Identify the five types of controlled substances



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Identify the five types of controlled substances

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Chapter 9 Drug Identification and Toxicology By the end of this chapter you will be able to:
  • Identify the five types of controlled substances
  • Relate signs and symptoms of overdose with a specific class of drugs or toxins
  • Describe the role of various types of toxins in causing death
  • Discuss agents that may be used in bioterrorism
  • Define and describe the goals and practice of toxicology
  • All Rights Reserved South-Western / Cengage Learning © 2012, 2009

Forensic toxicology helps determine cause-and-effect relationships between

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Introduction
  • Forensic toxicology helps determine cause-and-effect relationships between
  • Exposure to a drug or other substance
  • and
  • Toxic or lethal effects from that exposure
  • Toxicology is the study of poisons and the identification of drugs.
    • (Medicinal, Recreational or Criminal purpose)

Toxicity – deals with degree substance if poisonous or can cause injury.

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Introduction
  • Toxicity – deals with degree substance if poisonous or can cause injury.
  • People can be exposed to toxic substances:
  • intentionally— by treating illness or relieving pain
  • accidentally— by harmful combinations or overdoses
  • deliberately— by harming or killing others, or by suicide

Socrates – 399 B.C. (hemlock)

  • History
  • Socrates – 399 B.C. (hemlock)
  • 17th Century (1600’s) – Rich and famous
    • Arsenic and cyanide
  • 18th Century (1700’s) – chemical analysis available
    • Orfila and Christison (M.D.’s)
  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9

Poisoning causes less than ½ of 1% of all homicides

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Poison—Murder, Accidental Overdoses, and Drug Offences
  • Poisoning causes less than ½ of 1% of all homicides
  • Accidental drug overdoses are more common
  • Drug offenders
    • More than 50% of the federal prison population
    • About 20% of the population in state prisons

Illegal drugs – sale and possession are restricted (potential for abuse)

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances
  • Illegal drugs – sale and possession are restricted (potential for abuse)
  • Hallucinogens
  • Narcotics
  • Stimulants
  • Anabolic steroids
  • Depressants

Often derived from plants

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances —Hallucinogens
  • Often derived from plants
  • The effect and intensity of response to these drugs varies from person to person.
  • Affects the user’s perceptions, thinking, self-awareness, and emotions

Affects of an overdose often include

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances —Hallucinogens
  • Affects of an overdose often include
    • Increased heart rate
    • Increased blood pressure
    • Panic attacks, anxiety, or psychosis
  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances —Hallucinogens

Reduce pain by suppressing pain receptors

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances —Narcotics
  • Reduce pain by suppressing pain receptors
  • in the central nervous system
  • Often referred to as pain killers
  • Affects the user’s perceptions, thinking, self
  • awareness, and emotions
  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances —Narcotics

Increases feelings of energy and alertness

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances —Stimulants
  • Increases feelings of energy and alertness
  • Suppresses appetite
  • Afterwards, depression often results
  • Overdose affects include high blood pressure, agitation, confusion, seizures
  • Stimulants tend to be highly addictive
  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances —Stimulants

A chemical structure similar to testosterone

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances —Anabolic Steroids
  • A chemical structure similar to testosterone
  • Promote cell and tissue growth increasing bone mass and body muscle.
  • Popular with weightlifters, bodybuilders, and other athletes
  • What are some of the negative side effects?
  • Mild- acne, baldness, increased body hair
  • Severe- high blood pressure, high cholesterol, impaired male fertility, blood clotting, liver failure,
  • cancer, heart attack

Affects the central nervous system by increasing GABA activity, a neurotransmitter

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances —Depressants
  • Affects the central nervous system by increasing GABA activity, a neurotransmitter
  • Increased GABA causes drowsiness and slowed brain activity
  • Relieves anxiety and produces sleep
  • Side effects include slurred speech and loss of coordination
  • Mixing depressants with alcohol and other drugs increases potency and health risks

In what way are alcohols toxic?

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances —Alcohols
  • In what way are alcohols toxic?
    • Acetaldehyde…..acetic acid……hangover symptoms
  • How is grain alcohol produced?
    • Fermentation of sugar in fruits and grains
  • What are the classic symptoms of a hangover?
    • Dehydration, nausea, headache, weakness
  • What is the effect of alcohol on the central nervous system?
    • Depression
  • What can chronic alcohol abuse cause?
    • Liver damage and dangerous behavior

Tetanus (also called Lockjaw)

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances —Bacterial Toxins
  • Tetanus (also called Lockjaw)
    • Produced by the Clostridium tetani bacteria
    • Causes violent muscle spasms
  • Botulism
    • Produced by Clostridium botulinum—botulism
    • Paralyzes muscles – painful spasms
    • Causes irreversible damage to nerve endings
    • Extremely deadly in very small amounts
    • Most poisonous biological substance
  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances —Pesticides and Heavy Metals
  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances —Pesticides and Heavy Metals

Ricin

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances —Bioterrorism Agents
  • Ricin
  • A poisonous protein in the castor bean
  • Lethal in extremely small amounts
  • Enters the body in various ways:
    • inhaled as a mist or a powder
    • ingested as food or drink
    • injected into the body
  • Causes death within a few hours

Anthrax

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • Controlled Substances—Bioterrorism Agents
  • Anthrax
  • Bacillus anthracis, which forms endospores
  • Spreads to humans from infected animals
  • Enters the human body through:
    • Inhalation; causing breathing problems that usually result in death
    • Ingestion; becoming fatal in 25% to 60% of cases
    • Absorption via the skin; leading to death in about 20% of untreated cases

Forensic toxicology seeks to identify poisons or drugs in criminals and victims.

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • . . . . . . . . . Summary. . . . . . . .
  • Forensic toxicology seeks to identify poisons or drugs in criminals and victims.
  • Toxicology is important in studying cases of drug overdose and sporting violations.

Controlled substances fall into five main groups:

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary. . . .
  • Controlled substances fall into five main groups:
    • Hallucinogens
    • Narcotic
    • Stimulants
    • Steroids
    • Depressants

Poisons can be produced by living organisms.

  • Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 9
  • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary
  • Poisons can be produced by living organisms.
  • Pesticides and heavy metals are common poisons.
  • Bioterrorism agents include ricin and anthrax.


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