“Cavour united Italy not because he intended or wanted to, but because circumstances forced him to.” To what extent do you agree with this judgement?
In what ways, and with what results between 1862 and 1871, was Germany unified under Prussia? How united was Italy by 1871? Analyse the effects of the 1848 revolution in Prussia on the eventual unification of Germany in 1871. “A popular patriot.” How far do you agree with this judgement on Garibaldi’s contribution to Italian unification? Why, and to what extent, had Prussia replaced Austria as the leading power in the German confederation by 1862? Why has it been claimed that Italian unification needed both a Cavour and a Garibaldi? How far is it true to say that Austria lost control of Germany rather than Prussia gained it? Analyse the aims, motives and policies of Cavour between 1852 and 1861. Compare and contrast Bismarck’s policies towards Austria and France between 1862 and 1871. “The involvement of foreign powers was of crucial importance to the unification of Italy.” How far do you agree with the statement? It has been claimed that Germany was united ‘more by coal and iron than by blood and iron’. How far do you agree that economic power contributed more to the unification of Germany than did the military victories of the 1860s?