42 | P age b Questions 14-16 Choose THREE letters AH. Write your answers in boxes 14-16 on your answer sheet. NB Your answers maybe given in any order. Which THREE statements are true of salt AA number of cities take their name from the word salt. B Salt contributed to the French Revolution. C The uses of salt are countless. D Salt has been produced in China for less than 2000 years. E There are many commercial applications for salt F Salt deposits in the state of Kansas are vast. G Salt has few industrial uses nowadays. H Slaves used salt as a currency. Questions 17-21 Complete the summary. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 17-21 on your answer sheet. Salt is such an 17________ that people would not be able to live without it. As well as its uses in cooking, this basic mineral has thousands of business 18____________________ ranging from making paper to the manufacture of soap. Being a prized and 19__________________ it has played a major part in the economies
43 | P age b of many countries. As such, salt has not only led to war, but has also been used to raise 20_____________ by governments in many parts of the world. There are also many instances of its place in religion and culture, being used as a means to get rid of evil 21________________ . Questions 22-27 Do the following statements agree with the information in Reading Passage 2? In boxes 22-27 on your answer sheet write TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information about the statement 22. It has been suggested that salt was responsible for the first war. 23. The first tax on salt was imposed by a Chinese emperor. 24. Salt is no longer used as a form of currency. 25. Most of the money for the construction of the Erie Canal came from salt taxes. 26. Hopi legend believes that salt deposits were placed faraway from civilization to penalize mankind. 27. Alack of salt is connected with the deaths of some soldiers. SECTION 3 Designed to Last Could better design cure our throwaway culture?
44 | P age b A Jonathan Chapman, a senior lecture at the University of Brighton, UK, is one of anew breed of "sustainable designers. Like many of us, they are concerned about the huge waste associated with Western consumer culture and the damage this does to the environment. Some, like Chapman, aim to create objects we will want to keep rather than discard. Others are working to create more efficient or durable consumer goods, or goods designed with recycling in mind. The waste entailed in our fleeting relationships with consumer durables is colossal B Domestic power tools, such as electric drills, area typical example of such waste. However much DIY the purchaser plans to do, the truth is that these things are thrown away having been used, on average, for just ten minutes. Most will serve conscience time, gathering dust on a shelf in the garage people are reluctant to admin that they have wasted their money. However, the end is inevitable thousands of years in landfill waste sites. In its design, manufacture, packaging, transportation and disposal, a power tool consumes many times its own weight in resources, all fora shorter active lifespan than that of the average small insect. C To understand why we have become so wasteful, we should look to the underlying motivation (of consumers. 'People own things to give expression to who they are, and to show what group of people they feel they belong to Chapman says. Ina world of mass production, however, that symbolism has lost much of its potency. For most of human history, people had an intimate relationship with objects they used or treasured. Often they made the objects themselves, or family members passed them on. For more specialist objects, people relied on expert manufacturers living close by, whom they probably knew personally. Chapman points out that all these factors gave objects a history - a narrative - and an emotional connection that today s mass production cannot match. Without these personal connections, consumerist culture instead idolizes novelty We know we can’t buy happiness, but the chance to remake ourselves with glossy, box- fresh products seems irresistible. When the novelty fades we simply renew the excitement by buying more new stuff what John Thackara of Doors of Perception, a network for sharing ideas about the future of design, calls the "schlock of the new.
45 | P age b D As a sustainable designer, Chapman’s solution is what he calls "emotionally durable design. Think about your favorite old jeans. They just don't have the right feel until they have been worn and washed a hundred times, do they It is like they are sharing your life story. You can fake that look, but it isn’t the same. Chapman says the gradual unfolding of a relationship like this transforms our interactions with objects into something richer than simple utility. Swiss industrial analyst Walter Stahel, visiting professor at the University of Surrey, calls it the "teddy- bear factor. No matter how ragged and worn a favorite teddy becomes, we don't rush out and buy another one. As adults, our teddy bear connects us to our childhoods, and this protects it from obsolescence Stahel says this is what sustainable design needs to dob Eb It is not simply about making durable items that people want to keep. Sustainable design is a matter of properly costing the whole process of production, energy use and disposal. It is about the design of systems, the design of culture" says Tim Cooper from the Centre for Sustainable Consumption at Sheffield Hallam University in Britain. He thinks sustainable design has been "surprisingly slow to takeoff but says looming environmental crises and resource depletion are pushing it to the top of the agenda. F Thackara agrees. For him, the roots of impending environmental collapse can be summarized in two words weight and speed. We are making more stuff than the planet can sustain and using vast amounts of energy moving more and more of it around ever faster. The Information Age was supposed to lighten our economies and reduce our impact on the environment, but the reverse seems to be happening. We have simply added information technology to the industrial era and hastened the developed world's metabolism, Thackara argues. G Once you grasp that, the cure is hardly rocket science minimize waste and energy use, stop moving stuff around so much and use people more. EZIO MANZINI，PROFESSOR of industrial design at Politecnico di Milano university, Italy, describes the process of moving to a post-throwaway society as like "changing the engine of an aircraft in mid- flight' Even so, he believes it can be done, and he is not alone.
46 | P age b H Manzini says a crucial step would be to redesign our globalized world into what he calls the "multi- local society. His vision is that every resource, from food to electricity generation, should as far as possible be sourced and distributed locally. These local hubs would then be connected to national and global networks to allow the most efficient use and flow of materials. I So what will post-throwaway consumerism look like Fora start, we will increasingly buy sustainably designed products. This might be as simple as installing energy-saving light bulbs, more efficient washing machines, or choosing locally produced groceries with less packaging. J We will spend lesson material goods and more on services. Instead of buying a second car, for example, we might buy into a car-sharing network. We will also buy less and rent a whole lot more why own things that you hardly use especially things that are likely to be updated all the time Consumer durables will be sold with plans already in place for their disposal. Electronic goods will be designed to be recyclable, with the extra cost added to the retail price as prepayment. As consumers become increasingly concerned about the environment, many big businesses are eagerly adopting sustainable design and brushing up their green credentials to please their customers and stay one step ahead of the competition. You should spend about 20 minutes on question which are based on reading passage 3 on the following pages. Questions 28-32 Choose the correct letter, ABC or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 28-32 on your answer sheet. 28. What does conscience time imply in paragraph 2? A People feel guilty when they throw things away easily.
47 | P age b B The shelf in the garage needs cleaning. C The consumers are unaware of the waste problem. D The power tool should be place in the right place after being used. 29. Prior to the mass production, people own things to show A their quality B their status C their character D their history 30. The word narrative in paragraph 3 refers to A the novelty culture pursued by the customers B the motivation of buying new products C object stories that relate personally and meaningfully to the owners D the image created by the manufacturers 31. Without personal connection, people buy new stuff for A sharing B freshness C collection D family members 32. The writer quotes the old jeans and teddy bear to illustrate that
48 | P age b A products are used for simple utility. B producers should create more special stuff to attract the consumers. C Chapman led a poor childhood life. D the emotional connections make us to keep the objects for longer. Questions 33-36 Complete the summary using the list of words, AH, below. Write the correct letter AH, in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet. Tim Cooper claims that although sustainable design proceeds 33.................................... , the coming problems are pushing the move. In accordance with Tim Cooper, Thackara believes that the origins of the looming environmental crises are weight and 34....................................... The technology which was assumed to have a positive effect on our society actually accelerates the world's To cure this, Manzini proposes a ‘multi-local society which means every resource should be located and redeployed 36............................. A properly B energy C locally D economy E slowly F speed G quickly H metabolism
Questions 37-40 Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write YES if the statement is true
49 | P age b NO if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 37. People often buy things that are seldom used and throw them away. 38. Ina post-throwaway society, we will pay extra money after disposing the electronic goods. 39. Some businesses have jumped on the sustainability bandwagon. 40. Company will spend lesson repairing in the future.
50 | P age b Reading Test 4 SECTION 1 William Gilbert and Magnetism A 16th and 17th centuries saw two great pioneers of modem science Galileo and Gilbert. The impact of their findings is eminent. Gilbert was the first modem scientist, also the accredited father of the science of electricity and magnetism, an Englishman of learning and a physician at the court of Elizabeth. Prior to him, all that was known of electricity and magnetism was what the ancients knew, nothing more than that the : lodestone possessed magnetic properties and that amber and jet, when rubbed, would attract bits of paper or other substances of small specific gravity. However, he is less well-known than he deserves. B Gilbert’s birth predated Galileo. Born in an eminent local family in Colchester county in the UK, on May he went to grammar school, and then studied medicine at St. Johns College, Cambridge, graduating in 1573. Later he traveled in the continent and eventually settled down in London. C He was a very successful and eminent doctor. All this culminated in his election to the president of the Royal Science Society. He was also appointed the personal physician to the Queen (Elizabeth I) and later knighted by the Queen. He faithfully served her until her death. However, he didn’t outlive the Queen for long and died on December 10, 1603, only a few months after his appointment as personal physician to King James. D Gilbert was first interested in chemistry but later changed his focus due to the large portion of mysticism of alchemy involved (such as the transmutation of metal. He gradually developed his interest in physics after the great minds of the ancient, particularly about the knowledge the ancient Greeks had about lodestones, strange minerals with the power to attract iron. In the meantime, Britain became a major seafaring nation in 1588 when the Spanish Armada was defeated, opening the way to British settlement of
51 | P age b America. British ships depended on the magnetic compass, yet no one understood why it worked. Did the polestar attract it, as Columbus once speculated or was there a magnetic mountain at the pole, as described in Odyssey which ships would never approach, because the sailors thought its pull would yank out all their iron nails and fittings For nearly 20 years William Gilbert conducted ingenious experiments to understand magnetism. His works include On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, Great Magnet of the Earth. E Gilbert’s discovery was so important to modem physics. He investigated the nature of magnetism and electricity. He even coined the word electric. Though the early beliefs of magnetism were also largely entangled with superstitions such as that rubbing garlic on lodestone can neutralize its magnetism, one example being that sailors even believed the smell of garlic would even interfere with the action of compass, which is why helmsmen were forbidden to eat it near a ship’s compass. Gilbert also found that metals can be magnetized by rubbing materials such as fur, plastic or the like on them. He named the ends of a magnet north pole and south pole. The magnetic poles can attract or repel, depending on polarity. In addition, however, ordinary iron is always attracted to a magnet. Though he started to study the relationship between magnetism and electricity, sadly he didn’t complete it. His research of static electricity using amber and jet only demonstrated that objects with electrical charges can work like magnets attracting small pieces of paper and stuff. It is a French guy named du Fay that discovered that there are actually two electrical charges, positive and negative. F He also questioned the traditional astronomical beliefs. Though a Copernican, he didn’t express in his quintessential beliefs whether the earth is at the center of the universe or in orbit around the sun. However he believed that stars are not equidistant from the earth, but have their own earth-like planets orbiting around them. The earth is itself like a giant magnet, which is also why compasses always point north. They spin on an axis that is aligned with the earth’s polarity. He even likened the polarity of the magnet to the polarity of the earth and built an entire magnetic philosophy on this analogy. In his explanation, magnetism was the soul of the earth. Thus a perfectly spherical lodestone, when aligned with the earth’s poles, would wobble all by itself in 24 hours. Further, he also believed
52 | P age b that suns and other stars wobble just like the earth does around a crystal core, and speculated that the moon might also be a magnet caused to orbit by its magnetic attraction to the earth. This was perhaps the first proposal that a force might cause a heavenly orbit. G His research method was revolutionary in that he used experiments rather than pure logic and reasoning like the ancient Greek philosophers did. It was anew attitude toward scientific investigation. Until then, scientific experiments were not in fashion. It was because of this scientific attitude, together with his contribution to our knowledge of magnetism, that a unit of magneto motive force, also known as magnetic potential, was named Gilbert in his honor. His approach of careful observation and experimentation rather than the authoritative opinion or deductive philosophy of others had laid the very foundation for modem science. Questions 1-7 Reading passage 1 has seven paragraphs AG Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the correct number ix in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet. List of Headings i. Early years of Gilbert ii. What was new about his scientific research method iii. The development of chemistry iv. Questioning traditional astronomy v. Pioneers of the early science vi. Professional and social recognition vii. Becoming the president of the Royal Science Society
53 | P age b viii. The great works of Gilbert ix. His discovery about magnetism x. His change of focus 1. Paragraph A 2. Paragraph B 3. Paragraph C 4. Paragraph D 5. Paragraph E 6. Paragraph F 7. Paragraph G Questions 8-10 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 8-10 on your answer sheet write TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 8. He is less famous than he should be. 9. He was famous as a doctor before he was employed by the Queen 10. He lost faith in the medical theories of his time. Questions 11-13 Choose THREE letters AF.
54 | P age b Write your answers in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet. Which THREE of the following are parts of Gilbert’s discovery A Metal can be transformed into another. B Garlic can remove magnetism. C Metals can be magnetized. D Stars are at different distances from the earth. E The earth wobbles on its axis. F There are two charges of electricity. SECTION 2 Seed Hunting A With quarter of the world's plants set to vanish within the next 50 years, Dough Alexander reports on the scientists working against the clock the preserve the Earths botanical heritage. They travel the four comers of the globe, scouring jungles, forests and savannas. But they're not looking for ancient artefacts, lost treasure or undiscovered tombs. Just pods. It may lack the romantic allure of archaeology, or the whiff of danger that accompanies going after big game, but seed hunting is an increasingly serious business. Some seek seeds for profit —hunters in the employ of biotechnology firms, pharmaceutical companies and private corporations on the lookout for species that will yield the drugs or crops of the future. Others collect to conserve, working to halt the sad slide into extinction facing so many plant species. B Among the pioneers of this botanical treasure hunt was John Tradescant, an English royal gardener who brought back plants and seeds from his journeys abroad in the early
55 | P age b 1600s. Later, the English botanist Sir Joseph Banks who was the first director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew and travelled with Captain James Cook on his voyages near the end of the 18th century —was so driven to expand his collections that he sent botanists around the world at his own expense. C Those heady days of exploration and discovery maybe over, but they have been replaced by a pressing need to preserve our natural history for the future. This modem mission drives hunters such as Dr Michiel van Slageren, a good-natured Dutchman who often sports a wide-brimmed hat in the field —he could easily be mistaken for the cinematic hero Indiana Jones. He and three other seed hunters work at the Millennium Seed Bank, an 80 million pounds sterling international conservation project that aims to protect the world's most endangered wild plant species D The group's headquarters are in a modem glass-and-concrete structure on a 200- hectare Estate at Wakehurst Place in the West Sussex countryside. Within its underground vaults are 260 million dried seeds from 122 countries, all stored at -20 Celsius to survive for centuries. Among the 5，100 species represented are virtually all of Britain's 1,400 native seed-bearing plants, the most complete such collection of any country’s flora. E Overseen by the Royal botanic gardens, the Millennium Seed Bank is the world's largest wild-plant depository. It aims to collect 24,000 species by 2010. The reason is simple thanks to humanity's efforts, an estimated 25 percent of the world's plants are on the verge of extinction and may vanish within 50 years. We're currently responsible for habitat destruction on an unprecedented scale, and during the past 400 years, plant species extinction rates have been about 70 times greater than those indicated by the geological record as being normal. Experts predict that during the next 50 years a further one billion hectares of wilderness will be converted to farmland in developing countries alone. F The implications of this loss are enormous. Besides providing staple food crops, plants area source of many machines and the principal supply of fuel and building materials in
56 | P age b many parts of the world. They also protect soil and help regulate the climate. Yet, across the globe, plant species are being driven to extinction before their potential benefits are discovered. G The world Conservation Union has listed 5,714 threatened species is sure to be much higher. In the UK alone, 300 wild plant species are classified as endangered. The Millennium Seed Bank aims to ensure that even if a plant becomes extinct in the wild, it won’t be lost forever. Stored seeds can be used the help restore damaged or destroyed environment or in scientific research to find new benefits for society in medicine, agriculture or local industry that would otherwise be lost. H Seed banks are an insurance policy to protect the world's plant heritage for the future, explains Dr Paul Smith, another Kew seed hunter. "Seed conservation techniques were originally developed by farmers' he says. Storage is the basis what we do, conserving seeds until you can use them just as in farming" Smith says there’s no reason why any plant species should become extinct, given today’s technology. But he admits that the biggest challenge is finding, naming and categorising all the world's plants. And someone has to gather these seeds before it's too late. "There aren't a lot of people out there doing this" he says The key is to know the flora from a particular area, and that knowledge takes years to acquire" I There are about 1,470 seed banks scattered around the globe, with a combined total of 5.4 million samples, of which perhaps two million are distinct non-duplicates. Most preserve genetic material for agriculture use in order to ensure crop diversity others aim to conserve wild species, although only 15 percent of all banked plants are wild.