Ielts reading recent actual tests (2016 2017) with answers published by ieltsmaterial com



Download 1.56 Mb.
View original pdf
Page12/12
Date21.07.2020
Size1.56 Mb.
1   ...   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12

SECTION 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 on the following pages.
Mechanisms of Linguistic Change

154 |
P age b

A The changes that have caused the most disagreement are those in pronunciation. We have various sources of evidence for the pronunciations of earlier times, such as the spellings, the treatment of words borrowed from other languages or borrowed by them, the descriptions of contemporary grammarians and spelling-reformers, and the modern pronunciations in all the languages and dialects concerned From the middle of the sixteenth century, there are in England writers who attempt to describe the position of the speech-organs for the production of English phonemes, and who invent what are in effect systems of phonetic symbols. These various kinds of evidence, combined with a knowledge of the mechanisms of speech-production, can often give us a very good idea of the pronunciation of an earlier age, though absolute certainty is never possible.
B When we study the pronunciation of a language over any period of a few generations or more, we find there are always large-scale regularities in the changes for example, over a certain period of time, just about all the long a vowels in a language may change into long e vowels, or all the b consonants in a certain position (for example at the end of a word) may change into p consonants. Such regular changes are often called sound laws. There are no universal sound laws (even though sound laws often reflect universal tendencies, but simply particular sound laws for one given language (or dialect) atone given period
C It is also possible that fashion plays apart in the process of change. It certainly plays apart in the spread of change one person imitates another, and people with the most prestige are most likely to be imitated, so that a change that takes place in one social group maybe imitated (more or less accurately) by speakers in another group. When asocial group goes up or down in the world, its pronunciation of Russian, which had formerly been considered desirable, became on the contrary an undesirable kind of accent to have, so that people tried to disguise it. Some of the changes in accepted English pronunciation in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries have been shown to consist in the replacement of one style of pronunciation by another style already existing, and it is likely that such substitutions were a result of the great social changes of the period the increased power and wealth of the middle classes, and their steady infiltration

155 |
P age b

upwards into the ranks of the landed gentry, probably carried elements of middle-class pronunciation into upper-class speech.
D A less specific variant of the argument is that the imitation of children is imperfect they copy their parents speech, but never reproduce it exactly. This is true, but it is also true that such deviations from adult speech are usually corrected in later childhood. Perhaps it is more significant that even adults show a certain amount of random variation in their pronunciation of a given phoneme, even if the phonetic context is kept unchanged. This, however, cannot explain changes in pronunciation unless it can be shown that there is some systematic trend in the failures of imitation if they are merely random deviations they will cancel one another out and there will be no net change in the language.
E One such force which is often invoked is the principle of ease, or minimization of effort. The change from fussy to fuzzy would bean example of assimilation, which is a very common kind of change. Assimilation is the changing of a sound under the influence of a neighbouring one. For example, the word scant was once skamt, but them has been changed ton under the influence of the following t. Greater efficiency has hereby been achieved, because n and tare articulated in the same place (with the tip of the tongue against the teeth-ridge), whereas m is articulated elsewhere (with the two lips. So the place of articulation of the nasal consonant has been changed to conform with that of the following plosive. A more recent example of the same kind of thing is the common pronunciation of football as football.
F Assimilation is not the only way in which we change our pronunciation in order to increase efficiency. It is very common for consonants to be lost at the end of a word in Middle English, word-final [- n was often lost in unstressed syllables, so that baken to bake changed from ['ba:kan] to ['ba:k3],and later to [ba:k]. Consonant-clusters are often simplified. Atone time there was at in words like castle and Christmas, and an initial kin words like knight and know. Sometimes a whole syllable is dropped out when two successive syllables begin with the same consonant (haplology): a recent example is temporary, which in Britain is often pronounced as if it were tempory.

156 |
P age b
Questions 27-30 Complete the summary below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet. The pronunciation of living language undergo changes throughout thousands of years. Large scale regular changes are usually called 27___________ . There are three reasons for these changes. Firstly, the influence of one language on another when one person imitates another pronunciation (the most prestige’s), the imitation always partly involving factor of 28______________ . Secondly, the imitation of children from adults language sometimes are 29___________ , and may also contribute to this change if there are insignificant deviations tough later they maybe corrected Finally, for those random variations in pronunciation, the deeper evidence lies in the or minimization of effort.
Questions 31-37 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 31-37 on your answer sheet, write TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
31. it is impossible for modern people to find pronunciation of words in an earlier age
32. The great change of language in Russian history is related to the rising status and fortune of middle classes.
33. All the children learn speeches from adults white they assume that certain language is difficult to imitate exactly.

157 |
P age b
34. Pronunciation with causal inaccuracy will not exert big influence on language changes.
35. The link of can be influenced being pronounced as 'nf'
36. The gin gnat not being pronounced will not be spelt out in the future.
37. The sound of 'temporary' cannot wholly present its spelling.
Questions 38-40 Look at the following sentences and the list of statements below. Match each statement with the correct sentence, AD. Write the correct letter, AD, in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet A Since the speakers can pronounce it with less effort B Assimilation of a sound under the influence of a neighbouring one C It is a trend for changes in pronunciation in a large scale in a given period D Because the speaker can pronounce n and t both in the same time
38. As a consequence, b will be pronounced as
39. The pronunciation of mt changed to [nt]
40. The omit off in the sound of Christmas



158 |
P age b
ANSWER KEYS
Reading Test 1

1 Cb b Ab b Db b Ab b B
6 Ab b B
8 Ebb G
10 NO
11 NOT GIVEN
12 NOT GIVEN
13 YES

14 iii
15 vi
16 i
17 ii
18 ix
19 vb b iv
21
( yellow
– fever) epidemic
22 Finland
23 Governing institutions
24 Europe
25 Einkorn Wheat
26 Singapore

27 Db b Cb b B
30 B
31 Cb b B
33 Ebb Db b F
36 NOT GIVEN
37 YES
38 YES
39 NO
40 NO

Reading Test 2
1 B
2 Ab b F
4 Cb b TRUE
6 NOT GIVEN
7 TRUE
8 FALSE
3 B
10 B
11 Cb b Db b Ab b Photographic Film 15 Bakelite
16 (electric) Switches
17
Britain/UK
18 Fireproof
19 Glass

159 |
P age b
20 Rigid Foams
21 FALSE
22 NOT GIVEN
23 FALSE
24 TRUE
25 TRUE
26 TRUE

27 Db b B
29 Ab b Cb b Ab b Ab b High tides
34 Agricultural production
35 Coastal boundaries
36 NOT GIVEN
37 NOT GIVEN
38 NO
39 YES
40 NO

Reading Test 3
1 NOT GIVEN
2 TRUE
3 TRUE
4 FALSE
5 Db b Ebb Cb b Db b B
10 Db b Db b Cb b B

14 B
15 Ebb F
17 Essential element
18 Applications
19 Portable commodity
20 Taxes
21 Spirits
22 TRUE
23 NOT GIVEN
24 FALSE
25 FALSE
26 TRUE
27 TRUE
28 Ab b B
30 Cb b B
32 Db b Ebb F
35 H
36 Cb b YES
38 NO
39 YES
40 NOT GIVEN




160 |
P age b

Reading Test 4

1 vb bib vi
4 x
5 ix
iv
7 ii
8 True
True
10 Not given
11 Cb Db b E









Reading Test 5

1 Ten thousand
2 South
– East Asia 3 Hard seeds seeds
4 F
5 Ab b Db b Cb b Ebb B
10 Cb b NOT GIVEN
12 FALSE
13 TRUE

14 B
15 H
16 Cb b Ab b G
19 Cargo vessel
20 Luxury items
21 Gearwheel
22 Analog computer
23 Cb b B
25 B
26 Ab
27 vb b X
29 Iii
14 TRUE
15 NOT GIVEN
16 TRUE
17 TRUE
18 FALSE
19 TRUE
20 Extinction
21 Drugs, crops
22 Pioneers
23 Sir Joseph banks
24 Underground vaults
25 Ab b B

27 Db b Ab b G
30 B
31 H
32 F
33 Ab b Db b Cb b FALSE
37 NOT GIVEN
38 TRUE
39 TRUE
40 FALSE

161 |
P age b
30 i
31 Vii
32 Viii
33 ii
34 Cb b B
36 Ebb Ab b Db b Cb b Db Reading Test 6

1 B
2 B
3
D
4 Db b B
6 ferry
7 Bicycle
8
Fan/ceiling fan
9 Air conditioner
10
Mosquitos/ mosquito
11 Ab b Cb b Ebb b



Reading Test 7
1 Spread
2
Rain/rainfall
3 Climate change
4
10 times
5 Primary Fuel
6 Fire Season
7 Cb b B
9 Db b True
11 Not Given
12 True
13 False


14 NOT GIVEN
15 FALSE
16 TRUE
17 FALSE
18 FALSE
19 F
20 B
21 G
22 Cb b H
24 B
25 Db b Ab
27 Vi
28 iv
29 ii
30 Vb b vii
32 F
33 B
34 Ebb D
36 G
37 Ab b Cb b B
40 Cb b True
15 False
16 True

162 |
P age b





Reading Test 8

1 NOT GIVEN
2 FALSE
3 NOT GIVEN
4 TRUE
5 Evergreen
6 Natural pesticides
7 Power
8 Overnight
9
Neem cake
10 Doubles
11 Nitrogen
12 2000
13 Neem seeds
14 Water purification
15 Identical
16 Balls of paper
17 Count Calculate eggs
18 fruits flies
18 Mosquito fish
20 Surface area
21 sugar water
22 TRUE
23 FALSE
24 NOT GIVEN
25 TRUE
26 NOT GIVEN
27 TRUE





17 Not Given
18 True
19 Not Given
20 1976 and 1995
21
2000 floods
22 France
23 1956
24
1998 and 2002
25 1990
26 500
27 Db b False
29 True
30 True
31 Not Given
32 False
33 Not Given
34 True
35 History of Childhood
36 as) miniature adults
37 with the) industrialization
38 The factory act
39 Play and education
40 Classroom

28 F
29 I
30 Cb b B
32 G
33 Cb b B
35 Ab b YES
37 YES
38 NO
39 NOT GIVEN
40 NO


163 |
P age b

Reading Test 9

1 Db b B
3 Cb b Ab b YES
6 NO
7 NOT GIVEN
8 YES
3 NO
10 Farming
11 Curry
12 Natural organic
13 Chemical


28 F
29 Ebb Cb b B
32 G
33 Db b Ab b Cb b Ab b Db b B
39 B
40 Db

Reading Test 10

1 B
2 Cb b Db b TRUE
5 FALSE
6 TRUE
7 FALSE
8 NOT GIVEN
9 TRUE
10 TRUE
11 B
12 Db b F


28 Fashion
29 Imperfect
30 Principle
14 A
15 E
16 F
17 CB J
20 KFC D
24 TRUE
25 FALSE
26 TRUE
27 NOT GIVEN
14 ABC D
18 NOT GIVEN
19 TRUE
20 NOT GIVEN
21 FALSE
22 CBC AB Sound laws

164 |
P age b
31 False
32 False
33 Not Given
34 True
35 True
36 Not Given
37 True
38 CB A






Share with your friends:
1   ...   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2019
send message

    Main page