A For many environmentalists, the world seems to begetting warmer. As the nearest country of South Polar Region, New Zealand has maintained an upward trend in its average temperature in the past few years. However, the temperature in New Zealand will go up C in the next century while the polar region will go up more than C The different pictures of temperature stem from its surrounding ocean which acts like the air conditioner. Thus New Zealand is comparatively fortunate. B Scientifically speaking, this temperature phenomenon in New Zealand originated from what researchers call ” SAM (Southern Annular Mode, which refers to the wind belt that circles the Southern Oceans including New Zealand and Antarctica. Yet recent work has revealed that changes in SAM in New Zealand have resulted in a weakening of moisture during the summer, and more rainfall in other seasons. A bigger problem may turnout to be heavier droughts for agricultural activities because of more water loss from soil, resulting in poorer harvest before winter when the rainfall arrive too late to rescue.
29 | P age b C Among all the calamities posed by drought, moisture deficit ranks the first. Moisture deficit is the gap between the water plants need during the growing season and the water the earth can offer. Measures of moisture deficit were at their highest since the sin New Zealand. Meanwhile, ecological analyses clearly show moisture deficit is imposed at different growth stage of crops. If moisture deficit occurs around a crucial growth stage, it will cause about 22% reduction ingrain yield as opposed to moisture deficit at vegetative phase. D Global warming is not only affecting agriculture production. When scientists say the country’s snow pack and glaciers are melting at an alarming rate due to global warming, the climate is putting another strain on the local places. For example, when the development of global warming is accompanied by the falling snowline the local skiing industry comes into a crisis. The snowline may move up as the temperature goes up, and then the snow at the bottom will melt earlier. Fortunately, it is going to be favourable for the local skiing industry to tide over tough periods since the quantities of snowfall in some areas are more likely to increase. E What is the reaction of glacier region The climate change can be reflected in the glacier region in southern New Zealand or land covered by ice and snow. The reaction of a glacier to a climatic change involves a complex chain of processes, Overtime periods of years to several decades, cumulative changes in mass balance cause volume and thickness changes, which will affect the flow of ice via altered internal deformation and basal sliding. This dynamic reaction finally leads to glacier length changes, the advance or retreat of glacier tongues. Undoubtedly, glacier mass balance is a more direct signal of annual atmospheric conditions. F The latest research result of National Institute of Water and Atmospheric (NIWA) Research shows that glaciers line keeps moving up because of the impacts of global warning. Further losses of ice can be reflected in Mt. Cook Region. By a 14 km long sector of the glacier had melted down forming a melt lake (Hooker Lake) with a volume. Melting of the glacier front at a rate of 40 m/yr will cause the glacier to retreat at
30 | P age b a rather uniform rate. Therefore, the lake will continue to grow until it reaches the glacier bed. G A direct result of the melting glaciers is the change of high tides that serves the main factor for sea level rise. The trend of sea level rise will bring a threat to the groundwater system for its hyper-saline groundwater and then pose a possibility to decrease the agricultural production. Many experts believe that the best way to counter this trend is to give a longer-term view of sea level change in New Zealand. Indeed, the coastal boundaries need to be upgraded and redefined. H There is no doubt that global warming has affected New Zealand in many aspects. The emphasis on the global warming should be based on the joints efforts of local people and experts who conquer the tough period. For instance, farmers are taking along term, multi- generational approach to adjust the breeds and species according to the temperature. Agriculturists also find ways to tackle the problems that may bring to the soil. In broad terms, going forward, the systemic resilience that’s been going on along time in the ecosystem will continue. I How about animals' reaction Experts have surprisingly realised that animals have unconventional adaptation to global warming. A study has looked at sea turtles on a few northern beaches in New Zealand and it is very interesting to find that sea turtles can become male of female according to the temperature. Further researches will try to find out how rising temperatures would affect the ratio of sex reversal in their growth. Clearly, the temperature of the nest plays a vital role in the sexes of the baby turtles. J Tackling the problems of global warming is never easy in New Zealand, because records show the slow process of global warming may have a different impact on various regions. For New Zealand, the emission of carbon dioxide only accounts for 0.5% of the world’s total, which has met the governmental standard. However, New Zealand’s effort counts only a tip of the iceberg. So far, global warming has been a world issue that still hangs in an ambiguous future. Questions 27-32
31 | P age b Choose the correct letter, ABC or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet. 27. What is the main idea of the first paragraph A The temperature in the polar region will increase less than that in New Zealand in the next century. B The weather and climate of New Zealand is very important to its people because of its close location to the polar region. C The air condition in New Zealand will maintain a high quality because of the ocean. D The temperature of New Zealand will increase less than that of other regions in the next 100 years because it is surrounded by sea. 28. What is one effect of the wind belt that circles the Southern Oceans A New Zealand will have more moisture in winds in summer. B New Zealand needs to face droughts more often in hotter months in a year. C Soil water will increase as a result of weakening moisture in the winds. D Agricultural production will be reduced as a result of more rainfall in other seasons. 29. What does moisture deficit”mean to the grain and crops A The growing condition will be very tough for crops. B The growing season of some plants can hardly be determined. C There will be a huge gap between the water plants needed and the water the earth can offer.
32 | P age b D The soil of grain and crops in New Zealand reached its lowest production since s. 30. What changes will happen to skiing industry due to the global wanning phenomenon A The skiing station may lower the altitude of skiing. B Part of the skiing station needs to move to the north. C The snowfall may increase in part of the skiing station. D The local skiing station may likely to make a profit because of the snowfall increase. 31. Cumulative changes over along period of time in mass balance will lead to A alterations in the volume and thickness of glaciers. B faster changes in internal deformation and basal sliding. C bigger length of glaciers. D retreat of glacier tongues as a result of change in annual atmospheric conditions. 32 Why does the writer mention NIWA in the sixth paragraph A To use a particular example to explain the effects brought by glacier melting. B To emphasize the severance of the further loss of ice in Mt. Cook Region. C To alarm the reader of melting speed of glaciers at a uniform rate. D To note the lake in the region will disappear when it reach the glacier bed. Questions 33-35 Complete the summary below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 33-35 on your answer sheet
33 | P age b Research data shows that sea level has a closely relation with the change of climate. The major reason for the increase in sea level is connected with 33 ____________ , The increase in sea level is also said to have a threat to the underground water system, the destruction of which caused by rise of sea level will lead to a high probability of reduction in 34_____________ . In the long run, New Zealanders may have to improve the 35__________ if they want to diminish the effect change in sea levels. Questions 36-40 Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet, write YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer. NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 36. Farmers are less responsive to climate change than agriculturists. 37. Agricultural sector is too conservative and deal with climate change. 38. Turtle is vulnerable to climate change. 39. The global warming is going slowly, and it may have different effects on different areas in New Zealand 40. New Zealand must cut carbon dioxide emission if they want to solve the problem of global warming.
34 | P age b Reading Test 3 SECTION 1 Grey Workers A Given the speed at which their workers are growing greyer, employers know surprisingly little about how productive they are. The general assumption is that the old are paid more in spite of, rather than because of, their extra productivity. That might partly explain why, when employers are under pressure to cut costs, they persuade the year- olds to take early retirement. Earlier this year, Sun Life of Canada, an insurance company, announced that it was offering redundancy to all its British employees aged or over to bring in new blood. B In Japan, says Mariko Fujiwara, an industrial anthropologist who runs a think-tank for Hakuhodo, Japan’s second-largest advertising agency, most companies are bringing down the retirement age from the traditional 57 to 50 or thereabouts - and in some cases, such as Nissan, to 45. More than perhaps anywhere else, pay in Japan is linked to seniority. Given that the percentage of workers who have spent more than 32 years with the same employer rose from 11% into by it is hardly surprising that seniority-based wage costs have become the most intractable item on corporate profit- and-loss accounts. C In Germany, Patrick Pohl, spokesman for Hoechst, expresses a widely held view The company is trying to lower the average age of the workforce. Perhaps the main reason for replacing older workers is that it makes it easier to defrost the corporate culture. Older workers are less willing to try anew way of thinking. Younger workers are cheaper and more flexible Some German firms are hampered from getting rid of older workers as quickly as they would like. At SGL Carbon, a graphite producer, the average age of workers has been going up not down. The reason, says the company’s Ivo Lingnau, is not that SGL values older workers more. It is collective bargaining the union agreement puts strict limits on the proportion of workers that may retire early.
35 | P age b D Clearly, when older people do heavy physical work, their age may affect their productivity. But other skills may increase with age, including many that are crucial for good management, such as an ability to handle people diplomatically, to run a meeting or to spot a problem before it blows up. Peter Hicks, who coordinates OECD work on the policy implications of ageing, says that plenty of research suggests older people are paid more because they are worth more. E And the virtues of the young maybe exaggerated. The few companies that have kept on older workers find they have good judgment and their productivity is good says Mr Peterson. Besides, their education standards are much better than those of today’s young high- school graduates Companies may say that older workers are not worth training, because they are reaching the end of their working lives in fact, young people tend to switch jobs so frequently that they offer the worst returns on training. The median age for employer-driven training is the late sand early s says Mr Hicks. It goes mainly to managers F Take away those seniority-based pay scales, and older workers may become a much more attractive employment proposition. But most companies (and many workers) are uncomfortable with the idea of reducing someones pay in later life - although workers on piece-rates often earn less overtime. So retaining the services of older workers may mean employing them in new ways. G One innovation, described in Mr. Walker’s report on combating age barriers, was devised by IBM Belgium. Faced with the need to cut staff costs, and having decided to concentrate cuts on 55-60-year-olds, IBM setup a separate company called Skill Team, which reemployed any of the early retired who wanted to goon working up to the age of 60. An employee who joined Skill Team at the age of 55 on a five-year contract would work for 58% of his time, over the full period, for 88% of his last IBM salary. The company offered services to IBM, thus allowing it to retain access to some of the intellectual capital it would otherwise have lost.
36 | P age b H The best way to tempt the old to goon working maybe to build on such bridge jobs part-time or temporary employment that creates a more gradual transition from full-time work to retirement. Mr Quinn, who has studied the phenomenon, finds that, in the United States, nearly half of all men and women who had been in full-time jobs in middle age moved into such bridge jobs at the end of their working lives. In general, it is the best- paid and worst-paid who carry on working There are, he says, two very different types of bridge jobholders - those who continue working because they have to and those who continue working because they want to, even though they could afford to retire I If the hob market grows more flexible, the old may find more jobs that suit them. Often, they will be self-employed. Sometimes, they may start their own businesses a study by David Storey of Warwick University found that, in Britain, 70% of businesses started by people over 55 survived, compared with an average of only 19%. To coax the old back into the job market, work will not only have to pay. It will need to be more fun than touring the country in an Airstream trailer, or seeing the grandchildren, or playing golf. Only then will there be many more Joe Clarks. Questions 1-4 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet, write TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 1. Insurance company Sun Life of Canada made decision that it would hire more Canadian employees rather than British ones in order to get fresh staffs. 2. Unlike other places, employees in Japan get paid according to the years they are employed
37 | P age b 3. Elder workers are laid off by some German companies which are refreshing corporate culture 4. According to Peter Hicks, companies pay older people more regardless of the contribution of they make. Questions 5-6 Choose the correct letter, ABC DE. Write your answers in boxes 5-6 on your answer sheet. According to the passage there are several advantages to hire elder people, please choose TWO from below A their productivity are more superior than the young. B paid less compared with younger ones. C run fast when there is a meeting D have better inter-person relationship E identify problems in an advanced time Questions 7-8 Choose the correct letter, ABC DE. Write your answers in boxes 7-8 on your answer sheet. According to Mr. Peterson, Compared with elder employees, young graduates have several weaknesses in workplace, please choose TWO of them below A they are not worth training.
38 | P age b B their productivity is lower than counterparts. C they change work more often D their academic criteria is someway behind elders' E they are normally high school graduates. Questions 9-13 Choose the correct letter, A，B, Cor D. Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet. 9. According to paragraph F, the firms and workers still hold the opinion that A Older workers are more likely to attract other staff B people are not happy if pay gets lower in retiring age. C Older people have more retaining motivation than young people D young people often earn less for their piece-rates salary. 10. SkillTeam that has been founded by IBM conducted which of following movement A Ask all the old worker to continue their job on former working hours basis B Carry on the action of cutting off the elder’s proportion of employment C Ask employees to work more hours in order to get extra pay D Rehire old employees and kept the salary a bit lower 11. which of the followings is correct according to the research of Mr Quinn A About 50% of all employees in America switched into Bridge' jobs.
39 | P age b B Only the worst-paid continue to work. C More men than women fell into the category of bridgework. D Some old people keep working for their motive rather than economic incentive. 12. Which of the followings is correct according to David Storey A 70% business are successful if hire more older people. B Average success of self-employed business is getting lower. C Self-employed elder people are more likely to survive. D Older people's working hours are more flexible. 13. What is the main purpose of the author in writing this passage A there must be a successful retiring program for the old Bolder people should be correctly valued in employment Cold people should offer more helping young employees grow. D There are more jobs in the world that only employ older people SECTION 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-27, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. The history of salt A Salt is so simple and plentiful that we almost take it for granted. In chemical terms, salt is the combination "of a sodium ion with a chloride on, making it one of the most basic
40 | P age b molecules on earth. It is also one of the most plentiful it has been estimated that salt deposits under the state of Kansas alone could supply the entire world's needs for the next 250,000 years. B But salt is also an essential element. Without it, life itself would be impossible since the human body requires the mineral in order to function properly. The concentration of sodium ions in the blood is directly related to the regulation of safe body fluid levels. And while we are all familiar with its many uses in cooking, we may not be aware that this element is used in some 14,000 commercial applications. From manufacturing pulp and paper to setting dyes in textiles and fabric, from producing soaps and detergents to making our roads safe in winter, salt plays an essential part in our daily lives. C Salt has along and influential role in world history. From the dawn of civilization, it has been a key factor in economic, religious, social and political development In every comer of the world, it has been the subject of superstition, folklore, and warfare, and has even been used as currency. D As a precious and portable commodity, salt has long been a cornerstone of economies throughout history. In fact, researcher MR. Bloch conjectured that civilization began along the edges of the desert because of the natural surface deposits of salt found there. Bloch also believed that the first war - likely fought near the ancient city of Essalt on the Jordan River - could have been fought over the city’s precious supplies of the mineral. E In 2200 BC, the Chinese emperor Hsia Yu levied one of the first known taxes. He taxed salt. In Tibet, Marco Polo noted that tiny cakes of salt were pressed with images of the Grand Khan to be used as coins and to this day among the nomads of Ethiopia’s Danakil Plains it is still used as money. Greek slave traders often bartered it for slaves, giving rise to the expression that someone was "not worth his salt" Roman legionnaires were paid in salt - a salarium, the Latin origin of the word "salary" F Merchants in 12th-century Timbuktu-the gateway to the Sahara Desert and the seat of scholars - valued this mineral as highly as books and gold. In France, Charles of Anjou levied the "gabelle, a salt tax, into finance his conquest of the Kingdom of Naples.
41 | P age b Outrage over the gabelle fueled the French Revolution. Though the revolutionaries eliminated the tax shortly after Louis XVI，the Republic of France reestablished the gabelle in the early 19th Century only in 1946 was it removed from the books. G The Erie Canal, an engineering marvel that connected the Great Lakes to New York’s Hudson River in was called "the ditch that salt built Salt tax revenues paid for half the cost of construction of the canal. The British monarchy supported itself with high salt taxes, leading to a bustling black market for the white crystal. In the earl of Dundonald wrote that every year in England people were arrested for salt smuggling. And protesting against British rule in 1930, Mahatma Gandhi led a mile march to the Arabian Ocean to collect untaxed salt for India's poor. H In religion and culture, salt long held an important place with Greek worshippers consecrating it in their rituals. Further, in Buddhist tradition, salt repels evil spirits, which is why it is customary to throw it over your shoulder before entering your house after a funeral it scares off any evil spirits that maybe clinging to your back. Shinto religion also uses it to purify an area. Before sumo wrestlers enter the ring fora match - which is in reality an elaborate Shinto rite - a handful is thrown into the center to drive off malevolent spirits I In the Southwest of the United States, the Pueblo worship the Salt Mother. Other native tribes had significant restrictions on who was permitted to eat salt Hopi legend holds that the angry Warrior Twins punished mankind by placing valuable salt deposits far from civilization, requiring hard work and bravery to harvest the precious mineral. Today, a gift of salt endures in India as a potent symbol of good luck and a reference to Mahatma Gandhi’s liberation of India. J The effects of salt deficiency are highlighted in times of war, when human bodies and national economies are strained to their limits. Thousands of Napoleon’s troops died during the French retreat from Moscow due to inadequate wound healing and lowered resistance to disease - the results of salt deficiency.