14 | P age b that its effectiveness was not a function of the type of technique with which it was combined. Avoidant responses and affective reunification with the parent were more likely to follow love withdrawal than any other technique. Physical coercion was somewhat less effective than love withdrawal, while reasoning and verbal prohibition were not at all effective except when both were combined with physical coercion. C Noncompliant Children sometimes prefer to say no directly as they were younger, they are easy to deal with the relationship with contemporaries. when they are growing up During the period that children is getting elder, who may learn to use more advanced approaches for their noncompliance. They are more skillful to negotiate or give reasons for refusal rather than show their opposite idea to parents directly' Said Henry Porter, scholar working in Psychology Institute of UK. He indicated that noncompliance means growth in someway, may have benefit for children. Many Experts held different viewpoints in recent years, they tried drilling compliance into children. His collaborator Wallace Freisen believed that Organizing child's daily activities so that they occur in the same order each day as much as possible. This first strategy for defiant children is ultimately the most important. Developing a routine helps a child to know what to expect and increases the chances that he or she will comply with things such as chores, homework, and hygiene requests. When undesirable activities occur in the same order at optimal times during the day, they become habits that are not questioned, but done without thought. Chances are that you have developed some type of routine for yourself in terms of showering, cleaning your house, or doing other types of work. You have an idea in your mind when you will do these things on a regular basis and this helps you to know what to expect. In fact, you have probably already been using most of these compliance strategies for yourself without realizing it. For children, without setting these expectations on a daily basis by making them part of a regular routine, they can become very upset. Just like adults, children think about what they plan to do that day and expect to be able to do what they want. So, when you come along and ask them to do something they weren’t already planning to do that day, this can result in automatic refusals and other undesirable defiant behavior. However, by using this compliance strategy with defiant
15 | P age b children, these activities are done almost everyday in the same general order and the child expects to already do them. D Doctor Steven Walson addressed that organizing fun activities to occur after frequently refused activities. This strategy also works as a positive reinforcer when the child complies with your requests. By arranging your day so that things often refused occur right before highly preferred activities, you are able to eliminate defiant behavior and motivate your child's behavior of doing the undesirable activity. This is not to be presented in away that the preferred activity is only allowed if a defiant child does the non-preferred activity. However, you can word your request in away so that your child assumes that you have to do the non-preferred activity before moving onto the next preferred activity. For example, you do not want to say something such as, "If you clean your room we can play a game" Instead word your request like this,"As soon as you are done cleaning your room we will be able to play that really fun game you wanted to play" E Psychologist Paul Edith insisted praise is the best way to make children to comply with. This is probably a common term you are used to hearing by now. If you praise your child's behavior, he or she will be more likely to do that behavior. So, it is essential to use praise when working with defiant children. It also provides your child with positive attention. However, it is important to know how to praise children in away that encourages future automatic reinforcement for your child when doing a similar behavior. Questions 27-31 Choose the correct letter, ABC or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet, 27. The children, especially boys received good education may A always comply with their parents, words B be good at math
16 | P age b C have a high score at school D disobey their parents order sometimes 28. to their children’s compliance and noncompliance，parents A must be aware of the compliance Bask for help from their teachers C some of them may ignore their noncompliance D pretend not to see 29. According to Henry Porter noncompliance for children A are entirely harmful B may have positive effects C needs medicine assistance D should be treated by expert doctor 30. When children are growing up, they A always try to directly say no Bare more skillful to negotiate C learn to cheat instead of noncompliance D tend to keep silent 31. Which is the possible reaction the passage mentioned for elder children and younger ones if they don’t want to comply with the order
17 | P age b A elder children prefer to refuse directly B elder ones refuse to answer C younger children may reject directly D younger ones may save any words Questions 32-35 Look at the following people and list of statements below. Match each person with the correct statement. Write the correct letter AG in boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet. 32 Henry Porter 33 Wallace Freisen 34 Steven Walson 35 Paul Edith List of statements A children of all ages will indirectly show noncompliance B elder children tend to negotiate rather than show noncompliance C converse behavior means noncompliance D organizing fun activities to occur after frequently refused activities E organizing child’s daily activities in the same order as much as possible.
18 | P age b F use praise in order to make children compliant G take the children to school at a early age Questions 36-40 Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet，write TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 36. Socialization takes along process, while compliance is the beginning of it. 37. Many parents were difficult to be aware of the compliance or noncompliance. 38. Noncompliant Children are simple to deal with the relationship with the people in the same age when they are growing up. 39. Experts never tried drilling compliance into children. 40. Psychologist Paul Edith negated the importance that knowing how to praise children in an encouraged way.
19 | P age b Reading Test 2 SECTION 1 Plant Scents A Everyone is familiar with scented flowers, and many people have heard that floral odors help the plant attract pollinators. This common notion is mostly correct, but it is surprising how little scientific proof of it exists. Of course, not all flowers are pollinated by biological agents for example, many grasses are wind- pollinated—but the flowers of the grasses may still emit volatiles. In fact, plants emit organic molecules all the time, although they may not be obvious to the human nose. As for flower scents that we can detect with our noses, bouquets that attract moths and butterflies generally smell sweet and those that attract certain flies seem rotten to us. B The release of volatiles from vegetative parts of the plant is familiar, although until recently the physiological functions of these chemicals were less clear and had received much less attention from scientists. When the trunk of a pine tree is injured- for example, when a beetle tries to burrow into it- it exudes a very smelly resin. This resin consists mostly of terpenes —hydrocarbons with a backbone of 10，15 or 20 carbons that may also contain atoms of oxygen. The heavier C terpenes, called diterpenes, are glue-like and can cover and immobilize insects as they plug the hole. This defense mechanism is as ancient as it is effective Many samples of fossilized resin, or amber, contain the remains of insects trapped inside. Many other plants emit volatiles when injured, and in some cases the emitted signal helps defend the plant. For example,(Z)_3_ hexenyl acetate, which is known as a green leaf volatile because it is emitted by many plants upon injury, deters females of the moth Heliothis virescens from laying eggs on injured tobacco plants. Interestingly, the profile of emitted tobacco volatiles is different at night than during the day, and it is the nocturnal blend, rich in several (Z) 3_hexen_i-olesters, that is most effective in repelling the night-active H. virescens moths.
20 | P age b C Herbivore induced volatiles often serve as indirect defenses. These bulwarks exist in a variety of plant species, including corn, beans, and the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants not only emit volatiles acutely, at the site where caterpillars, mites, aphids or similar insects are eating them, but also generally from non-damaged parts of the plant. These signals attract a variety of predatory insects that prey on the plant-eaters. For example, some parasitic wasps can detect the volatile signature of a damaged plant and will lay their eggs inside the offending caterpillar eventually the wasp eggs hatch, and the emerging larvae feed on the caterpillar from the inside out. The growth of infected caterpillars is retarded considerably, to the benefit of the plant. Similarly, volatiles released by plants in response to herbivore egg laying can attract parasites of the eggs, thereby preventing them from hatching and avoiding the onslaught of hungry herbivores that would have emerged. Plant volatiles can also be used as a kind of currency in some very indirect defensive schemes. In the rainforest understory tree Leonardoxa africana, ants of the species Petalomyrmex phylax patrol young leaves and attack any herbivorous insects that they encounter. The young leaves emit high levels of the volatile compound methyl salicylate, a compound that the ants use either as a pheromone or as an antiseptic in their nests. It appears that methyl salicylate is both an attractant and a reward offered by the tree to get the ants to perform this valuable deterrent role. D Floral scent has a strong impact on the economic success of many agricultural crops that rely on insect pollinators, including fruit trees such as the bee-pollinated cherry, apple, apricot and peach, as well as vegetables and tropical plants such as papaya. Pollination not only affects crop yield, but also the quality and efficiency of crop production. Many crops require most, if not all, ovules to be fertilized for optimum fruit size and shape. A decrease in fragrance emission reduces the ability of flowers to attract pollinators and results inconsiderable losses for growers, particularly for introduced species that had a specialized pollinator in their place of origin. This problem has been exacerbated by recent disease epidemics that have killed many honeybees, the major insect pollinators in the United States. E One means by which plant breeders circumvent the pollination problem is by breeding self-compatible, or apomictic, varieties that do not require fertilization. Although this
21 | P age b solution is adequate, its drawbacks include near genetic uniformity and consequent susceptibility to pathogens. Some growers have attempted to enhance honeybee foraging by spraying scent compounds on orchard trees, but this approach was costly, had to be repeated, had potentially toxic effects on the soil or local biota, and, in the end, proved to be inefficient. The poor effectiveness of this strategy probably reflects inherent limitations of the artificial, topically applied compounds, which clearly fail to convey the appropriate message to the bees. For example, general spraying of the volatile mixture cannot tell the insects where exactly the blossoms are. Clearly, a more refined strategy is needed. The ability to enhance existing floral scent, create scent de novo or change the characteristics of the scent, which could all be accomplished by genetic engineering, would allow us to manipulate the types of insect pollinators and the frequency of their visits. Moreover, the metabolic engineering of fragrance could increase crop protection against pathogens and pests. F Genetic manipulation of scent will also benefit the floriculture industry. Ornamentals, including cut flowers, foliage and potted plants, play an important aesthetic role inhuman life. Unfortunately, traditional breeding has often produced cultivars with improved vase life, shipping characteristics, color and shape while sacrificing desirable perfumes. The loss of scent among ornamentals, which have a worldwide value of more than $30 billion, makes them important targets for the genetic manipulation of flower fragrance. Some work has already begun in this area, as several groups have created petunia and carnation plants that express the linalool synthase gene from C. Breweri. These experiments are still preliminary For technical reasons, the gene was expressed everywhere in the plant, and although the transgenic plants did create small amounts of linalool, the level was below the threshold of detection for the human nose. Similar experiments in tobacco used genes for other monoterpene synthases, such as the one that produces limonene, but gave similar results. G The next generation of experiments, already in progress, includes sophisticated schemes that target the expression of scent genes specifically to flowers or other organs —such as special glands that can store antimicrobial or herbivore- repellent compounds.
22 | P age b Questions 1-4 The reading Passage has seven paragraphs AG. Which paragraph contains the following information Write the correct letter AG, in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet. 1. Substance released to help plants themselves. 2. Scent helps plant’s pollination. 3. Practice on genetic experiment of fragrance. 4. Plant’s scent attracts herbivore’s enemy for protection. Questions 5-8 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 5-8 on your answer sheet, write TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 5. We have few evidence to support the idea that scent attracts pollinators. 6. Heliothis virescens won’t eat those tobacco leaves on which they laid eggs. 7. Certain ants are attracted by volatiles to guard plants in rainforest. 8. Pollination only affects fruit trees' production rather than other crop trees. Questions 9-13
23 | P age b Choose the correct letter, ABC or D. Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet. 9. How do wasps protect plants when they are attracted by scents according to the passage A plants induce wasps to prey herbivore. B wasps lay eggs into caterpillars. C wasps laid eggs on plants to expel herbivore. D offending caterpillars and wasp eggs coexist well. 10. What reason caused number of honeybees decline m the United States. A pollination process B spread illness C crop trees are poisonous D grower's overlook 11. Which of the following drawbacks about artificial fragrance is NOT mentioned in the passage A it’s very expensive Bit can't tell correct information to pollinators. Cit needs massive manual labour D it poisons local environment 12. The number of $30 billion quoted in the passage is to illustrate the fact that
24 | P age b A favorable perfumes are made from ornamental flowers B traditional floriculture industry needs reform. C genetic operation on scent can make vast profit. D Scent plays a significant role in Ornamental industry. 13. What is weakness of genetic experiments on fragrance A Linalool level is too low to be smelt by nose B no progress made in linalool emission C experiment on tobacco has a better result D transgenic plants produce intense scent SECTION 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. The Development of Plastics A When rubber was first commercially produced in Europe during the nineteenth century, it rapidly became a very important commodity, particularly in the fields of transportation and electricity. However, during the twentieth century a number of new synthetic materials, called plastics, superseded natural rubber in all but a few applications. B Rubber is a polymer — a compound containing large molecules that are formed by the bonding of many smaller, simpler units, repeated over and over again. The same bonding
25 | P age b principle 一 polymerisation一underlies the creation of a huge range of plastics by the chemical industry. C The first plastic was developed as a result of a competition in the USA. In the s, $10,000 was offered to anybody who could replace ivory — supplies of which were declining — with something equally good as a material for making billiard balls. The prize was won by John Wesley Hyatt with a material called celluloid. Celluloid was made by dissolving cellulose, a carbohydrate derived from plants, in a solution of camphor dissolved in ethanol. This new material rapidly found uses in the manufacture of products such as knife handles, detachable collars and cuffs, spectacle frames and photographic film. Without celluloid, the film industry could never have got off the ground at the end of the 19th century. D Celluloid can be repeatedly softened and reshaped by heat, and is known as a thermoplastic. In 1907 Leo Baekeland, a Belgian chemist working in the USA invented a different kind of plastic by causing phenol and formaldehyde to react together. Baekeland called the material Bakelite, and it was the first of the thermosets' plastics that can be cast and moulded while hot, but cannot be softened by heat and reshaped once they have set. Bakelite was a good insulator, and was resistant to water, acids and moderate heat. With these properties it was soon being used in the manufacture of switches, household items, such as knife handles, and electrical components for cars. E Soon chemists began looking for other small molecules that could be strung together to make polymers. In the s, British chemists discovered that the gas ethylene would polymerise under heat and pressure to form a thermoplastic they called polythene. Polypropylene followed in the s. Both were used to make bottles, pipes and plastic bags. A small change in the starting material 一 replacing a hydrogen atom in ethylene with a chlorine atom — produced PVC (polyvinyl chloride) a hard, fireproof plastic suitable for drains and gutters. And by adding certain chemicals, a soft form of PVC could be produced, suitable as a substitute for rubber in items such as waterproof clothing. A closely related plastic was Teflon, or PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene). This had a very low coefficient of friction, making it ideal for bearings, rollers, and nonstick frying pans.
26 | P age b Polystyrene, developed during the sin Germany, was a clear, glass-like material, used in food containers, domestic appliances and toys. Expanded polystyrene — a white, rigid foam — was widely used in packaging and insulation. Polyurethanes, also developed in Germany, found uses as adhesives, coatings, and — in the form of rigid foams — as insulation materials. They are all produced from chemicals derived from crude oil, which contains exactly the same elements carbon and hydrogen as many plastics. F The first of the man-made fibres, nylon, was also created in the s. Its inventor was a chemist called Wallace Carothers, who worked for the DuPont Company in the USA. He found that under the right conditions, two chemicals — hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid would form a polymer that could be pumped out through holes and then stretched to form long glossy threads that could be woven like silk. Its first use was to make parachutes for the US armed forces in World War II. In the postwar years nylon completely replaced silk in the manufacture of stockings. Subsequently many other synthetic fibres joined nylon，including Orion, Acrilan and Terylene. Today most garments are made of a blend of natural fibres, such as cotton and wool, and man-made fibres that make fabrics easier to look after. G The great strength of plastic is its indestructibility. However, this quality is also something of a drawback beaches allover the world, even on the remotest islands, are littered with plastic bottles that nothing can destroy. Nor is it very easy to recycle plastics ，as different types of plastic are often used in the same items and call for different treatments. Plastics can be made biodegradable by incorporating into their structure a material such as starch, which is attacked by bacteria and causes the plastic to fall apart. Other materials can be incorporated that gradually decay in sunlight 一 although bottles made of such materials have to be stored in the dark, to ensure that they do not disintegrate before they have been used. Questions 14-20 Complete the table below.
27 | P age b Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet. Name of plastic Date of invention Original region Property Common use Celluloid S US Clothing and 14______ 15 ______ 1907 US can be cast and moulded but cannot be softened by heat 16 ______ household items and car parts Polythene s 17 ______ bottles Rigid PVC
18 ______ drains and gutters Polystyrene s Germany transparent and resembled to 19 ______ Food container domestic Polyurethanes Germany formation like 20 ______ adhesives,coatings and insulation Questions 21-26 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2? In boxes 21-26 on your answer sheet, write TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
28 | P age b 21. The chemical structure of plastic is very different from that of rubber. 22. John Wesley was a famous chemist. 23. Celluloid and Bakelite react to heat in the same way. 24. The mix of different varieties of plastic can make them less recyclable. 25. Adding starch into plastic does not necessarily make plastic more durable. 26. Some plastic containers have to be preserved in special conditions. SECTION 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40，which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. Global Warming in New Zealand