2010). The Teacher’ S Activity- A- Day. United Stated of America Jossey-Bass.
Martin,Devis.2010. Concept Mapping, Mind Mapping and Argument Mapping:What are the Differences and do They Matter?. Australia:Spinger Science.
Mccuen, and Winkler.1987. Writing in English. Canada: New York.
Nunan, D. (1999). Practical English Language Teaching. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Companies.
Oshima,Alice, and Hogue.1991. Writing Academic English. NY: logman
Oshima,Alice, and Hogue.1998. Introduction to AcademicWriting. New York: Wesly publishing Company.
Sinar, Silvana; Karo, et.al.2012.Writing.Medan: Teaching team.
Sudjana,H.D. 2001. MetodedanTeknik.Bandung: Falah Production.
Sujana, Made I. 2012.Integrating a Mind Mapping Technique and Information Gap Activities in Teaching Academic Reading in English. Lombok Indonesia: Englihs Specific Purpose.
Sujana, Made I. 2012.Intregeting a Mind Mapping Technique and Information Gab Activities in Teaching Academic Reading in English.Indonesia:Mataram.
Tayyabazarif.,&Mateen, A. (2013). Role of Using Brainstorming on Students Learning Outcomes During Teaching Of Studies At Middle Level. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business 4 (9), 1089- 1097.
Troyka,Lnn. 1996. Handbook Writing.USA: A Viocam company.
Wash, Marie. 2014. Using Mind Mapping Technique in Testing.English: Star.
Wren, and Martin.1973. English Grammar and Composition. India: S,Chand and Company ltd.
Wren, and Martin.2013.English Grammar and Composition.English: PrasadaRao.

A Study on the Students’ achievement in Translating English Reading Texts by the Second Year Students of SMP YP Amal Luhur Medan

Freddy Nababan

humusornbbn@gmail.com

Abstract

This research concerns with the discussion of translation from English text into Bahasa Indonesia. The research question is ‘How is the achievement of the second year students of SMP YP Amal Luhur Medan in translating English text into Bahasa Indonesia?’ The objective of this research is to identify the achievement in translating English text into Bahasa Indonesia. Therefore, this study is carried out to know the students’ ability in translation. The data were collected by using test of English translation. The methods used in this research are library and descriptive methods. The population of this research was the achievement of the second year students of SMP YP Amal Luhur. The respondents consisted of 80 students. However, for the sample of the research only 40 respondents were taken by using random sampling. After analyzing the data, it was found that the result of translating text, with the average scores or Mean is 55.9 and the standard deviation is 5.517 with the KR-21 is 0.87, is good. It is concluded that the second year students of SMP YP Amal Luhur Medan have the stage of ‘good’ in using translation and suggested that the teacher of English should give a lot of homework concerning with translation at home.

Keywords : translating reading text , partial translation, full translation

1. The Background of the Study

Translation as a form of human activity in language field has long been human profession (Moentaha, 2006: vii). Human being has language and has also translation experience. The second year students of junior high school level has got the experience of translating text from Bahasa Indonesia into English or in reverse. The experience of translating is good and upgraded into maximal stage. The activity of upgradintiog translation capacity lasts until they join university level. This is done because they (students) are frequently faced with interlanguage texts especially English ones.

Translation is also an interdisciplinary subject (Saragih, 1992: 134). Translation in a wider sense can be regarded as a part of learning a foreign language, which can be developed through the constant practices in learning English. One needs to get the information from the text. A translation practice in classroom requires an adequate, nature or suitable method.

The translation of a certain text will never come true without any understanding of the whole context. Therefore, someone must know a lot about the subject matter of the translation. The translation can be produced by studying the text carefully and then, deciding the proper method as a way to express naturally the same message of the source text in the receptor (Mark, 1985: 20).

A translator when transferring the meaning has his own right to change the structural of language. There is a complication process in translating text. A translator can find differences of meaning and structure of both source and target language. This is translation that is why the teacher should be able to know the strategy that he wants to apply. Many students often find difficulties in translating a text.

Translation

The word translation is derived from the word “translate” in Longman Dictionary of the English Language (1984:1176). The meaning of the word “translate” is to change (speech or written) from one language into another language of the act of rendering from one language into another language retaining the sense. Translation by dictionary definition consists of changing from one state or to another. To turn into one’s another language (the Merriam Webster Dictionary, 1984) translation is basically a change of a form where we speak of the form of words, phrase, clauses, sentences, paragraph, etc, which are spoken or written. These forms are referred to as surface structure of a language. It is the structural part of language which is actually seen in print or heard in speech. In translation there are two things necessary for good translation such as an adequate common of the original language (the source language) and an adequate common of the language into which one is translating.

Nida and Robert (1989:12) confirm that translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. The form which the translation is made will be called the source language and from into which it is changed will be called the receptor language. Bell (1991:4) also emphasised translation as the expression in target language that has been expressed in source language, preserving semantic and stylish equivalencies. Translation, then, consists of studying the lexical metaphor, grammatical structure, and grammatical metaphor communication situation, and genre of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning and then reconstruct this same meaning by using the the lexicon and grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language.

The activity of the translation requires changes frequently in the form and arrangements of words because the similarities in both languages structures. Moreover, translation is a replacement of textual material in source language by equivalent textual material in target language. The meaning of original text should be expressed closely. The form may express a variety of meaning. On the other hand, another characteristics, he or she as the translator should be able to understand both the source and the target language to produce adequate translation. In terms of translation, there must be equivalent in a lexical form. If the word does not exist in target language, the best solution is to borrow the sound (pronunciation) of the original word or modifying the utterance according to the phonological rules of the target language.

1. Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language (source language) by equivalent textual material in another language (target language) (Catford,1969:20).

2. Translation consists in reproducing in the receptor language which is the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning andn secondly in terms of style. (Nida, 1969:2).

3. Translation is the rendering of a Source Language (SL) text into the Target Language (TL) so as to ensure that (1) the surface meaning of the two will be approximately similar and (2) the structures of the Source Language will be preserved as closely as possible but not so closely that the Target Language structure will be seriously distorted. (Mc. Guire, in Rachmadie, 1988:2).

Types of Translation

The word translation itself in terms of the human perception may be divided into three. Bassnett (1989:14) describes the types of translation as follows:

a. In eremitic (symbol)

In the interpretation of symbols as expressed in language will interface with the process of translation. There is a stage in which the expression has to be translated in the same language to find out its communicative equivalence.

b. Intro lingual (within the same language)

The intro lingual process occurs when cultural nations are present in the text. It is time anything the bundle of meaning of a sentence and dismantling the components to obtain the equivalents. The sentences in the source language are translated into the same language as the target language.

c. Intro lingual translation (between two different languages)

The intro lingual process comes later when the appropriate expression has been found in the language. Intro lingual translation is an interpretation of verbal signs by means of same language, for instances; the sentence “Robert came” in English as the source language can be translated into Bahasa Indonesia as the target as “Robert datang”.



Translation Method

Method can be determined as a dearly produced that is established a general way of doing something. Before establishing the method, there is one step. The step is establishing approach conceptually or in axiomatic way. The term of method, as quoted from Richard and Rodger (1988:140) who state the method is an overall plan for orderly presentation of language material, and all of which is based upon. An approach is axiomatic. The objective of using method is in order to make the results adequate. Relating to translation, the translation method is the established procedure in translation that should be followed. So that, the result of translation can be adequate natural and comprehendable to the readers in translating a text. It is important to choose the most suitable method after having comprehended and examined the text that will be translated.

There are some kinds of method of translation:

a. Word for word translation

In this method the words of the source language text are rendered

one by one into the target language without making allowance for

grammar. This is often demonstrated as inter lingual translation

with the target language immediately below the source language

words. The source language word order is kept unchanged.

Actually, the main use of word for word translation is either to un

derstand the process of how the source language operates or to

explain a difficult text as a translation process.

For example:


  • Samsul and Gatot won the election. (English)

  • Samsul dan Gatot menang dalam pemilihan. (Indonesia)

b. Literal Translation

This is a kind of translation which attempts is to follow the form of

the source language text. This method is useful as a preliminary

step for discovering on acceptable method to translate the text. The

source language grammatical construction are converted to their

nearest target language equivalents but the lexical words are again

singly out of context. Actually, literal translation has a little co

mmunication value and a little help to the readers of target

language.

c. Semantic Translation

Semantic translation includes more meaning in its search for one

meaning. It does not emphasize the effect. It attempts to readers as

closely as possible, the semantic and syntactic structure of the

receptor language must convey the precise, contextual meaning of

the original text. In this method the less important cultural words

are translated by functional terms not by cultural equivalents.

For example :


  • Beware of the snake! (English)

  • Awas ular! (Indonesia)

After the definition of the translation, the second part which has to be known is concerned with the categories of it. Translation can be divided into three distinctive types, namely Full Translation, Partial Translation and Rank Translation.

1. Full Translation

In a full translation every part of the source language is

replaced by target language material. In other words, the

entire text is submitted to the translation process.

For example :

English Indonesian


  • He has gone to Jakarta Dia telah pergi ke Jakarta

  • Diana will come Diana akan datang

2. Partial Translation

In partial translation, some parts of the source language text are left untranslated. They are simply transferred to the target language and

incorporated in it, because they are regarded as “untranslatable”

words or for introducing ‘local colour’ or event. Because they are

so common and frequently used that translation is not needed.

For example:



  • Father ate lutis this morning. (untranslatable)

Ayah makan rujak pagi ini.

  • The jamaah read pray. (local colour)

Jemaah membaca doa.

  • He died of TBC (common and frequently used)

Dia meninggal karena TBC.

In partial translation, some words undergo both spelling and pro

nunciation change such as in microfilm (English) becomes mikrofilm (Indonesian) and orang hutan (Indonesian) becomes orangutan (English).

3. Rank Translation

In the third type of differentiation in translation is related to the

rank in grammatical hierarchy ate which translation equivalent is

established. It can be in the form of:


  • Word to word translation

  • Group to group translation

  • Sentence to sentence translation

  • Paragraph to paragraph translation, and

  • Discourse to discourse translation

In this type of translation, lexical and grammatical adjustments should be applied to achieve the suitable equivalent in terms of meaning. It will be discussed more deeply in the text passage.

Conceptual Frame

Translation is the process of transferring meaning or content of source language (SL) to target language (TL). The procedure and process are accumulated so that what is intended in SL can be realized in TL. The process follows ‘U’ form.



2. Research Design

This study belongs to descriptive design. This means to describe the stage of difficulties of the second year students of SMP YP Amal Luhur Medan in translation. It is necessary to know that the respondents consists of two classes. So the research is done by treating 33.3% of the students as the respondents. To obtain the data, this research is done by giving the test of translation.

In this design the respondents are observed starting from the research is started. They are controlled while doing the test of translation. To control the results of the ability, the respondents are given pretests and post tests. Post tests are given before the control test are conducted.

Pre-test

The respondents are given before presentation of the material. Pre-test is conducted to find out the homogeneity of the sample of this study. The pre-test is administrated to find out students preliminary scores before giving the teaching presentation (treatment).



Post-test

The text is administrated after having conducted the teaching presentation, both groups by giving a post-test. It is aimed at discovering the result of the mentioned teaching presentation.

The variable examined in this study is the ability of the students in answering the tests of translation. This means there is only one variable in this study. The variable is discrete.

In this research the instrument used to collect the data is the test. The test is about translating English text into Bahasa Indonesia. The test is arranged in order based on the current curriculum. To make it efficient and effective, the text used by changing some sentences of Indonesian into English. The total items of the tests are 25 items.

To collect the data, this research is done by using some steps. First, the writer gives some exercises to the students aned they are required to answer the exercises. After that the writer corrects their answer and gives the scores. The writer analyzes about their ability in translating the text.

The technique of analyzing the data in this research is by using identifying, classifying and analyzing technique. At first, the writer selects the mistakes to which they belong to and tabulate the students’ scores and percentage of each score by applying the following formula:

S= x 100%

Where: S=the score

R= the number of the correct answer

N= the number of the rest items

It may also be mentioned at this point that the difficulties of students in translating English text may be different from one another. In order to know their differences, it is important to make scale of score based on Depdiknas formula. To make it clear it can be seen in the following table:

Qualitative Quantitative



Expressions Expressions

Excellent 10

Very good 9

Good 8


More than fair 7

Fair 6


Almost fair 5

Lack 4


Very lack 3

Bad 2


Very bad 1

(Diknas, 1990:10)



3. Data Analysis

As stated in previous chapter that this research has one problem. The problem reads: “how is the achievement of the second year students of SMP YP Amal Luhur Medan in translating English text into Bahasa Indonesia?”This means that this research only concerns with the class ability in translation. As stated in previous chapter there were 25 items of sentences to translate plus a text of English to translate into Bahasa Indonesia. The scores of sentence translation and text translation are combined into one. The scores obtained are from the tests tested to the students as the respondents of this research. From the forty randomly selected respondents, there was one group of scores that could be obtained, namely the scores of translation. The translation must be based on the use of context. The contexts to be used here are the context of register and genre.

The following group of scores is about translation.

The scores of students in translation:

45 56 52 60

56 57 55 58

46 55 56 56

55 51 56 67

56 62 49 68

55 63 50 65

47 59 52 60

46 63 45 58

64 55 56 51

63 56 57 57

The following table is concerning with frequency and standard deviation

Table 1

Deviation And The Frequencies

Class Interval

F

D

Fd

Fd2

65-68

61-64


57-60

53-56


49-52

45-48


3

5

9



13

5

5



3

2

1



0

-1

-2



9

10

9



0

-5

-10



27

20

9



0

5

20






40

3

14

81

The following calculation is about the mean and standard deviation

Assumed mean (AM) = 

Mean (M)=AM + 

Mean (M)= 54.5 + 

= 54.5 + 

= 54.5 + 1.4

= 55.9

The figure (55.9) is converted with the criteria of percentage by means of which the stage of ability of the class is obtained. This means that the ability of the class lies between “76 – 85”, or 55.9/70 * 100 – 79.8. The number of 79.8 belongs to “good” (Depdikbud, 1990:10).



In this research the standard deviation (SD) gained is 5.517 (S = 5.517) and after knowing the standard deviation, the writer calculated the reliability number. This means the writer wants to know whether the marks are valid or in reverse. The result of the reliability number (KR_21) is 0.87.

Findings

There are some problems discussed in this research. The first concerns with the students ability in translation. Even the problem concerns with difficulties usage of students ability in translation. The problem also involves in context of situation and cultures so that the students got difficulties. As a fact the students got difficulties how to suit the translation from lexical translation to grammatical translation . In this situation, students sometimes got difficulties in context.



4. Conclusion

The last activities in conducting a research is stating the conclusions and suggestions. Conclusions mean that the writer states the points or whatever found after the research has been conducted. Based on the data obtained after carrying out the descriptive research, it is concluded as the following:

1. The second year students of SMP YP Amal Luhur Medan have

good level of ability in translation in English text into Bahasa

Indonesia. This means that the ability of the class in average is

‘good’.


2. The difficulties that they used to get were grammatical translation.

In other words, they are only able to translate word by word

translation.

3. The students got failure in translating grammatically because they

are lazy to think the context and structure.

References

Bassnett, T.R.1989. Translation Studies. Amsterdam. John Benjamin.

Bell, T.R.1991. Translation and Translating; Theory and Practice. London.

Longman.


Catford, J.C.1969. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. London: Oxford

University Press.

Diknas, 1993. Kurikulum Sekolah Menengah Umum (GBPP). Jakarta: Diknas.

Diknas, 1990. Kurikulum Sekolah Menengah Umum Tingkat Atas (SMA)



Petunjuk Pelaksanaan Penilaian. Jakarta:Depdikbud.

Hornby, A.S. 1974. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English.

London: Oxford University.

Machali, Rochayah.2000. Pedoman Bagi Penerjemah. Jakarta: Grasindo.

Merriam Webster.1984. Longman Dictionary of the English Language. England

Wm, Clews

Mark, P.1992. Approach to Translation. London Oxford Paragon Press.

Mark, P. 1985. A Text Book of Translation. London: Prentice-hall.

Moentaha, Salihen.2006. Bahasa dan Terjemahan. Jakarta: Kesain Blanc.

Nida, E.A &G.R. Robert.1989. The Theory and Practice of Translation. London

Pinckuck, I.1974. Scientific and Technical Translation. Andre Deutsch.

Rachmadi, Sabrony, dkk.1988. Translation. Jakarta: Karunika.

Richard, J.C. and Rodger. 1988. Approaches and Methods in Language

Teaching. Cambridge University.

Saragih, A. 2003. Bahasa dalam Konteks Sosial. Medan: Pascasarjana USU

Unprinted

Savory, T.1968. The Art of Translation. London:Jonathan CAPE.



Teaching Vocabulary by Using Picture Media at The First Year Students of Senior High School Advent 2 Pematangsiantar

Lumbanraja Lemar

lemarlumbanraja84@gmail.com

Abstract


The research is intended to find out whether there is improvement of using pictures Media in teaching vocabulary compared to teaching vocabulary without using picture. The problem of the study is as follow: “what is the effect of using pictures in teaching vocabulary on the vocabulary mastery achieved by the first grades of junior high school?. The analysis of the data has shown the first year students of SMP Advent 2 Pematangsiantar can improve their vocabulary by using pictures media. It can be said that there are advantages learning vocabulary by using pictures. The advantages are as follows:(1)The average of question that can be answered correctly is 34,6 questions or 35 question .It can be concluded that most of the questions can be answered well.,(2)The average percentage of true answers is 86,5%,it can be said that most of the questions are able be answered truly.,(3) Only a few questions which can not be answered well.,(4)The average percentage of the questions which are answered wrongly is 13,5%,only a few questions that are not able to be answered well.,(5)from the average result of the question almost students can answer the question It means that the pictures are enjoyable ,.(6) Pictures and problem-solving activities are generally used after the presentation ,in the practice part ,it creates the activity among the students, and the students will be creative and active and are not bored.,(7) because such communicative tasks can only handle after mastering well-picture, learners can put in to practice and internalize vocabulary, grammar and structure extensively. A game and competition that are provided by using picture enhance the motivation of the students to improve students’ vocabulary

Keywords: vocabulary by using teaching aid(picture),in writing skills.

1.Introduction

Every human being needs language as a medium of communication among individuals or even nation. Indonesian people use their native language, that is their local language and foreign language is English, to make communication with other people around the world. as the first foreign language in Indonesia, English is carried out in education. English is one of the complusory subject taught in SMP and SMA as a foreign language. as a result, the Indonesian government always makes efforts to improve the quality of English teaching. By improving the quality of teachers and others components that are involved in educational process ,the English teaching in Indonesia improve from time to time.

Nowadays, on line with government’s plan on the nine years basic education, English has been taught at all junior high school. The function of learning English in junior high school is as follows: by studying English, students are expected to have a means to develop their knowledge of science, technology and culture so that they can grow up with Indonesian personality. Later the students are expected to be able to support the development of tourism industry(GBPP SMP,2004:1)

The objectives of teaching English to junior high students as a local content course of the study are “the students are expected to have the skills of scrutinizing, speaking, reading and writing in simple English, with emphasis on communication skills using selected topics related to their environmental needs such a tourism industry at north Sumatera”(GBPP SMP,2004:2)

“English has accordingly been chosen as the first foreign language to be taught in some school in Indonesia”(Ramelan,1985:6).in order to make the English teaching successful, we have to consider some factors such as the quality of teachers, students’ interest, motivation, schools facilities , library and books which are involved together in teaching and learning process .Besides, there are still others factors like teaching technique and teaching media, which also play important roles. Vocabulary is one of the most important language components, which has to be mastered and acquired by the students in learning a new language. by learning vocabulary first the students will be able to communicate in English .Whenever we want to communicate with other people using a language ,we should have mastered a stocks of words related to the topic. It is true ,however, that whenever we think of language and language learning, we usually think of mastering the vocabulary. experienced English teacher knows very well how important vocabulary is.

The role of English teachers in junior high school is very important because they have the task to give the basic introduction of the first foreign language. Later, the students preference over the English lesson will depend on how the teachers teach. The teachers, in this case ,have got challenging task to motivate them. The teachers are expected to be imaginative and creative in developing in their teaching technique to make the English lesson more exciting. As stated by Allen(1983:33)”the teaching of English to the beginner should need the technique to make the English lesson more exiting .The best technique is using an approach, which still has relation to their world. using pictures is a technique in teaching vocabulary. Webster states that “teaching aids are many varieties of devices and materials ,whish rely on the sense of sight to inform”(Webster,,1972:664)without method of technique appropriate to the students’ level, they may feel bored and not interested in following the lesson and the result will not be satisfactory.

English learning program in Indonesia starts in the elementary school since the year of 2000.english is the first foreign language taught for the students of elementary school. English becomes something new for them because it is different from their native language. They have not known the foreign language system yet or even use them as their daily language to communicate with each other. the student of elementary school use their native language in the society since they speak for the first time, even though they have not known how to use it in the written form. They use their native language without any curiosity in the things they learnt. The students of elementary school are in the age of seven to twelve years. When they are introduced to a foreign language, they may find some similarities and differences between learning their mother tongue and learning the foreign language .one of the differences is that the native language is used as a means of communication at home, school and in the society, while the foreign language is not used as a means of communication .Learning a foreign language is not as easy as we think. as teachers ,we have to consider that not all students are able to understand anything we teach. There are many crucial factors that we should know before we teach a foreign language. The crucial factors are ”age, ability, aspiration and need, native language, and previous language experience”(finocchiaro,1974:14).The materials we will present should be based on the student’ age, ability, native language, and previous language experience.

2.Research Method

,the writer explains the research method. In this chapter, the discussion elaborates the data sources, population and sample, the method design, variables, instrument, construction of the test; try out, condition of the test, item analysis, and data collection. Arikunto (1998:114) states that, “sources of data are subjects where data comes from. In this study the writer used research procedure in order to get the required data”. The research was done by conducting a treatment. The writer treated a group of the first year students of SMP Advent 2 Pematangsiantar by using pictures. At the beginning of the treatment, the group was given a pre-test. At the end of the treatment, the group was given a post-test. Best (1981:8) says that a population is any group of individuals that have one or more characteristics in common that are of interest to the researcher. The population of this study was the first year students of SMP Advent 2 Pematangsiantar in the academic year of 2010/2011. There were 80 students, so population was 80 students. The writer took first year students based on consideration the English has been taught as local content since they were in the first grade. Best (1981:8) states that a sample is a small proportion of a population selected for observation and analysis. Kerlinger (1965:118) emphasizes that a sample is part of a population, which is supposed to represent the characteristics of the population. Since the first year students’ of SMP Advent 2 Pematangsiantar 80 students, the writer took all of the students as sample. As stated by Arikunto (1998:120)”…… if the students is less than one hundred, then all the subjects should be taken……”. The process of taking the sample would be discussed in the sampling technique. Best (1981:9) states that the individual observations or individuals are chosen in such a way that each has an aqual chance of being selected, and that each choice is independent of any other choice. Sax (1979:183) states that a sample is selected randomly when every number of the population has equal, no zero chance being included in the sample. In this study, the sample used was sample population since all the population was chosen as sample.

3.Data Analysis

As the writer had collected the result of the test given to the first year students of SMP Advent 2 Pematangsiantar who had been selected to represent the whole population, the next step to do is analyzing the data taken from the object of the study. The writer first corrected the answer and determined the right answer and the wrong answer, through this way, the writer will know whether the students have the ability to answer the test or not. The writer also counted the percentage of the correct answer and the wrong answer. The result of the test is based on the percentage of the item that could be answered correctly. The criteria to find the percentage of the test result is as follow: Score the right answer :total item x 100%.

After counting the score gained by each student,the writer made:

1.The list of the total number of the students answer for each item.

2.The list of the student’s answer.

3.The list of frequency distribution and the reliability.

4.The list of the students marks.

5.The list of the percentage of the mark



Table 2

The List Of Students Answer For The Test

Items Number of

questions



True

Answers


Percentage

False

Answers


Percentage

1

38

95

2

5

2

39

97.5

1

2.5

3

35

87.5

5

12.5

4

37

92.5

3

7.5

5

39

97.5

1

12.5

6

35

87.5

5

12.5

7

38

95

2

5

8

38

95

2

5

9

37

92.5

3

7.5

10

31

77.5

9

22.5

11

30

75

10

25

12

32

80

8

20

13

33

82.5

7

17.5

14

35

87.5

6

12.5

15

31

77.5

9

22.5

16

32

80

8

20

17

30

75

10

25

18

37

92.5

3

7.5

19

29

72.5

11

27.5

20

36

90

4

10.00

21

38

95

2

5

22

39

97.5

1

2.5

23

35

87.5

5

12.5

24

37

92.5

3

7.5

25

39

97.5

1

12.5

26

35

87.5

5

12.5

27

38

95

2

5

28

38

95

2

5

29

37

92.5

3

7.5

30

31

77.5

9

22.5

31

30

75

10

25

32

32

80

8

20

33

33

82.5

7

17.5

34

35

87.5

6

12.5

35

31

77.5

9

22.5

36

32

80

8

20

37

30

75

10

25

38

37

92.5

3

7.5

39

29

72.5

11

27.5

40

36

90

4

10.00

41

38

95

2

5

42

39

97.5

1

2.5

43

35

87.5

5

12.5

44

37

92.5

3

7.5

45

39

97.5

1

12.5

46

35

87.5

5

12.5

47

38

95

2

5

48

38

95

2

5

49

37

92.5

3

7.5

50

31

77.5

9

22.5

51

30

75

10

25

52

32

80

8

20

53

33

82.5

7

17.5

54

35

87.5

6

12.5

55

31

77.5

9

22.5

56

32

80

8

20

57

30

75

10

25

58

37

92.5

3

7.5

59

29

72.5

11

27.5

60

36

90

2

5

61

38

95

2

2.5

62

39

97.5

1

12.5

63

35

87.5

5

12.5

64

37

92.5

3

7.5

65

39

97.5

1

12.5

66

35

87.5

5

12.5

67

38

95

2

5

68

38

95

2

5

69

37

92.2

3

7.5

70

31

77.5

9

22.5

71

30

75

10

25

72

32

80

8

20

73

33

82.5

7

17.5

74

35

87.5

6

12.5

75

31

77.5

9

22.5

76

32

80

8

20

77

30

75

10

25

78

37

92.5

3

7.5

79

29

72.5

11

27.5

80

36

90

4

10.00

Total

1384

3460

218

560

Average

34,6

86,5

5,54

13,3

From above table it can be seen that from 40 questions the student achievements as follows:

1.The average of questions that can be answered correctly is 34,6 question or 35 questions. It can be concluded that most of the questions can be answered well

2.The average percentage of true answers is 86,5 %, it can be said that most of the question can be answered truly.

3.The average of questions that are answered wrongly is 5,45 questions or 5 questions. It can be concluded that only s few questions that cannot be answered well.

4.The average percentage of the questions, which are answered wrongly ,is 13,5%. It can be concluded that only a few questions that cannot be answered well.

The the writer tries to present the answers by the student in order to know about their ability:



79

14

35

26

65

80

10

25

30

75

Total

2416

12080

784

3920

Average

14.7

73.7

4.8

26.6

Source: Students’test result

From above data it can be said that the average score of true answer made by the students test is 73,37%, and 26,63% couldn’t be answered.



In order to know if the test given is reliable or not the writer proposal the formula given by Arikunto (2006) as follow:

Table 4

The Clas Interval And Frequency Distribution

Interval

n

1/X

(f)

f.X

33-37

16

1

16

16

28-32

34

0

0

0

23-27

20

-1

-20

40

18-22

10

-2

-20

40

Total

80




-24

79

Mean = M-r 

Mean = 30-5 ( )

Mean =30-4,75

Mean = 25,25

Note : M = central point class interval of mean

r = class interval (5)

n= number of sample

Deviation Standart:





= 4,75-0,90



= 3,98

2) The reliability the test is as the following:







= 

=1- 0,017

= 0,98

According to arikunto (2006) that the reliability test is assumed to be reliable if the r value is :



-Between 0,800 to 1,00 : very high

-Between 0,600 to 0,800 : high

- Between 0,400 to 0,600 : enough

-Between 0,200 to 0,400 : low

-Between 0,000 to 0,200 : very low

From the above result it can be concluded that the data is reliable because the result is 0,98 and the reliable test is high.



4.Conclusion

when all the data had been collected and analyzed then the writer makes a conclusion based on the result of the research such as the following: 1. The analysis of the data has shown that the first year students of SMP Advent 2 Pematangsiantar can understand the vocabulary by using pictures. 2. The average of questions that can be answered correctly is 34,6 questions or 35 questions. It can be concluded that most of the questions can be answered well. 3. The average percentage of true answers is 86,5%, it can be said that most of the questions can be answered truly. 4. The average of questions that are answered wrongly is 5,45 questions or 5 questions. It can be concluded that only a few questions, which cannot be answered well. 5. The average percentage of the questions, which are answered wrongly, is 13,5%. It can be concluded that only a few questions that cannot be answered well. 6. Games and problem-solving activities are generally used after the presentation, in the practice part, it will create the activity among the students, and the students will be creative and active and are not bored. 7. Because such communicative tasks can only be handled after mastering well-planned games, learners can put into practice and internalize vocabulary, grammar, and structures extensively. Play and competition that are provided by pictures enhance the motivation of the students. 8. By using pictures also reduce the stress in the classroom. At the same time as playing pictures, the learners’ attention is on message, not on the language.



References

Allen., Evaluation Students Progress, Six Edition, Massachusset : Allyn and Bacon Inc, 1983.

Alexander, LG., English Grammar, USA Longman Inc, New York : 1998.

Andrew Wright, David Betteridge and Michael Buckby

Cambridge University Press, 1984.The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No.6, June 2000.

Best John, Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan, Surabaya: Penerbit Usaha Nasional, 1982.

Diane Larsen – Freeman, Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, London: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Fitikides, T.J., Common Mistake in English. London: Longman Co Group Limited, 1963.

Frank, Marcella, Modern English, New Jersey: Engle Wood Cliff, Prentice Hall, Inc, 1972.

Rini, Ayu, Excellent English Games, Jakarta : Kesaint Blanc, 2007.

Richards, Smith, The Context of Language Teaching, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Webster., The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. London: Oxford University Press. 1972.



The Causing Factors Of Greed In Shakespeare’s King Lear

Oktavia Panggabean



panggabeanoktavia110@yahoo.com

Abstract

There are three divisions in literary works; they are poetry, prose and drama. The writer has chosen to analyze a drama written by William Shakespeare, King Lear. Though the plays were written in his age, the influences stand still nowadays. The characters built are very connected to what actually happens in the society. This study is dealing with the causing factors of greed in Shakespeare’s King Learwhich can break the blood relationship among the fathers and the three daughters, among the three daughters, and the harmonious relationships among the husbands and the wives. There are many interesting topics can be discussed in this drama, but the writer focuses only on the causing factors of greed. The data are sentences which spoken up by the characters along the play that is related to the need of the analysis. This means that the sentences which are going to be used as the data are the ones that show greed in the play. They are analysed based on the textual approach. After finishing the analysis, it is concluded that the play is full of greed and there are five causing factors of greed, namely early negative experience, misconceptions, fear, maladaptive strategy, and persona to hide in adulthood.



Keywords : The Causing Factors, Greed, Shakespeare’s King Lear.
1.The Background of the Study

People living in this world have their own needs. They do many efforts to survive for life as there is competition among them to get their goals. In fulfilling the needs, hard work and determination will be applied as well. However, when talking about the result, some may feel very satisfied and grateful since they can achieve what they want yet some do not feel so. Somehow, they get something beyond their expectation or get what they never expect before.

In the other case, people have got things they want but still never feel satisfied. Even one was born in a kingdom which filled by luxury, he or she still has the other needs or desire out of the luxurious things he or she has owned. People think that he or she has been complete already as he or she does not need to think about what they will eat, drink, wear, etc. tomorrow. These kinds of reality life can also be found in the play King Lear written by William Shakespeare. The two daughters of King Lear, Goneril and Regan, who were born and raised in a kingdom life still feel unfulfilled yet. They not only desire the more division of the kingdom but also the love from a man who is as evil as they are. It is the reason of the writer to choose drama as her topic in writing this thesis.

After reading the play King Lear, the writer formulated the research questions ”What are the factors that made King Lears Daughters greedy which could break down the blood relationship among the father and his three daughters, among the husbands and the wives, and among the three sisters?”

The objective of the study is to find out the causing factors of greed in the play written by William Shakespeare, King Lear.

Theoretically, through her description the writer hopes that the readers will get enrichment and understanding of the literary work in Shakespeare’s King Lear. The research findings is expected can enrich e readers’ theory of literature, particularly dramas.


Literature

Merriam Webster Dictionary defines “literature (writing) is written artistic works, particularly those with a high and lasting value,” (s.v. “literature”).

Another further explanation given by Lombardi states the term of literature as “a term used to describe written or spoken material. Broadly speaking, “Liteature” is used to describe anything from creative writing to more technical or scientific works, but the term is most commonly used to refer to works of the creative imagination, including works of poetry, drama, fiction and non-fiction,” (vide “literature”).



Drama

Meriam Webster’s Dictionary states“drama as a composition in verse or prose intended to portray life or character or to tell a story usually involving conflicts and emotions through action and dialogue and typically designed for theatrical performance,” (s.v.”drama”).

There are two kinds of drama namely, tragedy and comedy. A tragedy is a drama treating a serious subject and involving persons of significance. Its purpose is to arouse pity and fear toward the audiences or readers. While a comedy is a dramatic work that threats themes and characters with humor and typically has a happy ending. The purpose of comedy is to strip away the masks and expose human beings for what they are.



Greed

According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, “greed is a strong desire for more wealth, possessions, power, etc. than a person needs,” (s.v.”greedThe American Heritage Dictionary defines “greed as a selfish desire for more than one needs or deserves,” (s.v.”greed”). Another meaning is found in Meriam Webster’s Dictionary mentions that “greed is a selfish and excessive desire for more of something (as money) than is needed,” (s.v. “greed”).

Some examples of greed that do not include money are:

A person who takes all of the cookies in the house for himself or herself, not sharing even though he or she knows others will want some. 

A person at work who takes credit for the hard work of others and who takes a larger share of the bonus money or prize for sales, even if he or she did not actually do anything to earn it. In other words, he or she takes other people’s rights.
The Causing Factors of Greed

Here are the causing factors of greed:



  1. Early negative experiences

  2. Misconceptions about the nature of self, life or others

  3. A constant fear and sense of insecurity

  4. A maladaptive strategy to protect the self

  5. A persona to hide all of the above in adulthood

Early Negative Experiences

In the case of greed, the early negative experiences typically consist of insufficient or inadequate nurturing in early childhood. The situations causing such experiences could be natural and unavoidable, such as the death of a parent when childhood or living in a time of famine.



Misconceptions

From such experiences of deprivation and lack, the child comes to perceive life as being unreliable and limited, but containing the missing ingredient for happiness:



I cannot truly be myself, a whole person, until I get what has always been missing.

Life is limited. There isn’t enough for everyone. I miss out because other people are taking my share, getting what is rightfully mine.

Over time, the growing child might also become cynical about what life has to offer:



I cannot trust anyone to give me what I need.

If I am given a gift, there must be something wrong with it.

Fear

Based on the above  misconceptions and early negative experiences, the child becomes gripped by a specific kind of fear. In this case, the fear is of lack—of having to go without something essential as there may not be enough of it to go around.



Strategy

The basic strategy for coping with this fear of lack is to acquire, possess and hoard the “needed” things. Typically this involves:

1.obsessively seeking the chosen substitute for the original lack;


  1. preventing others from acquiring it;

  2. criticising what is available (in the hope of eliciting something better);

  3. blaming others for failing to provide enough

Persona

Finally, emerging into adulthood, the chief feature of greed puts on a socially-acceptable mask which says to the world, “I am not selfish. I am not greedy. I am not doing this for me. See how generous I am. See how my possessions make other people happy.” In fact, the greedy person is never happy so long as the possibility of lack remains.


2.The Data

In analyzing the data, the writer used textual approach, namely by analyzing the plot and the characters of the play relating to the moral values of human life.

The source of the data is sentences taken from the play by William Shakespeare, King Lear. The sentence is something that spoken up or produced by each character along the play that is related to the need of the analysis.

To collect the data, the writer evaluated the way of the characters speak expressing their personalities, actions, thought, and all related aspects of their communication in the play.

Basye and Dob stated, “If money is, as it is often posited, the root of all evil, then where does that leave greed? Let us do the math: Greed takes up most of your time and most of your money, so therefore greed = time x money. And, as we all know, time = money. Greed = money x money. So, if money is the square root of all evil, then we are forced to conclude that greed is evil as well, perhaps even more so, in that it forced us to do math. But when does the desire to simply possess something turn into unchecked greed? That is easy: when the things that you possess start possessing you,” (Basye and Dob 2009: 361).

The data having been gathered will be analysed in the following steps:



  1. Analyzing the early negative experiences faced by the characters in the drama particularly whose minds are full of greed, namely the two Lear’s daughters.

  2. Analyzing the misconceptions about the nature of self, life or others in the drama

  3. Analyzing the constant fear and sense of insecurity in the drama

  4. Analyzing the maladaptive strategy to protect the self in the drama

  5. Analyzing the persona to hide all of the above in adulthood in the drama


3.Data Analysis Of The Causing Factors Of Greed In Shakespeare’s King Lear

The Early Negative Experiences

In the case of greed, the early negative experiences typically consist of insufficient or inadequate nurturing in early childhood. The play opens in a room in the palace of King Lear, a legendary ruler of Britain in the time before Britain became fully Christianized. Two noblemen, the Earl of Kent and the Earl of Gloucester, are chatting about court politics.

Kent : “I thought the king had more affected the Duke of Albany than Cornwall.”

Gloucester: “It did always seem so to us: but now, in the division of the kingdom, it appears not which of the dukes he values most; for equalities are so weighed, that curiosity in neither can make choice of either’s moiety.” (Shakespeare, Act I, Scene i)

From this gossip we discover that Lear-who we later learn is about eighty years old-has decided to give up his throne before he dies. He realizes that it is the proper time for him to divide the kingdom over his three daughters and enjoy life in his old age. He intends to divide Britain among his three daughters, who are named Goneril, Regan and Cordelia.

In this case, the the early negative experience faced by Cornwall is not during childhood or the death of parent or even living in time of famine. However, he is facing such experience in his marriage with Regan. He has to come to reality life that King Lear likes Albany better than him. It shows us that since Cornwall faces the early negative experience in his marriage with Regan, he changes his mind. If he can not get the pure or equal love or attention of a father-in-law towards his son-in-law, then he must get what his father-in-law has, the power. All infants are born with natural desire for love, nurture, care, attention and interaction.

In the play King Lear, Cornwall experiences the early negative experience as he has married with Regan. In other words, he is an adult already. The natural desire of love, nurture, care, attention and interaction appear as the time goes by. At that moment when he realizes that Lear prefers Albany to him, he starts thinking if he can not get Lear’s love, nurture, care, attention and interaction as what his father-in-law is supposed to do, then he finds the other alternatives or substitutes. Enough for him to become terrified of never getting enough of what he needs. The substitute is the power of King Lear itself.


The Misconceptions about the self nature

We can say that misconception is a false point of view about something or someone. In the case of the play King Lear, we have talked about the first causing factor, early negative experiences. From such experiences of deprivation and lack, the characters, Cornwall, Regan, Edmund, and Goneril come to perceive life as being unreliable and limited, but containing the missing ingredient for happiness.Cornwall, Edmund, Goneril, and Regan are not children anymore. They have these misconceptions in their adulthood from the early negative experience they have faced before.

Edmund :”Well, then, Legitimate Edgar, I must have your land: our father’s love is to the bastard Edmund as to the legitimate: fine word,-- legitimate! Well, my legitimate, if this letter speed, and my invention thrive, Edmund the base shall top the legitimate. I grow; I prosper: now, gods, stand up for bastards! (Shakespeare, Act I, Scene ii)

The misconception of his is he thinks that life is limited. There is not enough for everyone. He misses out because other people are taking his share, getting what is rightfully his. In fact, the legitimate Edgar is more rightful to get the more share of the kingdom.

Because misconceptions, neither Regan nor Cornwall show much sympathy for Gloucester’s misery as a father, although Regan, calling Gloucester her “good old friend,” tells him not to worry. She and her husband will take care of his treacherous son, Edgar. Goneril’s misconception is “I cannot trust anyone to give me what I need.”

It is very obviously portrayed that the misconceptions about the nature of self lead them to become greedy characters. It is not only the greed of power from the division of King Lera’s kingdom, but also the greed of love. Both of them love Edmund eventhough they have married. Regan becomes widow, and she does not need time to be kept in sorrow over her husband’s death, she finds another passionate love on Edmund. She is lucky in this situation as she has no reason to stay far from Edmund.

Unlike Regan, Goneril who loves Edmund too has Albany, her good husband. Her love to Edmund is as passionate as Regan is. She even plans to be separated and to have Edmund kill Albany in order they can marry soon. Goneril does not stop only at that moment. As she knows Regan, her sister, has a big chance to be Edmund’s wife, she poisons Regan. She feels guilty and embarrassed that Albany now knows what she has done to him and to Regan, she at last decides to commit suicide. How evil this woman is.
The Constant Fear and Sense of Insecurity

Based on the above misconceptions and early negative experiences, the characters, the two sisters, Edmund and Cornwall become gripped by a specific kind of fear. In this case, the fear is of lack—of having to go without something essential as there may not be enough of it to go around.They will also tend to envy people who have those things and do whatever efforts to get them right away.


The Maladaptive Strategy to Protect the Self

The basic strategy for coping with this fear of lack is to acquire, posses and hoard the “needed” things. Typically this involves hoarding it, preventing others from aquiring it, criticising what is available (in the hope of eliciting something better), and blaming others for failing to provide enough eventhough it is not other people’s faults at all.


The Persona

Finally, emerging into adulthood, the chief feature of greed puts on a socially-acceptable mask which says to the world, “I am not selfish. I am not greedy. I never take other people’s right. In fact, the greedy person is never happy so long as the possibility of lack remains. They will look for until they get.


4.Conclusions

There are five causing factors of greed in this Shakespeare’s King Lear namely, the early negative experiences, the misconceptions about the nature of self, life or others, the constant fear and sense of insecurity, the maladaptive startegy to protect the self, and the persona to hide all of the above in childhood.

Again, greed refers to our selfishness, misplaced desire, attachment, and grasping for happiness and satisfaction outside of ourselves. History has shown that greed has made many people evil and they will resort to anything to get what they want. Once they get what they want, they will want more than what actually they need. Greed can make people do bad things and it has a powerful influence on our lives and it affects the way we find happiness. With this sublime understanding we can clearly see and feel the factors that are causing greed in William Shakespeare’s King Lear.

After reading the play of William Shakespeare’s entitled King Lear, the writer has some suggestions and the writer also hopes her suggestions will be useful for the readers.

Firstly, for readers this drama is useful to read as a guide to conduct and judge something if the reader is involved in a matter because in judging a particular problem, we must not be affected by our ambitious desire. Desire without control and without suppression will make us face many difficult problems. Next, in this play, the writer finds incidents which are relevant to those the present society.

References
Charles and Mary L. 1960. More Tales from Shakespeare (Hongkong: Wing Tai Cheung Printing Co., Ltd)

Dale E. B. and Bob D. 2009. In Rapacia: The Second Circle of Heck (United States of America: Kids Trade)

“Drama” . 2009. Meriam Webster’s Dictionary

Fromm, E. 1941. Escape from Freedom (United States: Farrar & Rinehart)

“Greed”. 2009. Meriam Webster’s Dictionary

“Greed”. 2000. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary

“Greed”. 1983. The American Herritage Dictionary of The English Language

(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company)

How to avoid greed, October 24, 2013



Download 1.34 Mb.

Share with your friends:
  1   2   3




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2023
send message

    Main page