I. Introduction II. The International Framework


GGCAGlobal Gender and Climate Alliance



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GGCAGlobal Gender and Climate Alliance

Is a network of 13 UN agencies and 25 civil society organizations, working together to ensure that climate change decision-making, policies and initiatives, at all levels, are gender responsive.


http://www.wedo.org/category/themes/sustainable-development-themes/climatechange/ggca
GenderCC – Women for Climate Justice

Women for Climate Justice is a global network of women and gender activists and experts from all world regions working for gender and climate justice.

http://www.gendercc.net/

Aguilar, L., Araujo, A., Kring, E., Quesada, A. and Zuñiga, P. (2008). Guía: Recursos de género para el cambio climático. México: UNDP


Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) Asian Urban Disaster Mitigation Program (AUDMP) 5th Working Group Meeting Phnom Penh, Cambodia 23-25 February, 2000http://www.adpc.net/audmp/wgm/2000/default.html
CIDA (2008) GENDER EQUALITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE Why consider gender equality when taking action on climate change? Canada
Dit; RICS (2008) Enabling Women’s Empowerment in Post Disaster Reconstruction
Development Assistance in Mozambique: Institutional Barriers and Opportunities.

Policy Research Working Paper 4711.
Forum-Mulher (2007).Shadow Report: Stage of Implementation of the CEDAW in Mozambique. Maputo: Fórum da Mulher,
García, S. (1999) Algunas consideraciones sobre la protección internacional de los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales de la mujer. In: Obra colectiva Mujer y Pobreza .Centro Integral de la Mujer, el Niño y el Joven (CIM). Argentina.
Garrett, Ashley (2003) Gender Equality in Partner Countries. Swedish Agency for International Development. Stockholm:
Gender Analysis of the Plan of Action for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty 2001-2005, and Recommendations for Engendering the PARPA. Washington D.C.
GenderCC (2001) Recommendations Gender and climate change research
Government of Mozambique(2006b).Joint Review of the Government’s implementation of the poverty reduction strategy (PARPA) and of the performance of PAPs. Government of Mozambique
------------ (GoM), Programme Aid Partners (PAPs). www.pap.org.mz
------------ (2003) Plano de Accao para a Reducao da Pobreza Absoluta PARPA I, Maputo
------------ (2005)Report on the Millenium Development Goals. Maputo
------------ (2006a) Plano de Accao para a Reducao da Pobreza Absoluta 2006-2009 PARPA II, Maputo

 Gallina A. and Chidiamassamba C.Gender Aware Approaches in Agricultural Programmes – Mozambique Country Report A special study of the National Agricultural Development Programme (ProAgri II) UTV Working Paper 2010:6 Commissioned by Sida, Secretariat for Evaluation, May 2010

http://sidapublications.citat.se/interface/stream/mabstream.asp?filetype=1&orderlistmainid=2947&printfileid=2947&filex=3952829810503


HTC (2009) Mozambique Humanitarian Country Team, Inter-Agency HCT Contingency Plan 2009/2010
IASAC (2006) Gender Handbook in Humanitarian action: o Women, Girls, Boys and Men Different Needs - Equal Opportunities
INGC Natural Calamities Management Master Plan
------------ (2010) Gender and drought baseline DRAFT
INE (2008) Mulheres e Homens em Moçambique: Indicadores seleccionados de género
Jensen, Rikke Ingrid et al. (2006). Evaluation of DFID's Policy and Practice in Support of Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment. Volume 1: Synthesis Report. Copenhagen: COWI Consult.
Killick,T.; Castel-Branco,C.N. and Gerster, R. (2005). Perfect Partners? The performance of Programme Aid Partners in Mozambique, 2004.A report to the Programme Aid Partners and Government of Mozambique.www.pap.org.mz
MICOA, (2003)Mozambique Initial National Communication to the UNFCCC, Mozambique April
------------ (2005) Avaliação da vulnerabilidade as mudanças climáticas e estratégias de adaptação.

MICOA. Maputo.


------------ (2007) DIRECÇÃO NACIONAL DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL Programa de Acção Nacional para a Adaptação Às Mudanças Climáticas (NAPA)MICOA. Maputo.
------------ (2010) Estrategia de Genero, Ambiente e Mudancas Climáticas. MICOA. Maputo.
Mikkelsen, Britha (2002).Mainstreaming Gender Equality: SIDA's Support for the Promotion of gender equality Stockholm
Mozambique Humanitarian Country Team Inter-Agency HCT Contingency Plan 2009/2010Final
National Directorate of Studies and Policy Analysis Ministry of Planning and Development (2010) Poverty and wellbeing in Mozambique :THIRD NATIONAL POVERTY ASSESSMENT
Programa Quinquenal do Governo para 2010-2014
Pincha CH.(2008) Gender Sensitive Disaster management: a toolkit for practitionists. published by Earthworm Books for Oxfam America and NANBAN Trust
------------ (2008) Indian Ocean Tsunami through The Gender Lens: Insights from Tamil Nadu, India Oxfam America & NANBAN Trust Mumbai
------------ (2009) Participation women community based DRR. CARE India
Política do genero (2007) Mozambique
Ribeiro Natasha and Chaúque Aniceto (2009)Gender and Climate change: Mozambique Case Study, Henrich Boll Stiftung S.
Republic of Mozambique Action Plan for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty 2006-2009(PARPA II)Final Version Approved by the Council of Ministers on May 2, 2006Maputo May 2, 2006
Sietz, D.; Boschütz, M.; Klei, R.J.T. and Lotsch, A.(2008). Mainstreaming Climate Adaptation
UNDP (2010) Gender sensitive community adaptation
UNFPA (2006). Igualdade de Género e Empoderamento da Mulher em Moçambique. Maputo: United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA),
United Nations Country Team. Mozambique Delivery as One.(2007) Strengthening Disaster risk Reduction and Emergency Preparedness
UNISDR (2004), Living with Risk: A global review of disaster reduction initiatives (Geneva: UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction)
------------ (2007) Gender Perspective: Working Together for Disaster Risk Reduction. Geneva

http://www.unisdr.org/eng/about_isdr/isdr-publications/09-gender-good-practices/gender-good-practices.pdAfrica


------------ (2008) Gender perspectives Integrating DRR CC good practices. Geneva
------------ (2009) Making DRR gender sensitive. Geneva
------------ (2010 )Local Governments and Disaster Risk Reduction Good Practices and Lessons Learned A contribution to the “Making Cities Resilient” Campaign Geneva, Switzerland, March 2010 http://www.preventionweb.net/files/13627_LocalGovernmentsandDisasterRiskRedu.pdf
UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN. Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender-Sensitive Policy and Practical Guidelines, Geneva, Switzerland, June 2009.
UN Commission on the Status of Women. Report on the 52nd Session, 25 February - 7 and 13 March 2008; E/CN.6/2008/11,
WEDO UNFPA (2009) Resource Kit Climate Change Connections: Gender Population and Climate Change
Yodmani Suvit, Disaster Risk Management and Vulnerability Reduction: Protecting the Poor Paper Presented at the Asia and Pacific Forum on Poverty Organized by the Asian Development Bank


1 Aguilar, L., Araujo, A., Kring, E., Quesada, A. and Zuñiga, P. (2008). Guía: Recursos de género para el cambio climático. Mexico: UNDP.


2 Based on Thomalla, F, Downin T.g, Spanger-SiegfriedE. , Han G. and Rockström J., Reducing hazard vulnerability: towards a common approach between disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation in Disasters, 2006, 30(1): 39−48. © Overseas Development Institute, 2006 Published by Blackwell Publishing, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA

3 Op.cit

4 Declaration is a series of norms and principles drafted by states and which they pledge to abide by. However, there is no forceful component to a declaration; those States that do not observe those norms and principles are subject to “moral sanctions” before the international community (i.e., Millennium Declaration). Source: http://www.unfpa.org/

5 Convention involves a series of agreements amongst States, which include norms and principles that States are obliged to comply with (i.e., the American Convention on Human Rights). Given the obligations they impose on states, the conventions enter into force only after the State’s government has ratified them. Signing these instruments is not enough for them to become legally binding. Source: http://www.unfpa.org/

6 “Encourage, subject to national legislation and consistent with the Convention on Biological Diversity, the effective protection and use of the knowledge, innovations and practices of women of indigenous and local communities, including practices relating to traditional medicines, biodiversity and indigenous technologies, and endeavor to ensure that these are respected, maintained, promoted and preserved in an ecologically sustainable manner, and promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of the holders of such knowledge; in addition, safeguard the existing intellectual property rights of these women as protected under national and international law; work actively, where necessary, to find additional ways and means for the effective protection and use of such knowledge, innovations and practices, subject to national legislation and consistent with the Convention on Biological Diversity and relevant international law, and encourage fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of such knowledge, innovation and practices”. Beijing Platform of Action point K.

7 A CBD Gender Plan of Action was develop in 2008 and define the organization role in stimulating and facilitating efforts, with partners at the national, regional and global levels, to overcome constraints and take advantage of opportunities to promote gender equality and women’s empowerment as a important prerequisites for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.


8 To support national governments in achieving the goals for risk reduction, (ISDR) Secretariat convenes global platforms (June 2007, June 2009) to monitor progress and discuss emerging disaster threats, such as climate change

9 United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Secretariat UNISDR (2007) Gender perspective: working together for disaster risk reduction

10 Based on the information of United Nations Country Team in Mozambique delivering as One Strengthening Disaster risk Reduction and Emergency Preparedness (2007)

11 Deliver as One position Paper ( Draft) 29/08/2010 www.undp.org.mz/.../DaO%20Position%20Paper%20August%202010.docx

12 “Mozambique has made noteworthy developments in some areas while in others, such as HIV and AIDS and poverty reduction, much more needs to be done. There are still many challenges that could hamper improving the living conditions of the most vulnerable people particularly.” Deliver at One position Paper ( Draft) 29/08/2010 www.undp.org.mz/.../DaO%20Position%20Paper%20August%202010.docx


13 Mozambique Humanitarian Country Team Inter-Agency HCT Contingency Plan 2009/2010 Final


14 INGC IS NOT PART OF MAE. THE GENERAL DIRECTOR IS APPOINTED BY THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, WHILE THE DIRECTORS AT MAE ARE APPOINTED BY THE MINISTER. THE DIRECTOR OF INGC REPORTS TO THE MINISTER, NOT TO THE MINISTRY.


15 Lídia Cabral and Dulcídio Francisco (2008) Environmental Institutions, Public Expenditure and the Role for Development Partners; Mozambique case study, ODI


16 The Gender Units (GUs) are mechanisms created in the different ministries with the objective to influence planning and budgeting processes, which are gender sensitive, and they are catalysers so that gender aspects are placed on the agendas of sectoral programmes.

17 See the Law on the Local Organs of the State (Lei of the Orgãos Locais do Estado - LOLE).

18 Gallina A. and Chidiamassamba C.Gender Aware Approaches in Agricultural Programmes – Mozambique Country Report A special study of the National Agricultural Development Programme (ProAgri II) UTV Working Paper 2010:6 Commissioned by Sida, Secretariat for Evaluation, May 2010http://sidapublications.citat.se/interface/stream/mabstream.asp?filetype=1&orderlistmainid=2947&printfileid=2947&filex=3952829810503



19 Mikkelsen, Britha (2002). Mainstreaming Gender Equality: SIDA's Support for the Promotion of Garrett, Ashley Gender Equality in Partner Countries. Stockholm: Swedish Agency for International Development., (2003). Gender Analysis of the Plan of Action for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty 2001-2005, and Recommendations for Engendering the PARPA. Washington D.C.: Gender Action., UNFPA (2006). Igualdade de Género e Empoderamento da Mulher em Moçambique. Maputo: United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Fórum-Mulher (2007). Shadow Report: Stage of Implementation of the CEDAW in Mozambique. Maputo: Forum da Mulher, Jensen, Rikke Ingrid et al. (2006). Evaluation of DFID's Policy and Practice in Support of Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment. Volume 1: Synthesis Report. Copenhagen: COWI Consult.


20 Based on info provided by Natasha Ribeiro and Aniceto Chaúque (2009) Gender and Climate change: Mozambique Case Study, Henrich Boll Stiftung S. Africa.

21 International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Gender Perspective: Working Together for Disaster Risk Reduction Geneva 2007http://www.unisdr.org/eng/about_isdr/isdr-publications/09-gender-good-practices/gender-good-practices.pd


22 United Nations secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) Local Governments and Disaster Risk Reduction Good Practices and Lessons Learned A contribution to the “Making Cities Resilient” Campaign Geneva, Switzerland, March 2010 http://www.preventionweb.net/files/13627_LocalGovernmentsandDisasterRiskRedu.pdf

23 Indigenous Women's DRR Efforts Trigger Sustainable Development Process Reducing Vulnerabilities in Marginalized Afro-Indigenous Garifuna Communities Garifuna Emergency Committee of Honduras”


24 Enabling Women to Play a Lead Role in Disaster-Affected Marginal Communities Gender Mainstreaming in Tsunami-Affected Areas Caritas India Tamil Nadu, Andra Pradesh, Kerala States & Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India


25 Taluka in India is a subdivision of a district; a group of several villages organized for revenue purposes.

26 Using Political Momentum to Engender Legislation in the Reconstruction ContextEngendering and Strengthening Women's Legal Rights in Aceh United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) Mitra Sejati Perempuan Indonesia (MiSPI) & Jaringan Perempuan untuk Kebijakan12 (JPuK), Aceh, Indonesia



27 Mali Reducing desertification by empowering rural women Mali-Folkecenter Nyetaa, Mali (In partnership with Dodo Finland and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland ) in ISDR Gender Perspectives: Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction into Climate Change Adaptation: lessons learned ,2008



28Chaman Pincha Gender Sensitive Disaster Management : A Toolkit for Practitioners. Oxfam America & NANBAN Trust 2008

29 EKTA, is a resource center for women based in Madurai, The organization’s focus is on protection and promotion of women’s human rights. It works with women, children, adolescents, youth and men.

30 Dalit is a self-designation for a group of people traditionally regarded as of lower class and unsuitable for making personal relationships. Dalits are a mixed population of numerous caste groups all over South Asia, and speak various languages.

31 ISDR. ITC ILO, UNDP (2010) Local Governments and Disaster Risk Reduction Good Practices and Lessons Learned A contribution to the “Making Cities Resilient” Campaign 2010.

32 Example taken from Pincha Ch. “Gender Sensitive Disaster Management : A Toolkit for Practitioners”, Oxfam America & NANBAN Trust2008.


33 SNEHA is a Social Needs Education and Human Awareness, is engaged since 1985, in Nagai district ( India) for the empowerment of the unorganized and marginalized fishing community and allied fish workers, especially women, children, Dalit, minorities, and other marginalized sections.


34


35 UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN. Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender-Sensitive Policy and Practical Guidelines, Geneva, Switzerland, June 2009.

36 According to the UNFCCC climate change refers to a change of climate that is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and that is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods. Recently the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) defines climate change as any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity (Fourth Assessment Report - AR4, 2007).

37 Extract from REPORT OF THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL FOR 1997 (A/52/3, 18 September 1997).


38 GENDER EQUALITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE Why consider gender equality when taking action on climate change? CIDA Canada2008

39 IPCC (2007) defines Mitigation as the technological change and substitution that reduce resource inputs and emissions per unit of output. Mitigation is reducing emissions of greenhouse gases or sequestering emissions – is critical to slowing climate change Although several social, economic and technological policies would produce an emission reduction, with respect to climate change, mitigation means implementing policies to reduce G H G emissions and enhance sinks. The current international legal mechanism for countries to reduce their emissions is the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

40 Adaptation, or coping with climate change impacts, means ¨adjustments in ecological. social or economic systems in response to actual or expected climate stimuli and their effects or impacts. This term refers to changes in processes, practice and structure to moderate potential damages or to benefit from opportunities associated with climate change ¨ (source IPCC 2001) Adaptation is critical for vulnerable population specially those dependent on small-scale resources. To this group but especially for women, climate change could severely change their ability to manage natural resources, as women have different roles and responsibilities which give rise to differences to cope with change.



41 Lambrou Y. Piana G. (2005) Gender: The Missing Component in the Response to Climate Change. FAO-Rome.

42 CIDA ( 2008) GENDER EQUALITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE Why consider gender equality when taking action on climate change? Canada.


43 InfoResources Focus No 2/09 Disaster Risk Reduction a Gender and livelihood perspective. Intercooperation (IC-HO), Info Service CDE and InfoAgrar / SHL, in partnership with IC India / Bangladesh / Mali / Andes, CETRAD (Kenya) and SIMAS (Nicaragua). 2009



44 Thomalla, F, Downin T.g, Spanger-SiegfriedE. , Han G. and Rockström J., Reducing hazard vulnerability: towards a common approach between disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation in Disasters, 2006, 30(1): 39−48. © Overseas Development Institute, 2006 Published by Blackwell Publishing, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA



45 The International Conference was organized by All China Women’s Federation and UNISDR. Co-hosted by the Ministry ofCivil Affairs of China and the UN System in China



46 UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN. Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender-Sensitive Policy and Practical Guidelines, Geneva, Switzerland, June 2009

47 http://ocha.unog.ch/drptoolkit/PDisasterPreparednessPlanning.html

48 summarized from “On Better Terms: A Glance at Key Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction Concepts” International Strategy for Disaster Reduction ISDR, United Nations Development Programme Bureau for Crisis UNDP, Institute of development Studies, IDS, 2007. http://unisdr.org/eng/risk-reduction/climate-change/docs/On-better-terms.pdf


49 Op.cit 4

50 ActionAid, Participatory Vulnerability Analysis step by step guide for field staff. London.

51 ActionAid, March 2007 Participatory Vulnerability Analysis (PVA) Process Outputs .Nepal Kathmandu

52 Op.cit.

53 http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1721e/i1721e02.pdf



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