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II. International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) overview



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II. International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) overview

IBO mission statement

The International Baccalaureate Organization aims to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect.

To this end the IBO works with schools, governments and international organizations to develop challenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment.

These programmes encourage students across the world to become active, compassionate and lifelong learners who understand that other people, with their differences, can also be right.

IBO fact and figures

The IBO works with over 3200 schools in 140+ countries to offer the three IB programmes to nearly one million students. In the IB Asia-Pacific region, the IBO’s fastest growing region, there are over 330 schools in 27 countries offering the IB Diploma Programme (IBDP). Of the 19 IB World Schools in Japan, 14 offer the Diploma Programme. IB schools in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan are members of the East Asia sub­region. HPA was the first school in this tri-nation sub-region to offer all three IB programmes: Primary Years Programme (PYP), Middle Years Programme (MYP), and Diploma Programme (DP).

Diploma Programme overview http://www.ibo.org/diploma/

The Diploma Programme, started in 1968, is an international pre-university course of study that leads to examinations. It is designed for highly motivated students in the final two years of high school.

The DP is a comprehensive, demanding academic experience that allows students to fulfill the requirements of their state or national education systems. The DP incorporates the best elements of national systems, without being based on any single one.

DP assessment is criterion-referenced: each student’s performance is measured against well-defined levels of achievement. Scores reflect knowledge and skills relative to set standards applied equally to all schools. Academic judgments about candidates’ work rests with over 5000 examiners worldwide, led by chief examiners with international authority in their fields.



The DP curriculum aims to develop in students the ability to reason for themselves, rather than merely accumulate facts. It provides a thorough education in a broad range of subjects. It aims to enhance awareness of our common humanity, to encourage a sense of social responsibility, and to prepare students for higher education. It allows students the freedom to pursue their own needs and interests within a framework of a properly balanced education. It is both a structured programme that offers a strong general education and a flexible programme that acknowledges the particular interests of individual students.

III. Structure and requirements of the DP http://www.ibo.org/diploma/

Alphabet soup

SL standard level,150 hours HL higher level,240 hours TOK theory of knowledge

EE extended essay

CAS creativity, action, service

A1 first language (English)

B2 second language (French, Spanish)

IA Internal Assessment

EA External Assessment

IOP Individual Oral Presentation

IOC Individual Oral Commentary

Core of the Diploma Programme: CAS, extended essay, TOK
2

The core of the hexagon curricular model has three components: creativity, action, service (CAS), the extended essay (EE), and theory of knowledge (TOK).



CAS

CAS promotes education of the “whole person.” The CAS programme encourages students to engage in artistic pursuits, sports and community service, fostering their appreciation of life outside the academic arena. HPA students devote time to CAS activities each week over the 18-month period of the DP.

Extended essay

The extended essay, with an upper limit of 4000 words, gives students the opportunity to investigate in depth a topic of individual interest and acquaints students with the independent research and writing skills expected at the university level. Students choose teachers as their supervisors and spend about 40 hours – during the grade 11 spring and summer and the grade 12 (fall) – to complete the essay.

TOK

The TOK course explores the nature of knowledge across all disciplines, encouraging an appreciation of other cultural perspectives.



Curricular hexagon: six DP subject groups, “breadth and depth”

In addition to the core, the DP curriculum includes six subject groups. These groups are depicted in a hexagon model with the core at its center. Please refer to “A Basis for Practice: The Diploma Programme” (http://www.ibo.org/diploma/documents/basis_diploma.pdf) for more details.



Students who want to earn an IB diploma must study one course from each of the six groups and complete the three core requirements. Of the six courses, at least three, but not more than four, must be studied at the higher level (HL) and the remaining two or three at the standard level (SL). This framework ensures a breadth of study while allowing students the flexibility to explore some subjects in depth.

The IBO recommendation for HL courses is 240 hours of instruction over two years, and 150 hours for SL courses.



Completion of the Diploma Programme

IB diploma candidates must complete all requirements in all areas to receive the coveted IB diploma. Low scores, incomplete work, missed deadlines and academic malpractice can result in failure. Worldwide, about 80% of students who study for the IB diploma are successful. At HPA, since 1991, the success rate has been an impressive 96%.



DP assessment and scores
3

Final scores are awarded in each subject on a scale from 1 to 7, based on a combination of internal assessment and external assessment. The highest total score possible is 45. Internal assessment is conducted by HPA subject teachers. External assessment covers subject-specific requirements – written and oral – and final exams, and is conducted by over 5000 outside examiners.



7 Excellent 6 Very good 5 Good

4 Satisfactory 3 Mediocre 2 Poor

1 Very poor

With 7 points possible in each of the 6 subjects, there are 42 subject points possible.

With 3 possible points from EE and TOK, the maximum IB diploma score is 45.

TOK and extended essay assessment

IB diploma candidates can earn up to 3 points based on their combined TOK and EE grades. Both TOK and the EE are externally assessed and awarded the following grades. An E grade for either the EE or TOK is a failing condition of the IB diploma.



A Excellent B Good C Satisfactory D Mediocre E Elementary

IV. DP course details at HPA

DP course offerings at HPA

At HPA, the IB Diploma Programme (DP) is open only to select 11 and 12 students study in the DP, and nearly all earn the coveted IB diploma. We take pride in offering the DP in a way that allows all students to be successful.

Though a small school in student population, HPA offers a big-school range of DP subjects from which students – with the help of parents, teachers, counselors and the DP coordinator – can create Diploma Programmes that best suit their immediate needs and future plans.

The HPA Diploma Programme is academically rigorous and places heavy time demands on students. An HPA DP student must demonstrate self-discipline and responsibility in pursuit of the IB diploma. The effort, as HPA IB diploma holders will tell you, is well worth it.

Please refer to the “at a glance” sheet for the DP course offerings at HPA, subject each year to slight change. DP exams at HPA

All DP subjects lead to externally assessed examinations in May of each year. Grade 11 students who study history SL, ITGS SL, mathematics SL or math studies SL as anticipated courses take the exams for these subjects in May of their junior year. Exams for all other subjects are taken in May of the senior year. Completing one or two sets of exams in grade 11 is an important consideration.



Diplomas, certificates, HPA graduation

Must an HPA student study all six subjects, take TOK, participate in CAS and write a 4000-word extended essay? Yes, if he or she wants the IB diploma. Such a student is called a diploma candidate.

But because the IB diploma is not required for HPA graduation, HPA students can choose to study only some of the six subjects. These students are called certificate candidates and receive a DP certificate for each subject they pass.

To graduate from HPA, though, all students – diploma and certificate candidates – must, to some extent, study TOK, participate in CAS and write the extended essay. TOK and EE assessment requirements are reduced for certificate candidates, primarily through lower word counts for essays.

Both the diploma and individual subject certificates are valuable items to list on university applications.



Diploma or certificates?

Two paths to an HPA high school diploma:


IB DIPLOMA




DP CERTIFICATES





Six DP subjects

6 in grade 11; 4 or 5 or 6 in grade 12


3 at higher level
3 at standard level

Four or five DP subjects

5 or 6 in grade 11; 3 or 4 or 5 in grade 12


at higher or standard level


same requirements for certificate candidates


Creativity, Action, Service

Theory of Knowledge
reduced requirements for certificate candidates


Extended Essay
reduced requirements for certificate candidates


Coursework in all subjects



  • Examinations in all 6 subjects

  • Internal assessment

  • External assessment

  • Examinations in 3 or 4 or 5 subjects

  • Reduced internal assessment

  • Reduced external assessment



IB diploma
and
HPA high school diploma
and
university acceptance

DP certificates
and
HPA high school diploma
and
university acceptance

HPA graduation requirements
4

Students who do not intend to study for the IB diploma still must take at least five DP courses in grade 11. To fulfill HPA graduation requirements, certificate candidates need to take English in both grades 11 and 12, and a second foreign language, history or ITGS, a science course, and a math course in grade 11.

To be considered a full-time student in grade 12, a student must take either a combination of five DP and non-DP courses or four DP courses. Certificate candidates at HPA also must study in the TOK course, participate in CAS activities, and write a shorter version of the extended essay.


Choosing DP languages and levels
5

The study of languages, both a first language and a second or foreign language, is a significant part of the DP, reflecting its international flavor.

HPA tries to accommodate the language study needs and preferences of all students. Because of the small size of the school, though, language offerings are limited.

Choosing which languages to study and at which levels can be confusing. Below is a description of the different levels of language courses offered.



Group 1: language A1 (first language, mother tongue, best language)

Language A1 is the study of literature in a student's first language. Developing an understanding of the nature and value of one’s language and culture is fundamental for any educational programme claiming to be international. For language A1, all HPA students study English, some at SL and some at HL. Some also study Japanese A1. We recognize that at HPA English is not the first language of many students.

There are two different A1 language courses, for both English and Japanese. One is called A1 Literature and the other is called A1 Language and Literature. Both are offered at HL and SL. Both are of equal difficulty, time commitment, and academic value.

Both the A1 Literature and A1 Language and Literature courses deal with the critical analysis of literary texts and the development of advanced reading and writing skills. Both courses examine texts in their cultural contexts. Both flexibly address the language needs of the students. The Language and Literature course includes the study of non-literary texts. The kinds of assessment differ for the two courses, but assessment is of an equal level and value. One course is not easier than the other.

Both the A1 Literature and A1 Language and Literature courses are offered for English. Because of the limited number of students who take Japanese A1, perhaps only one of the two courses will be offered for Japanese.

An IB diploma student who studies two A1 languages, at SL or HL, receives a “bilingual diploma.”

Group 2: second language (three levels)

The study of a second language promotes cultural understanding. Group 2 modern language courses emphasize language acquisition and usage. There are three group 2 language levels.



  1. Ab initio – beginners

Ab initio courses are two-year language courses (SL only) for beginners, students who have little or no previous experience of learning that language. HPA offers Spanish ab initio and, depending on student need, Japanese ab initio.

  1. Language B standard level – intermediate

  2. Language B higher level – advanced

Language B courses are for more advanced learners of a second language, students with some previous experience – from 2 to 5 years – of learning the language.

Many HPA students study Japanese B. It should be clearly noted that a Japanese B course for some HPA students who use Japanese on a daily basis — sometimes more than English — could be considered as not academically challenging.

Proper planning of second language study

Because DP language selection can be complicated, careful planning – including consultation with counselors, teachers, the HPA principal, and the IBDP coordinator – is necessary as early as ninth grade.

Academic rigor and overload
6

The IB Diploma Programme is very demanding and time consuming and not everyone who attempts it receives the diploma. About 20% of students worldwide who study for the IB diploma fail. HPA students, with the help of their parents, teachers, counselor, and DP coordinator, should carefully consider the ramifications of attempting the full Diploma Programme. The IB diploma is not required for HPA graduation.

There is some danger of students taking on too much work. The full Diploma Programme, combined with extracurricular activities like music, school productions, sports, and student council, and coupled with the university application process, makes for a heavy schedule. Students and parents need to be careful to avoid academic overload. Time management is of utmost importance.

Important notes about anticipated courses

  • Anticipated DP courses are standard level courses that are completed in the first year of the programme. DP regulations allow candidates to take two anticipated courses. HPA offers anticipated courses in groups 3 and 5: history, ITGS, mathematics, and math studies.

  • Anticipated courses are appealing because, by finishing one or two courses in grade 11, students have a less hectic schedule in grade 12.

  • However, finishing a course in one year is demanding. “Accelerated” might be a better descriptor than “anticipated.” Anticipated courses meet five times a week, rather than the usual four, and require much homework. Thus, the grade 11 academic load is heavy.

  • At HPA, to provide more instructional time, parts of the history and maths DP curricula are introduced in the spring trimester of grade 10. Students are expected to complete summer homework.

Outside examiners, missed deadlines, extracurricular activities

Because most DP assessment is conducted by outside examiners, there are many IB-set mailing deadlines. Also, internal school deadlines are set, staggered throughout the year, so that students do not face too much DP work at one time. Missing deadlines may lead to loss of the diploma. To prevent this, if students miss deadlines, they may be withheld from extracurricular activities.



Here is an example for grade 12: The first draft of the 4000-word extended essay (EE) is due in September and the final draft is due mid-November. If a student misses either deadline, he or she may not be allowed to take part in the all-school production, student council, sports, MUN or other after-school activities until the EE is turned in. Also, the student may be withheld from DP registration, thus jeopardizing his or her diploma chances. Late registration fees may be charged to the student.

Still, students who attempt the full diploma do not regret their efforts. Since the school’s start in 1991, 96% of all HPA students who have studied for the IB diploma have succeeded, a superlative success rate.

  • An e-mail message from an HPA graduate sums up the feelings of many HPA IB diploma holders...

From: former HPA student who graduated from Oberlin College in Ohio, USA

Sent: Wednesday, May 07 Subject: Re: congratulations

Thank you, and thank you to the entire HPA faculty. Not only am I graduating early, but I'm also a Phi Beta Kappa. I really, really couldn't have come this far without HPA and IB!



  • An HPA graduate who went on to study at a prestigious music conservatory in London expressed how her knowledge and interests were much broader than those of her fellow students who focused only on music in high school. Though she sacrificed some practice time in order to complete all the work for the DP, she has no regrets about studying for the diploma. She is now a professional musician.

Sample Diploma Programmes for different kinds of students
7


The Scientist (4 higher level subjects)

Group

Higher level subject

Standard level subject

  1. Language A1




English A1

  1. Language B, ab initio

Japanese B




  1. Individuals and societies




ITGS (anticipated)

  1. Experimental sciences

chemistry




  1. Mathematics

mathematics




  1. Arts and electives

biology




Extended essay, 4000 words






CAS






TOK






Non-DP elective

wind ensemble




The Linguist (second A1 language satisfies group 2 requirement)

Group

Higher level subject

Standard level subject

  1. Language A1

English A1, Japanese A1




  1. Language B, ab initio







  1. Individuals and societies

history




  1. Experimental sciences




biology

  1. Mathematics




math studies (anticipated)

  1. Arts and electives




Spanish ab initio

Extended essay, 4000 words






CAS






TOK






Non-DP elective

strings ensemble




Diploma candidate (two anticipated courses in grade 11)

Group

Higher level subject

Standard level subject

  1. Language A1

English A1




  1. Language B, ab initio

Japanese B




  1. Individuals and societies




history (anticipated)

  1. Experimental sciences

biology




  1. Mathematics




mathematics (anticipated)

  1. Arts and electives




visual arts, Option B

Extended essay, 4000 words






CAS






TOK






Non-DP elective

chorus




Please note the heavy course loads carried by 11th graders, especially those who take a non-DP elective music class. These students have little unscheduled time, and some days they have no unscheduled time.

Certificate candidate (one non-DP music elective)
8


Group

Higher level subject

Standard level subject

  1. Language A1




English A1

  1. Language B, ab initio

Japanese B




  1. Individuals and societies




ITGS (anticipated)

  1. Experimental sciences




physics

  1. Mathematics




mathematics (anticipated)

  1. Arts and electives




visual arts, option A

Extended essay, 2000 words






CAS






TOK (reduced assessment)






Non-DP elective

chorus




Certificate candidate (dropped science after grade 11; 3 DP courses, 2 non-DP electives in gr. 12)

Group

Higher level subject

Standard level subject

  1. Language A1

English A1




  1. Language B, ab initio

Japanese B




  1. Individuals and societies




history (anticipated)

  1. Experimental sciences




biology (11th grade only)

  1. Mathematics




math studies (anticipated)

  1. Arts and electives




music

Extended essay, 2000 words






CAS






TOK (reduced assessment)






Non-DP elective

wind ensemble




Non-DP elective

multimedia




Certificate candidate (dropped visual arts after grade 11; 4 DP courses in grade 12)

Group

Higher level subject

Standard level subject

  1. Language A1




English A1

  1. Language B, ab initio

Japanese B




  1. Individuals and societies

history




  1. Experimental sciences




chemistry

  1. Mathematics




mathematics (anticipated)

  1. Arts and electives




visual arts (11th grade only)

Extended essay, 2000 words






CAS






TOK (reduced assessment)






Minimum course load

In grade 12, students must take a minimum of either four DP courses or three DP courses and two non-DP elective courses. Students can take up to two anticipated courses in grade 11.

Students can change their minds at the end of grade 11 (but they must be careful).

The final decision of whether or not to study for the IB diploma can be delayed until the end of grade 11. An 11th grade student could initially design a course of study with the diploma as a goal, and then change plans after grade 11 depending on personal circumstances. A student could, for example, decide to drop a DP science course after grade 11 and still fulfill the HPA graduation requirements for science. But the student would then have to withdraw from being a diploma candidate and become a certificate candidate. This is not unusual.



V. University recognition of the IB diploma
9


Prestige and worldwide recognition

In addition to its own WASC-accredited high school diploma, HPA offers the IB diploma. IB diploma holders are admitted to the most selective universities all over the world. The Diploma Programme has earned a reputation for rigorous assessment, giving IB diploma holders access to the best universities.

University recognition of the IB diploma

The IBO maintains databases of the IB diploma recognition policies of nearly 3000 universities in more than 140 countries. To view the IB diploma policy and contact information of a university, search the IBO databases via these website addresses.



  • www.ibo.org/universities/listalluniversities.cfm

  • www.ibo.org/country/index.cfm

To see which universities around the world offer scholarships for IB diploma holders, please view www.ibo.org/diploma/recognition/scholarships.

How North American universities recognize the IB diploma

Understanding how the IBDP is recognized in North America is a primary concern for students, parents and counselors. Well over half of the students worldwide who graduate with IB credentials each year enter post-secondary institutions in the USA or Canada.



Many North American colleges and universities have exemplary IB recognition policies. Through their policies, these institutions show that they appreciate the IB student and the IB Diploma Programme.

Please view http://ibo.org/diploma/recognition/recognitionpolicy/ for state-by-state and province summaries of the IB diploma recognition policies of universities in the US and Canada.

Examples of DP recognition policies in the United States and Canada

(Please confirm the up-to-date accuracy of the following policies; they are subject to change.)

  • University of British Columbia, Canada

The IBO and UBC share a common vision — that global perspectives are key to education. Of all the universities in the world, UBC is one of the top three choices for IB diploma graduates. At UBC, we are committed to helping IB students find the best way to qualify for admission, scholarships andfirst-year credit.

  • Princeton University, New Jersey, United States

Princeton recognizes the IB diploma and uses examination results for advanced placement purposes. A score of 6 or 7 on higher level examinations is normally accorded advanced placement recognition. You can use advanced placement in three ways: 1. to enter upper-level courses; 2. to fulfill foreign language requirements; 3. to become eligible for graduation in three or three and a halfyears.

  • Bryn Mawr University, Pennsylvania, United States

IB diploma students are superbly prepared for Bryn Mawr. We offer a full year's credit to students with a score of 30 or above. The IB diploma is something more than the sum of its parts in a way that three or four APs are not. It ensures breadth, coherence, basic writing, research and analytic skills.

  • University of Southern California, United States

A transcript that reveals a student's enrollment in IB courses serves notice to the admissions officer that the applicant is someone who accepts rather than avoids educational challenges.

  • University of California (Berkeley, Davis, Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Diego, Irvine, Santa Cruz, etc.) Students completing the IB diploma with a score of 30 or above receive 30 quarter units (20 semester units) toward their UC undergraduate degree.

  • Harvard University

We value IB results. However, results from DP examinations cannot substitute for our required admissions testing. All applicants must submit the results of the SAT I and three SAT II Subject Tests.

DP recognition in the United Kingdom
10

British universities accept the IB diploma as satisfying the general matriculation requirements for entry to all first degree courses and higher education institutions. All applications to British Higher Education institutions are handled centrally by the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS). Applicants apply to UCAS between 1 September and 15 December of the year prior to entry.



UCAS, PO Box 28, Cheltenham, Glos., GL52 3ZA UCAS website: www.ucas.com

The University of Cambridge and The University of Oxford

The IB diploma is highly regarded for entry to all subjects. Diploma candidates should expect to score at least 36 points for Cambridge and 38 points for Oxford to stand a realistic chance of acceptance, with scores of 6s and 7s in HL subjects.



DP recognition in Australia

The IB diploma is recognized by all major universities in Australia. Recognition policy information can be found on the IBO website. Students should make direct contact with universities to check specific course and entry requirements. Some universities offer credit and advanced placement.



DP recognition in Japan

Of over 600 universities in Japan, over half offer special selection procedures for IB diploma holders. Most universities exempt IB diploma holders from taking the National Center Examinations. IB diploma candidates seeking admission to Japanese universities should contact admissions offices directly.

VI. Initial questions revisited: cautious encouragement

Is the IB Diploma Programme worthwhile?

Yes, without a doubt. And so, all students are encouraged to consider studying for the IB diploma.

Is the IB diploma necessary? For graduation from HPA? No.

For admission to universities? Not necessarily. For some students the IB diploma may improve chances of admission to some universities in certain countries. It may help them earn scholarships and credits. For some students hoping to study in Europe, especially in the UK, the diploma may be required for university admission. And yet, many HPA students have been accepted into the universities of their choice around the world without the IB diploma.

And so, students are cautioned to consider realistically their daily academic schedules, to weigh the importance of their extracurricular activities, to think carefully about their future plans, and to research entrance requirements of universities before choosing DP courses or feeling pressured into attempting the full Diploma Programme.



What do we do now?

The path to the IB diploma is not a path for everyone. It is demanding, time consuming, and stressful. So, please research and plan. Then make informed decisions.



  • Think about whether or not you/your child should attempt the IB diploma.

  • Learn more about the IBDP in general and the HPA DP in particular.

  • Research universities to learn about entrance requirements and IB diploma recognition.

  • Get advice from teachers.

  • Tentatively decide which HL and SL subjects to take.

  • Choose DP subjects by completing the pink HPA IBDP course planning sheet.

  • Finally, relax a little; it will all work out.


11





Osaka International School

IB WORLD SCHOOL

HPA International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme
"at a glance"

At HPA, the IB Diploma Programme (DP) is not an honors programme open only to select students: all HPA grade 11 and 12 students study in the DP, and nearly all earn the coveted IB diploma. We take pride in offering the DP in a way that allows all students to be successful.



Though small in student population, HPA offers a big-school range of IBDP subjects from which students, with the help of parents, teachers, counselors and the IBDP coordinator, can build academic programmes that best suit their immediate needs and future plans.

The HPA DP is academically rigorous and places heavy time demands on students. DP students must demonstrate self-discipline, responsibility and time management skills in their pursuit of the IB diploma. The effort, as HPA IB diploma holders will tell you, is well worth it.

Below are the IBDP course offerings at HPA. To receive the IB diploma, students must pass one course from each of the six groups, three at higher level and three at standard level. Courses last two years, with the exception of some one-year anticipated courses as noted.

Group 1: Language Al HL: higher level

English A1 HL, SL SL: standard level

Japanese A1 HL, SL



Group 2: Language B , ab initio

Japanese B HL, SL Spanish ab initio SL Japanese ab initio SL

Group 3: Individuals and Societies History HL (Japan, 1945 to 1995)

History SL (grade 11, one-year course, anticipated) ITGS SL (grade 11, one-year course, anticipated)

Group 4: Experimental Sciences

Biology HL, SL; Chemistry HL, SL; Physics HL, SL



Group 5: Mathematics

Mathematics HL

Mathematics SL (grade 11, one-year course, anticipated)

Mathematical Studies SL (grade 11, one-year course, anticipated)



Group 6: Arts and Electives

Visual Arts HL, SL



Music HL, SL

Elective HL, SL (one other subject from groups 2 or 4)

For more information, please:

  • contact Peter Heimer, IBDP coordinator, 072-727-5290, pheimer@senri.ed.jp

  • visit the IBDP page on the school website at www.senri.ed.jp/ibdp

  • visit the IBO website at www.ibo.org and www.ibo.org/diploma

  • visit the IB office, room 3 24 (third floor, next to tennis court)

IBDP spring and summer study courses

There is a variety of spring and summer study courses for DP students. Some study courses are “pre-DP” courses designed for 10th graders who will enter the Diploma Programme next year. Some are “mid-DP” courses for 11th graders who have finished the first year of the programme.

Locations include Oxford, Cambridge, Harvard, MIT, Stanford, Hong Kong, Sydney, Melbourne, Stockholm – some very prestigious campuses and exciting cities.

These camps provide great opportunities not only for DP preparation, but also for improving language ability, getting a taste of university life overseas, developing independence, gaining motivation for the academic life, and meeting friends.



View these websites for details:

  • www.osc-ib.com (online courses available, too: www.osc-ib.com/ib-online-revision/)

  • www.ibsummerschool.com (Stanford; July)

  • www.lanternaeducation.com/ib (UK, Sweden; winter course; scholarships)

NOTES
12


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