D Every discovery about the device has raised new questions. Who built the device, and for what purpose Why did the technology behind it disappear for the next thousand years What does the device tell us about ancient Greek culture And does the marvelous construction, and the precise knowledge of the movement of the sun and moon and Earth that it implies, tell us how the ancients grappled with ideas about determinism and human destiny E "We have gear trains from the 9th century in Baghdad used for simpler displays of the solar and lunar motions relative to one another — they use eight gears said Frangois Charette, a historian of science in Germany who wrote an editorial accompanying anew study of the mechanism two weeks ago in the journal Nature. In this case, we have more than 30 gears. To see it on a computer animation makes it mind-boggling. There is no doubt it was a technological masterpiece" F The device was probably built between 100 and 140 BC, and the understanding of astronomy it displays seems to have been based on knowledge developed by the Babylonians around 300-700 BC, said Mike Edmunds, a professor of astrophysics at Cardiff University in Britain. He led a research team that reconstructed what the gear mechanism would have looked like by using advanced three- dimensional-imaging technology. The group also decoded a number of the inscriptions. The mechanism explores the relationship between lunar months __ the time it takes for the moon to cycle
71 | P age b through its phases, say, full moon to full moon -and calendar years. The gears had to be cut precisely to reflect this complex relationship 19 calendar years equal 235 lunar months. G By turning the gear mechanism, which included what Edmunds called a beautiful system of epicyclic gears that factored in the elliptical orbit of the moon, a person could check what the sky would have looked like on a date in the pastor how it would appear in the future. The mechanism was encased in a box with doors in front and back covered with inscriptions -- a sort of instruction manual. Inside the front door were pointers indicating the date and the position of the sun, moon and zodiac, while opening the backdoor revealed the relationship between calendar years and lunar months, and a mechanism to predict eclipses. H "If they needed to know when eclipses would occur, and this related to the rising and setting of stars and related them to dates and religious experiences, the mechanism would directly help" said Yanis Bitsakis, a physicist at the University of Athens who co- wrote the Nature paper. "It is a mechanical computer. You turn the handle and you have a date on the front Building it would have been expensive and required the interaction of astronomer, engineers, intellectuals and craftspeople. Charette said the device overturned conventional ideas that the ancient Greeks were primarily ivory tower thinkers who did not deign to muddy their hands with technical stuff. It is a reminder, he said, that while the study of history often focuses on written texts, they can tell us only a fraction of what went on at a particular time. I Imagine a future historian encountering philosophy texts written in our time and an aircraft engine. The books would tell that researcher what a few scholars were thinking today, but the engine would give them afar better window into how technology influenced our everyday lives. Charette said it was unlikely that the device was used by practitioners of astrology, then still in its infancy. More likely, he said, it was bound fora mantelpiece in some rich Roman’s home. Given that astronomers of the time already knew how to calculate the positions of the sun and the moon and to predict eclipses without the device,
72 | P age b it would have been the equivalent of a device built fora planetarium today __ something to spur popular interest, or at least claim bragging rights. J Why was the technology that went into the device lost "The time this was built, the jackboot of Rome was coming through, “Edmunds said. "The Romans were good at town planning and sanitation but were not known for their interest in science The fact that the device was so complex, and that it was being shipped with a quantity of other luxury items, tells Edmunds that it is very unlikely to have been the on ever made. Its sophistication "is such that it can’t have been the only one" Edmunds said. "There must have been a tradition of making them. We're always hopeful a better one will surface" Indeed, he said, he hopes that his study and the renewed interest in the Antikythera Mechanism will prompt second looks by both amateurs and professionals around the world. "The archaeological world may look in their cupboards and maybe say, That isn’t a bit of rusty old metal in the cupboard Questions 14-18 The reading Passage hasten paragraphs A- J. Which paragraph contains the following information Write the correct letter A-J, in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet. 14. Content inside the wreck ship 15. Ancient astronomers and craftsman might involve 16. The location of Antikythera Mechanism 17. Details of how it was found 18. Appearance and structure of the mechanism Questions 19-22
73 | P age b Summary Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 19-22 on your answer sheet. An ancient huge sunk _______________ 19______ was found accidentally by sponges searcher. The ship loaded with ______ 20______ such as bronze and sculptures. However, an archaeologist found a junk similar to a 21______ which has Greek script on it. This inspiring and elaborated device was found to be the first _______22 _______ in the world. Questions 23-26 Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed AC) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters AF in boxes 23-27 on your answer sheet. NB you may use any letter more than once A Yanis Bitsakis B Mike Edmunds C Francois Charette 23. More complicated than previous device 24. Anticipate to find more Antikythera Mechanism in the future 25. Antikythera Mechanism was found related to moon 26. Mechanism assisted ancient people to calculate movement of stars.
74 | P age b SECTION 3 Save Endangered Language Obviously we must do some serious rethinking of our priorities, lest linguistics go down in history as the only science that presided obviously over the disappearance of 90 percent of the very field to which it is dedicated" - Michael Krauss, The World’s Languages in Crisis. A Ten years ago Michael Krauss sent a shudder through the discipline of linguistics with his prediction that half the 6,000 or so languages spoken in the world would cease to be uttered within a century. Unless scientists and community leaders directed a worldwide effort to stabilize the decline of local languages, he warned, nine tenths of the linguistic diversity of humankind would probably be doomed to extinction. Krauss’s prediction was little more than an educated guess, but other respected linguists had been clanging out similar alarms. Keneth L. Hale of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology noted in the same journal issue that eight languages on which he had done fieldwork had since passed into extinction. A 1990 survey in Australia found that 70 of the 90 surviving Aboriginal languages were no longer used regularly by all age groups. The same was true for all but 20 of the 175 Native American languages spoken or remembered in the US, Krauss told a congressional panel in 1992. B Many experts in the field mourn the loss of rare languages, for several reasons. To start, there is scientific self-interest: some of the most basic questions in linguistics have to do with the limits of human speech, which are far from fully explored. Many researchers would like to know which structural elements of grammar and vocabulary —if anyare truly universal and probably therefore hardwired into the human brain. Other scientists try to reconstruct ancient migration patterns by comparing borrowed words that appear in otherwise unrelated languages. In each of these cases, the wider the portfolio of languages you study, the more likely you are to get the right answers.
75 | P age b C Despite the near constant buzz in linguistics about endangered languages over the past 10 years, the field has accomplished depressingly little. You would think that there would be some organized response to this dire situation ”，some attempt to determine which language can be saved and which should be documented before they disappear, says Sarah G. Thomason, a linguist at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. But there isn’t any such effort organized in the profession. It is only recently that it has become fashionable enough to work on endangered languages Six years ago, recalls Douglas H. Whalen of Yale University, when I asked linguists who was raising money to deal with these problems, I mostly got blank stares So Whalen and a few other linguists founded the Endangered Languages Fund. In the five years to 2001 they were able to collect only $80,000 for research grants. A similar foundation in England, directed by Nicholas Ostler, has raised just $8,000 since 1995. D But there are encouraging signs that the field has turned a comer. The Volkswagen Foundation, a German charity, just issued its second round of grants totaling more than $2 million. It has created a multimedia archive at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in the Netherlands that can house recordings, grammars, dictionaries and other data on endangered languages. To fill the archive, the foundation has dispatched field linguists to document Aweti (100 or so speakers in Brazil) ，Ega (about 300 speakers in Ivory Coast, Waimaa (a few hundred speakers in East Timor, and a dozen or soother languages unlikely to survive the century. The Ford Foundation has also edged into the arena. Its contributions helped to reinvigorate a master-apprentice program created in 1992 by Leanne Hinton of Berkeley and Native Americans worried about the imminent demise of about 50 indigenous languages in California. Fluent speakers receive $3,000 to teach a younger relative (who is also paid) their native tongue through 360 hours of shared activities, spread over six months. So far about 5 teams have completed the program, Hinton says, transmitting at least some knowledge of 25 languages. Its too early to call this language revitalization Hinton admits. In California the death rate of elderly speakers will always be greater than the recruitment rate of young speakers. But at least we prolong the survival of the language That will give linguists more time to record these tongues before they vanish.
76 | P age b E But the master- apprentice approach hasn’t caught on outside the US, and Hinton’s effort is a drop in the sea. At least 440 languages have been reduced to a mere handful of elders, according to the Ethnologue, a catalogue of languages produced by the Dallas- based group SIL International that comes closest to global coverage. For the vast majority of these languages, there is little or no record of their grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation or use in daily life. Even if a language has been fully documented, all that remains once it vanishes from active use is a fossil skeleton, a scattering of features that the scientist was lucky and astute enough to capture. Linguists maybe able to sketch an outline of the forgotten language and fix its place on the evolutionary tree, but little more. How did people start conversations and talk to babies How did husbands and wives converse Hinton asks. Those are the first things you want to learn when you want to revitalize the language. F But there is as yet no discipline of conservation linguistics as there is for biology. Almost every strategy tried so far has succeeded in some places but failed in others, and there seems to be noway to predict with certainty what will work where. Twenty years ago in New Zealand, Maori speakers setup language nests, in which preschoolers were immersed in the native language. Additional Maori-only classes were added as the children progressed through elementary and secondary school. A similar approach was tried in Hawaii, with some success - the number of native speakers has stabilized at 1,000 or so, reports Joseph E. Grimes of SIL International, who is working on Oahu. Students can now get instruction in Hawaiian all the way through university. G One factor that always seems to occur in the demise of a language is that the speakers begin to have collective doubts about the usefulness of language loyalty. Once they start regarding their own language as inferior to the majority language, people stop using it for all situations. Kids pickup on the attitude and prefer the dominant language. In many cases, people don’t notice until they suddenly realize that their kids never speak the language, even at home. This is how Cornish and some dialects of Scottish Gaelic is still only rarely used for daily home life in Ireland, 80 years after the republic was founded with Irish as its first official language.
77 | P age b H Linguists agree that ultimately, the answer to the problem of language extinction is multilingualism. Even uneducated people can learn several languages, as long as they start as children. Indeed, most people in the world speak more than one tongue, and in places such as Cameroon (279 languages, Papua New Guinea (823) and India (387) it is common to speak three or four distinct languages and a dialect or two as well. Most Americans and Canadians, to the west of Quebec, have a gut reaction that anyone speaking another language in front of them is committing an immoral act. You get the same reaction in Australia and Russia. It is no coincidence that these are the areas where languages are disappearing the fastest. The first step in saving dying languages is to persuade the world’s majorities to allow the minorities among them to speak with their own voices. Questions 27-33 The reading passage has eight paragraphs, AH Choose the correct heading for paragraphs AH from the list below. Write the correct number, i – xi, in boxes 27-33 on your answer sheet. List of Headings i. data consistency needed for language ii. consensus on an initiative recommendation for saving dying out languages iii. positive gains for protection iv. minimum requirement for saving a language v. Potential threat to minority language via period when there was absent of real effort made. vii. native language programs launched viii. Lack in confidence in young speakers as a negative factor ix. Practise in several developing countries
78 | P age b x. Value of minority language to linguists. xi. government participation in language field 27. Paragraph A 28. Paragraph B 29. Paragraph D 30. Paragraph E 31. Paragraph F 32. Paragraph G 33. Paragraph H Example Paragraph Cb Questions 34-38 Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed AF) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters AF in boxes 34-38 on your answer sheet. A Nicholas Ostler B Michael Krauss C Joseph E. Grimes D Sarah G. Thomason E Keneth L. Hale F Douglas H. Whalen 34. Reported language conservation practice in Hawaii 35. Predicted that many languages would disappear soon 36. Experienced process that languages die out personally
79 | P age b 37. Raised language fund in England 38. Not enough effort on saving until recent work Questions 39-40 Choose the correct letter, ABC or D. Write your answers in boxes 39-40 on your answer sheet. 39. What is real result of master-apprentice program sponsored by The Ford Foundation A Teach children how to speak B Revive some endangered languages in California C postpone the dying date for some endangered languages D Increase communication between students 40. What should majority language speakers do according to the last paragraph A They should teach their children endangered language in free lessons B They should learn at least four languages C They should show their loyalty toadying language D They should be more tolerant to minority language speaker
80 | P age b Reading Test 6 SECTION 1 Eco-Resort Management Practices A Ecotourism is often regarded as a form of nature-based tourism and has become an important alternative source of tourists. In addition to providing the traditional resort- leisure product, it has been argued that ecotourism resort management should have a particular focus on best-practice environmental management, an educational and interpretive component, and direct and indirect contributions to the conservation of the natural and cultural environment (Ayala, 1996). B Couran Cove Island Resort is a large integrated ecotourism-based resort located south of Brisbane on the Gold Coast, Queensland, and Australia. As the world's population becomes increasingly urbanised, the demand for tourist attractions which are environmentally friendly, serene and offer amenities of a unique nature, has grown rapidly. Couran Cove Resort, which is one such tourist attractions, is located on South Stradbroke Island, occupying approximately 150 hectares of the island. South Stradbroke Island is separated from the mainland by the Broadwater, a stretch of sea 3 kilometers wide More than a century ago, there was only one Stradbroke Island, and there were at least four aboriginal tribes living and hunting on the island. Regrettably, most of the original island dwellers were eventually killed by diseases such as tuberculosis, smallpOx and influenza by the end of the 19th century. The second ship wreak on the island in 1894, and the subsequent destruction of the ship (the Cambus Wallace) because it contained dynamite, caused a large crater in the sandhills on Stradbroke Island. Eventually, the ocean broke through the weakened land form and Stradbroke became two islands. Couran Cove Island Resort is built on one of the world's few naturally- occurring sand lands, which is home to a wide range of plant communities and one of the largest remaining remnants of the rare livistona Rainforest left on the Gold Coast. Many
81 | P age b mangrove and rainforest areas and Malaleuca Wetlands on South Stradbroke Island (and in Queensland, have been cleared, drained or filled for residential, industrial, agricultural or urban development in the first half of the 20th century. Farmers and graziers finally abandoned South Stradbroke Island in 1939 because the vegetation and the soil conditions there were not suitable for agricultural activities. SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES OF COURAN COVE RESORT Being located on an offshore island, the resort is only accessible by means of water transportation. The resort provides hourly ferry service from the marina on the mainland to and from the island. Within the resort, transport modes include walking trails, bicycle tracks and the beach train. The reception area is the counter of the shop which has not changed in 8 years at least. The accommodation is an octagonal "Bure". These are large rooms that are clean but The equipment is tired and in some cases just working. Our ceiling fan only worked on high speed for example. Beds are hard but clean, there is television, radio, an old air conditioner and a small fridge. These "Bures" are right on top of each other and night noises do carry so be careful what you say and do. The only thing is the mosquitos but if you forget to bring mosquito repellant they sell some on the island. As an ecotourism-based resort, most of the planning and development of the attraction has been concentrated on the need to coexist with the fragile natural environment of South Stradbroke Island to achieve sustainable development. WATER AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT C South Stradbroke Island has groundwater at the centre of the island, which has a maximum height of 3 metres above sea level. The water supply is recharged by rainfall and is commonly known as an unconfined freshwater aquifer (StK/1-) . Couran Cove Island Resort obtains its water supply by tapping into this aquifer and extracting it via a bore system. Some of the problems which have threatened the island's freshwater supply
82 | P age b include pollution, contamination and over-consumption. In order to minimise some of these problems, all laundry activities are carried out on the mainland. The resort considers washing machines as onerous to the island's freshwater supply, and that the detergents contain a high level of phosphates which area major source of water pollution. The resort uses LPG-power generation rather than a diesel-powered plant for its energy supply, supplemented by wind turbine, which has reduced greenhouse emissions by 70% of diesel-equivalent generation methods. Excess heat recovered from the generator is used to heat the swimming pool. Hot water in the eco-cabins and for some of the resort's vehicles are solar-powered. Water efficient fittings are also installed in showers and toilets. However, not all the appliances used by the resort are energy efficient, such as refrigerators. Visitors who stay at the resort are encouraged to monitor their water and energy usage via the in-house television systems, and are rewarded with prizes (such as a free return trip to the resort) accordingly if their usage level is low. CONCLUDING REMARKS D We examined a case study of good management practice and a proactive sustainable tourism stance of an eco-resort. In three years of operation, Couran Cove Island Resort has won 23 international and national awards, including the 2001 Australian Tourism Award in the Star Accommodation category. The resort has embraced and has effectively implemented contemporary environmental management practices. It has been argued that the successful implementation of the principles of sustainability should promote long-term social, economic and environmental benefits, while ensuring and enhancing the prospects of continued viability for the tourism enterprise. Couran Cove Island Resort does not conform to the characteristics of the Resort DevelopmentSpectrum, as proposed by Prideaux (2000). According to Prideaux, the resort should beat least at Phase 3 of the model (the National tourism phase, which describes an integrated resort providing 3-4 star hotel-type accommodation. The primary tourist market in Phase 3 of the model consists mainly of interstate visitors. However, the number of interstate and international tourists visiting the resort is small, with the principal locals and residents from nearby towns and the Gold Coast region. The carrying capacity
83 | P age b of Couran Cove does not seem to be of any concern to the Resort management. Given that it is a private commercial ecotourist enterprise, regulating the number of visitors to the resort to minimize damage done to the natural environment on South Stradbroke Island is not a binding constraint. However, the Resort's growth will eventually be constrained by its carrying capacity, and quantity control should be incorporated in the management strategy of the resort.