Important articles communal violence

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Mind- Mapping:

  • Though the government has hiked the pay packet of the MP’s, what do you think are the reasons for low productivity? Suggest remedial measures for the same.

  • Do you think the quality of the debates happening is detiorating? What are the reasons behind it?

  • Significance of Article 105. What are its merits and demerits?

Poorna Shakti Kendras to empower rural women

To ensure the socio-economic development of women in rural areas, the National Mission for Empowerment of Women is promoting a model intervention project. The project is launched across 21 districts nationwide.

The women’s centre- Poorna Shakti Kendra, established in villages would offer services to women at the grassroots. The motto of the Kendra is “hum sunenge nari ki baat” (we will listen to women’s voices), where two women coordinators or Gram Samanvayaks in each Kendra will help women get pensions and voter identity and Aadhaar cards.

One of the important elements of the project is the stress on processes instrumental in bringing about women’s empowerment through convergence strategies on the ground.

Similarly, to encourage universal social mobilisation through self-help groups under the National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM), attention is being paid to women’s empowerment. The NRLM proposes to ensure universal financial inclusion by facilitating opening of savings accounts by all SHGs, while encouraging their thrift and credit activities and other financial services. Under the NRLM, there shall be one rural self-employment training institute in each district. Each will train at least 750 candidates of the below poverty level (BPL) category.

More about National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM):

Aajeevika – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) was launched by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), Government of India in June 2011. Aided in part through investment support by the World Bank, the Mission aims at creating efficient and effective institutional platforms of the rural poor enabling them to increase household income through sustainable livelihood enhancements and improved access to financial services.

NRLM implementation is in a Mission Mode. This enables

shift from the present allocation based strategy to a demand driven strategy enabling the states to formulate their own livelihoods-based poverty reduction action plans,

focus on targets, outcomes and time bound delivery,

continuous capacity building, imparting requisite skills and creating linkages with livelihoods opportunities for the poor, including those emerging in the organized sector, and

monitoring against targets of poverty outcomes. As NRLM follows a demand driven strategy, the States have the flexibility to develop their livelihoods-based perspective plans and annual action plans for poverty reduction. The overall plans would be within the allocation for the state based on inter-se poverty ratios.

NRLM Mission

“To reduce poverty by enabling the poor households to access gainful self-employment and skilled wage employment opportunities, resulting in appreciable improvement in their livelihoods on a sustainable basis, through building strong grassroots institutions of the poor.”


  • What do you understand by ‘women empowerment’?  What are the steps taken by the Govt of India in order to empower women? What are the issues? Your suggestions.

  • Role of self-help group in empowering women?

Courtesy – (image)

Mahadayi water dispute: Karnataka & Goa

The Mahadayi Water Disputes Tribunal adjudicates the water dispute among the States of Goa and Karnataka. A 13-member tribunal team, headed by the former Supreme Court judge J.M. Panchal, had toured the northern areas of the Karnataka from December 18 to 22 (2013).

Karnataka has decided to construct the Kalasa-Banduri Nala project which envisages diversion of 7.56 tmcft of water to the Malaprabha dam by constructing dams across the Kalasa and the Banduri nalas and diversion canals to provide drinking water to towns and villages in Belgaum, Dharwad, Bagalkot and Gadag districts.

The Goa government is opposed to the project.


  • Functions of Water Disputes Tribunals? Are the tribunals solving the problems faced by the neighbouring states? If not, what should be the remedial action taken in this regard?

  • Disputes between the riparian states on sharing of river waters in post-Independence India are becoming increasing complex. Objectively analyze the major disputes in this connection, with special reference to the southern states. (2010 UPSC question)

Half of Odisha’s iron ore mines lack clearance: Shah Commission

According to the Justice M.B. Shah Commission report on illegal iron and manganese ore mining – 94 of the 192 iron ore mining leases in Odisha do not have the mandatory environmental clearances. And of the 96 that did have them, 75 have mined far beyond their permitted levels over the past several years.

The report reveals that, how the mines have continued to use a loophole in the law for years and atrociously violated environmental and other norms to pump out iron at a time when international prices of the metal are booming.

The mining leases operated close to wildlife areas without adequate protection to wildlife. The mandatory forest clearances had not been obtained in several cases. Water bodies in and around the mines had been polluted. Water had depleted in natural streams in some cases and forestlands impacted adversely in several.

A mining project within 10 kilometre vicinity of a protected wildlife area requires mandatory clearance from the National Board of Wildlife, which too was not obtained in several cases.

According to the Shah Commission both the Central government authorities and the Odisha government were responsible for the blatant and wide-ranging illegal mining that have continued unchecked for years. It has recommended that the entire extraction in all cases where leases operated without mandatory environmental clearances be treated as illegal and the market value domestic or export recovered from defaulting miners.

Courtesy – Hindu Newspaper

To know more Shah Commission refer our ‘Insights Current Events Analysis Magazine’ (OCTOBER, 2013)


  • Impact of illegal mining on the environment, wildlife and economy of India (also on the health of the people). What are the measures taken by the govt in this regard?

  • Amid a number of rules & regulations and laws formulated by the govt. there have been frequent violations. What do you think is the reason behind it? How can this be rectified? (link this with Goa, Karnataka mining scam)

  • Why was Shah Commission set up?

National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) Survey

One-eighth of India’s urban population lives in slums: NSSO

According to the latest round of the National Sample Survey – just under 9 million households, or roughly one-eighth of India’s urban population, lives in a slum. The number is significantly lower than the 14 million slum households identified by the Census in 2011

NSSO, like the Census, has taken into account both slums notified as such by the State government or the local body, and non-notified slums. The NSSO definition of a non-notified slum was slightly more generous than that of the Census; any crowded settlement with poor sanitation and at least 20 households was considered a slum by the NSSO, while the Census required at least 60-70 households.

Maharashtra accounted for 23% of the total slum population according to the NSSO, followed by Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal. Over half of the slum population lived in 53 million-plus cities.

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