I. Introduction II. The International Framework

Participatory vulnerability analysis (PVA)

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Participatory vulnerability analysis (PVA) PVA is a systematic process that involves communities and other stakeholders in an in-depth examination of their vulnerability, and at the same time empowers or motivates them to take appropriate actions. The overall aim of PVA is to link disaster preparedness and response to long-term development. PVA is a qualitative way of analyzing vulnerability, which involves participation of vulnerable people themselves. The analysis helps to understand vulnerability, its root causes and most vulnerable groups, and agree on actions by, with and to people to reduce their vulnerability. 50 It is a one-step forward in development methodologies to identify the root causes of different types of vulnerabilities and action to reduce those vulnerabilities. Thus, the main purpose of PVA documentation is to understand time line, time trend and mobility pattern; assess how seasonality affects the vulnerability; identify the correlation between vulnerability and existing Institutional set-up, and document the types of risks, hazards and vulnerabilities and identify how these vulnerabilities affects the people's life and livelihoods.51
Gender: The social attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female and the relationships between women and me and girls and boys, as well as the relations between women and those between men. These attributes, opportunities and relationships are socially constructed and are learned through socialization processes. They are context/time-specific and changeable. Gender determines what is expected, allowed and valued in a woman or a man in a given context. In most societies there are differences and inequalities between women and men in responsibilities assigned, activities undertaken, access to and control over resources, as well as decision making opportunities. Gender is part of the broader socio-cultural context. (OSAGI/UNDESA)
Gender mainstreaming: Mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality. (Report of the ECOSOC (A/52/3, 18 September 1997)
Gender analysis: Refer to the study of the different roles of women and men in order to understand what they do, what resources they have, and what their needs and priorities are. Gender roles are not static and are shaped over time by other differences such as age, class and caste.
Natural hazard: A natural process or phenomenon – such as a hurricane, earthquake or drought - that can potentially result in a loss of life, property damage, livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.
Risk: The probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environmental damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards and vulnerable conditions.

Risk Assessment and Climate Change impact Assessment :52

Risk Assessment: a methodology to determine the nature and extent of risk by analyzing potential hazards and evaluating existing conditions of vulnerability that could pose a potential threat or harm to people, property, livelihoods and the environment on which they depend. These assessments include detailed quantitative and qualitative understandings of risk: its physical, social, economic, and environmental factors, and consequences The process of conducting a risk assessment is based on a review of both the technical features of hazards such as their location, Intensity, frequency and probability; and also the analysis of the physical, social, economic and environmental dimensions of vulnerability and exposure, while taking particular account of the coping capabilities pertinent to the risk scenarios. (Source: ISDR).

Climate Impact Assessment: the practice of identifying and evaluating the detrimental and beneficial consequences of climate change on natural and human systems (Source: IPCC WG II).
Risk assessment forms the core of the disaster risk management process and results in the identification of potential risk reduction measures. As might be expected, assessing vulnerability and capacity is as important as identifying and assessing the potential impact of hazards.
A gender-sensitive risk assessment can be achieved if gender issues are considered when planning and carrying out the main steps of risk assessment: (i) Identify the nature of the risk; (ii) Determine the human vulnerability to the risk;(iii) Identify the capacities and available resources for managing and reducing vulnerability; (iv) Determine acceptable levels of risk.
Mitigation is reducing emissions of greenhouse gases or sequestering emissions – is critical to slowing climate change Although several social, economic and technological policies would produce an emission reduction, with respect to climate change, mitigation means implementing policies to reduce G H G emissions and enhance sinks. The current international legal mechanism for countries to reduce their emissions is the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). IPCC (2007) defines Mitigation as the technological change and substitution that reduce resource inputs and emissions per unit of output.
Mitigation is a human measure to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases (Source: IPCC). Climate change mitigation measures recognize that the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will influence the rate and magnitude of climate change. Therefore it is within the capacity of humans to influence their exposure to change. It include energy conservation measures, implementing land use plans, strengthening institutional and legislative mechanisms, energy efficiency measures, waste management, substituting fossil fuels with renewable energy sources and measures in the transport and agricultural sectors, as well as sequestering carbon biologically through reforestation or geo-physically (inside the earth's core). These activities contribute to reducing disaster risk by reducing expected climate change impact.
Disaster mitigation activities relate to environmental management, land use and urban planning and the engineering protection of critical facilities. Specific examples include reforestation to avoid landslides and the re-establishment of corals to limit the damage of tsunamis.. A drought reduction strategy may be to build water reservoirs and improve agricultural practices to conserve water.
Adaptation, or coping with climate change impacts, means ¨adjustments in ecological social or economic systems in response to actual or expected climate stimuli and their effects or impacts. This term refers to changes in processes, practice and structure to moderate potential damages or to benefit from opportunities associated with climate change ¨ (source IPCC 2001) Adaptation is critical for vulnerable population specially those dependent on small-scale resources. To this group but especially for women, climate change could severely change their ability to manage natural resources, as women have different roles and responsibilities which give rise to differences to cope with change.
Adaptive Capacity: The ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. (Source: IPCC)
Coping capacity: The means by which people or organizations use available resources and abilities to face adverse consequences that could lead to a disaster. In general, this involves managing resources, both in normal times as well as during crises or adverse conditions. The strengthening of coping capacities usually builds resilience to withstand the effects of natural and human-induced hazards. (Source: ISDR)
Hazard is a natural or manmade phenomenon that may cause physical damage, economic loss and threaten human life and wellbeing. Such phenomena may affect different places singularly or in combination at different times. The hazard has varying degrees of intensity and severity.
Exposure is the likelihood of individuals, household, community or nation experiencing the hazard
Climate variability and climate change53: Climate variability refers to variations in the mean state of the climate and variations in other statistics (such as the occurrence of extremes) on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events. The average range of temperature for a location, as indicated by minimum, maximum and average temperature values, is an example of a measure of climate variability. This differs from climate change which refers to a long-term change in the state of the climate and which is identified by changes in the means and/or changes in the variability, or changes in the frequencies or intensities of extreme events.
For Further REFERENCES on Terminology:

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Glossary of terms used by Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability in the Third Assessment Report in 2001. “Adaptation: Assessment to Action.” The UNFCCC Compendium, Methods and tools to assess impacts of, and vulnerability and adaptation, to climate change. Issued by the Climate Change Secretariat, Bonn, Germany. 2004 Version, Volume I. “Living with Risk: A global review of disaster reduction initiatives.” United Nations, New York and Geneva. “Terminology of disaster risk reduction”. Available at:



Summary of Reports, Manuals, Training Packages and Toolkits on Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change

All publications are available in Prevention Web at www.preventionwe.net

Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender-Sensitive


Publication date: 2009

Number of pages: 163

It was prepared in respond to the request of governments attending the First Session of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction in 2007. This publication offers policy and practical guidelines for national and local governments to further implement the HFA. This publication is the result of extensive consultations and a response to the call for clear policy and practical guidance for mainstreaming gender perspectives into disaster risk reduction.
Indigenous knowledge: disaster risk reduction, policy note

Source(s): European Union; Kyoto University; SEEDS; UNISDR

Publication date: 2009

Number of pages: 18 p.

This policy note aims to provide a directional path for mainstreaming indigenous knowledge in disaster risk reduction by national authorities and ministries of disaster management and education, institutions of higher education in disaster management, and international and national NGOs in Asian countries. It addresses thematic areas such as: climate change and food security, rural development, urban risk reduction, gender and inclusion, mountain ecosystems, coastal zones, river basin management, water resource management, and housing.
Progress of the world’s women 2008/2009: who answers to women? Gender and accountability

Source(s): United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)

Publication date: 2009

Number of pages: 152 p.

This report demonstrates that the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other international commitments to women will only be met if gender-responsive accountability systems are put in place both nationally and internationally. It provides examples of how women are demanding accountability for action on commitments to promote gender equality and women’s rights from national governments, justice and law enforcement systems, employers and service providers, as well as international institutions.
Stories from the Pacific: the gendered dimensions of disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change

Source(s): AusAid, Government of Australia; UNDP

Publication date: 2009

Number of pages: 36 p.

This publication targets donors and development practitioners across the Pacific region and is intended to be used as a tool to guide the substance and direction of future programming in disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change.
Adaptation to climate change by reducing disaster risks: country practices and lessons

Source(s): ISDR

Publication date: 2009

Number of pages: 12 p

This note reports on examples of recent experience in eight countries where national and local governments and civil society participants have worked to strengthen their disaster risk reduction and adaptation actions. These cases, along with similar experience in other countries, provide a number of useful insights and lessons for climate change negotiators and policymakers, development planners, and managers and practitioners at national and local levels. The eight countries profiled are: India, Maldives, Peru, the Philippines, Samoa, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Viet Nam.
Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery Annual Report 2007

Source(s): BCPR

Publication date: 2008

Number of pages: 80 p.

This second Annual Report of UNDP-BCPR, Outlook 2007, provides an overview of how UNDP has continued to increase its efforts to deliver tangible results in preventing crisis and promoting recovery. Since its inception in 2001, the Bureau has sought to promote new ways of doing business ­– faster, earlier and in riskier situations – to restore the quality of life for those who have been affected by disaster or violent conflict.
Community based disaster risk reduction regional consultative meeting, West Asia, Middle East and North Africa region: summary and proceeding report

Source(s): IFRC; UNISDR

Publication date: 2008

Number of pages: 5 p.

This report gives a summary of the meeting, as well as recommendations to integrate disaster management and risk reduction as a part of the development agenda, through disaster risk reduction training and capacity building, and comprehensive disaster risk reduction planning processes and frameworks at national and local level.
Enabling women’s empowerment in post disaster reconstruction

Source(s): DIT; RICS

Publication date: 2008

Number of pages: 19 p.

This study explores women’s status in post disaster situations and examines the concept of empowerment in response to the need to include women’s contribution to disaster management and to emphasize its importance in building disaster resilient communities. It discusses the factors that influence women’s empowerment in post disaster reconstruction.

From grassroots to global: people centered disaster risk reduction

Source(s): ProVention Consortium

Publication date: 2008

Number of pages: 26 p.

The aim of this forum report is to record the energy, ideas and views resulting from discussions and presentations in the formal sessions and also in the corridors of the event, which is designed to allow free talking and frank exchange of ideas, challenges and innovation on disaster risk


Gender mainstreaming in emergency management: opportunities for building community resilience in Canada

Source(s): PHAC, Government of Canada

Publication date: 2008

Number of pages: 95 p.

This report builds on international efforts over the past decade to develop more gender-sensitive approaches to disaster risk management. It addresses recent initiatives by researchers, practitioners and policy makers to promote gender mainstreaming.
Gender perspectives: integrating disaster risk reduction into climate change adaptation

Source(s): UNISDR

Publication date: 2008

Number of pages: 76 p.

This publication points out the vital nexus between women’s experiences of natural resource management, climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, and how they can come together to make whole communities strong and sustainable. It also provides inspirational case studies of grassroots women’s leadership, and of ways to support and encourage women’s full participation as citizens in risk reduction, climate change adaptation, development, and disaster preparedness. The case studies also point to practical tools for implementing gender equality and mainstreaming gender perspectives
Gender sensitive disaster management: a toolkit for practitioners

Publisher(s): Earthworm Books

Publication date: 2008

Number of pages: 116 p.

This Toolkit is the outcome of a research study undertaken to understand gender mainstreaming strategies used by NGOs and the Government in the context of their responses to and management of the Tsunami aftermath in Tamil Nadu.
Natural disasters and remittances: exploring the linkages between poverty, gender, and disaster vulnerability in Caribbean SIDS

Source(s): United Nations University

Publication date: 2008

Number of pages: 14 p.

This research paper explores the linkages between poverty and disaster vulnerability in the context of remittance flows to households in the Caribbean. Jamaica is used as the case study country.

Participatory impact assessment: a guide for practitioners

Source(s): FIC

Publication date: 2008

Number of pages: 63 p.

This guide aims to provide practitioners with a broad framework for carrying out project level Participatory Impact Assessments (PIA) of livelihoods interventions in the humanitarian sector.
Poverty in a changing climate

Source(s): Institute of Development Studies

Publication date: 2008

Number of pages: 120 p.

This bulletin explores adaptation using different insights and approaches – exploring linkages from chronic poverty, gender, social exclusion, livelihoods, economics, and asset-based approaches.
Rethinking disasters: why death and destruction is not nature’s fault but human failure

Source(s): Oxfam International

Publication date: 2008

Number of pages: 43 p.

This report shows that successful disaster risk reduction policies, integrated into development work, save lives and money, making vulnerable communities more resilient and protecting development gains.
Women as equal partners: gender dimensions of disaster risk management programme

Source(s): Government of India; UNDP

Publication date: 2008

Number of pages: 57 p.

This documents addresses sustainable reduction in disaster risk and states that one of the critical indicators of disaster risk reduction is gender equity in disaster preparedness.
Building better futures: empowering grassroots women to build resilient communities

Source(s): GROOTS

Publication date: 2007

Number of pages: 12 p.

This publication highlights roles that grassroots women are playing in building resilient communities and insights emerging from resilience building efforts led by grassroots women in Peru, Jamaica, Honduras, Turkey, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India.
Evaluation and strengthening of early warning systems in countries affected by the 26 December 2004 tsunami: report

Source(s): UNISDR - PPEW

Publication date: 2007

Number of pages: 81 p

This report presents an initiative which objective was to provide an overall integrated framework for strengthening early warning systems in the Indian Ocean region by building on the existing systems and to facilitate coordination among various specialized and technical


Gender matters: lessons for disaster risk reduction in South Asia

Source(s): ECHO; ICIMOD

Publication date: 2007

Number of pages: 51 p.

This report draws attention to gender as an indicator of vulnerability and discusses how women are disproportionately affected, particularly in the field of disaster preparedness and management
Gender perspective: working together for disaster risk reduction

Publisher(s): UNISDR

Publication date: 2007

Number of pages: 54 p.

This publication is part of ongoing efforts facilitated by UNISDR to build a global partnership for mainstreaming gender issues into the disaster risk reduction process.
Mainstreaming gender equality and equity in ABS governance

Source(s): IUCN

Publication date: 2007

Number of pages: 105 p.

This document aims to serve as the basis for a methodological proposal to mainstream a gender equity and equality perspective into the processes involving the access and benefit-sharing of biodiversity resources.
People-centred climate change adaptation: Integrating gender issues

Source(s): FAO

Publication date: 2007

Number of pages: 2 p.

This brief explains the links between gender issues and climate change and recommends ways to integrate gender into climate change adaptation policies and activities.
Women pastoralists: preserving traditional knowledge, facing modern challenges

Source(s): UNCCD

Publication date: 2007

Number of pages: 45 p.

This publication is devoted to women pastoralists, their knowledge of and contributions to sustainable land management, and the coping mechanisms they have developed in their struggle to survive.
Words into action: a guide to implementing the Hyogo Framework

Source(s): UNISDR

Publication date: 2007

Number of pages: 165 p.

This Guide has been created to provide advice on useful strategies for implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters (HFA).

Good Humanitarian Donor ship and Disaster Risk Reduction a Concept Paper, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway

Source(s): Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway

Publication date: 2007

Number of pages: 48 p.

The paper addresses the need to invest in DRR, in light of a dramatically increased spending on humanitarian action during the last 15 years. The paper’s starting point is the responsibility of donors, but it gives clear guidance to how resources should be spent. The paper states that DRR is currently lost in the gap between humanitarian assistance and development, and requests stronger coordination between the two in order to address the problem: “DRR is an important interface between relief, recovery and development. It is imperative to address DRR as early as possible in the development cycle in order to avoid the recreation of risks, or potential magnification of risks. Assessment should not only cover impact, but also underlying causes, vulnerabilities and capacities.” The paper does not recommend add DRR as another mainstreaming task, but rather add it to ongoing processes, such as gender or climate change. It also states that actions should target the most vulnerable groups of a population, but these should not only be considered as passive victims, but as a potential resource base. It is recommended that DRR are included in poverty reduction strategies, and that needs assessments, risk analysis and vulnerability assessments are integrated.
Disaster risk reduction: a call to action

Source(s): ILO; IRP; UNISDR

Publication date: 2006

Number of pages: 84 p.

The document assists in facilitating and supporting efforts by governments, local authorities, international organizations, and multilateral financial and trade institutions to invest in reducing disaster risk and to promote sustainable development policies that will create

better opportunities for all.

Gender and desertification: expanding roles for women to restore dryland

Source(s): IFAD

Publication date: 2006

Number of pages: 27 p.

This review examines the impact of desertification on women, their role in the management of natural resources and dry lands, and the constraints they face
Gender and qualitative interpretation of data

Source(s): SDC, Government of Switzerland

Publication date: 2006

Number of pages: 70 p.

The aim of these matrices is to assist users to reach a more qualitative understanding in their reading and interpretation of quantitative data from a gender perspective.

Gender: the missing component of the response to climate change

Source(s): FAO

Publication date: 2006

Number of pages: 37 p.

This report analyzes the gender dimension of climate change and the policies enacted to mitigate and adapt to its impacts with the aim of developing gender sensitive approaches with regard to mitigation measures, adaptation projects and national regimes.
Let our children teach us!: a review of the role of education and knowledge in disaster risk reduction

Source(s): UNISDR

Publication date: 2006

Number of pages: 135 p.

This review examines good practices to reduce disaster risk through education, knowledge and innovation (including efforts to protect schools from extreme natural events).
Women, girls, boys and men, different needs, equal opportunities: IASC gender handbook in humanitarian action

Source(s): IASC

Publication date: 2006

Number of pages: 112 p.

This handbook sets forth standards for the integration of gender issues from the outset of a new complex emergency or disaster, so that humanitarian services provided neither exacerbate nor inadvertently put people at risk; reach their target audience; and have maximum positive impact.
Guidelines for Gender Sensitive Disaster Management: Practical Steps to Ensure Women’s Needs are Met And Women’s Human Rights are Respected and Protect

Source(s): Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development (APWLD)

Publication date: 2006

Number of pages: 76 p.

These guidelines have been formulated to assist governments, the non state sector and civil society in dealing with women who have been affected by disaster. They are meant to be practical, easy to follow steps that need to be taken in responding to women’s concerns in post disaster situations. They have been categorized into immediate, midterm and long term responses. The guidelines draw from reports of countries that were affected by the December 2004 tsunami: Thailand, Aceh, India, Sri Lanka and the earthquake in northern Pakistan in October 2005
Gender and disaster sourcebook: a sampler

Source(s): PERI

Publication date: 2005

This one-stop user-friendly electronic guide is aiming to help answer the following questions: What is the link between gender equality and disaster risk? What lessons have been learned in the field and through scientific study? How can this knowledge be applied in practice to reduce risk and respond equitably to disaster events? The Gender and Disaster Sourcebook is a one-stop, user-friendly electronic guide to help answer these questions.

Living with risk: a global review of disaster reduction initiatives

Source(s): UNISDR

Publication date: 2004

Number of pages: 429 p.

This book provides guidance, policy orientation and inspiration, as well as serving as a reference for lessons on how to reduce risk and vulnerability to hazards and to meet the challenges of tomorrow.
Gender Perspectives on the Conventions on Biodiversity, Climate Change and Desertification (2004)

Source(s): FAO

Publication date: 2004

Number of pages: 65 p

The paper provides a gender-sensitive perspective on the three Rio Conventions on Biodiversity, Climate Change, and Desertification. First, the Rio conventions are placed in their historical context and their administrative and financial framework. Secondly, the main gender issues relevant to the three conventions are exposed. A comparative overview of the level of gender mainstreaming in each of the international instruments relating to the Rio Conventions at study here is given. The essay concludes with a review of a few key issues in convention implementation, in relationship with gender.
Working with Women at Risk: Practical Guidelines for Assessing Local Disaster Risk

Source(s): International Hurricane Centre Florida International

Publication date: 2003

Number of pages: 104 p.

This is a workbook for training community women to conduct hazard assessments and plan mitigation for their local neighbourhoods. The model was developed and tested in communities in the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, St. Lucia and Dominica.
Farmers in a changing Climate: Does Gender matters ? Food Security in Andhra Pradesh, India

Source: FAO

Publication date: 2010

Number of pages: 82p.

This report presents the findings of research undertaken in six villages in two drought-prone districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, Mahbubnagar and Anantapur. The study, carried out by an

International team led by FAO, used gender, institutional, and climate analyses to document the trends in climate variability men and women farmers are facing and their responses to ensure food security in the context of larger socio-economic and political challenges to their livelihoods and well-being. The findings confirm that there is a strong gender dimension to the way in which climate variability is experienced and expressed by farmers in their coping strategies to ensure their livelihoods and food security. Women’s and men’s perceptions of and responses to impacts of dry conditions, as well as their access to resources and support, differ in important ways. These findings demonstrate that gender analysis enhances our understanding of what farmers perceive as risks and how they respond to climatic changes. Such findings are essential for informing policy decisions by ensuring that the experiences of both women and men are embedded into policy design. Recommendations are made for future research and for incorporating gender issues into adaptation to long term climate change.

Resource Guide on Gender and Climate Change

Source: UNDP

Publication date: 2009

Number of pages: 134 pp

This guide aims to inform policymakers and precisionists on linkages between gender equality and Climate Change and their importance in relations to the achievement of the MDG. It make the case for including women’s voices, needs and expertise in climate change, policy and programming, and demonstrate how women’s contributions can strengthen the effectiveness of climate change measures.

Network and links to publications on gender and DRR

Based in Germany, this network is a leader in gender and climate change work globally with a focus on policy interventions and gender dimensions of climate change in the developed world.

Prevention Web – Gender

Contains articles, address lists and other useful resources. http://www.preventionweb.net/english/themes/gender/

Emergency Events Database

Includes an extensive database on disasters, although not only linked to disasters provoked by climate change. It also has some useful publications, most notably on data collection. http://www.emdat.be/Publications/publications.html

Training packages
CARE Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CVCA) handbook

Source(s): CARE

Publication date:2009

Number of pages:41

The Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CVCA) methodology facilitates understanding of the implications of climate change for the lives and livelihoods of the people. By combining local knowledge with scientific data, the process builds people’s understanding about climate risks and adaptation strategies. It provides a framework for dialogue within communities, as well as between communities and other stakeholders. The results provide a solid foundation for the identification of practical strategies to facilitate community-based adaptation to climate change
Gender Mainstreaming in Emergency Management: A Training Module for Emergency Planners (Canada)

Source(s): Elaine Enarson,for the Women and Health Care Reform and the Prairie Women’s Health Centre of Excellence.

Publication date: 2009

Number of pages: 123 p.

Includes background and general information and specific exercises and tools for assessing and improving existing approaches to better incorporate gender issues and opportunities to engage with women to reduce risk. The manual is potentially of use to emergency managers in the US as well, including Issues Facing Women in Disaster, Frequently Asked Questions about Gender and Disaster, Gender Matters through the Disaster Cycle, Mapping Gendered Vulnerability and similar resources.
Training manual on gender and climate change

Source(s): Global Gender and Climate Alliance; IUCN; UNDP

Publication date: 2008

Number of pages: 227 p.

This manual has been designed as a practical tool to increase the capacity of policy and decision makers to develop gender-responsive climate change policies and strategies.
Gender Sensitive Disaster Management: A Toolkit for Practitioners

Source(s): Chaman Pincha

Publication date: 2008

Number of pages: 123 p.

This Toolkit authored by Chaman Pincha is the outcome of a research study undertaken to understand gender mainstreaming strategies used by NGOs and the Government in the context of their responses to and management of the Tsunami aftermath in Tamil Nadu. The field outcomes were analyzed through a gender perspective to understand the differential impact of disasters and coping strategies on women/girls, men/boys, and other marginalized groups, including Aravanis.
International Training Materials for Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction (international)

This set of materials was designed and collated by Maureen Fordham (with help from colleagues in UNDP, UNISDR, Oxfam, AIDMI) for a Training of Trainers for UNDP. Designed primarily for use in developing nations, some materials are readily adapted to the US

Inter-Agency Contingency Planning Guidelines for Humanitarian Assistance

Source(s): IASC Sub-Working Group on Preparedness and Contingency Planning

Publication date:2007

Number of pages: 40 p.

The following guidelines seek to provide practical guidance for Humanitarian Country Teams, composed of UN Agencies and other International Organizations, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement1 and NGO representatives, who are embarking on a process of inter-agency contingency planning in order to increase their level of preparedness and enhance their ability to respond to emergencies.
Within a broader framework of emergency preparedness, inter-agency contingency planning is essential to ensure that humanitarian agencies/organizations are as ready as they can be to manage future uncertainty by developing responses to natural disasters, conflicts and other crises. Inter-agency contingency planning should also be mindful of and linked with other initiatives on disaster prevention, risk reduction and early recovery. The first version of the Inter-Agency Contingency Planning Guidelines for Humanitarian Assistance was developed in 2001. These guidelines have served as the principal reference document for inter-agency contingency planning. Since their release, the humanitarian context has continued to evolve, a wealth of experience has been gained by agencies/organizations around the world and a process of strengthening humanitarian response systems has been initiated. The revision of these guidelines was undertaken in an attempt to reflect accumulated good practice and efforts to enhance humanitarian response capacity, predictability, accountability and partnership in order to reach more people with comprehensive, appropriate, needs-based relief and protection in a more effective and timely manner. In particular, the cluster approach represents a raising of the standards for sectoral coordination, leadership and accountability and thus is integral to interagency contingency planning and preparedness processes.
Working with Women at Risk: Practical Guidelines for Assessing Local Disaster Risk.

Source: International Hurricane Centre, Florida International University,

Publication Date 2003

Number of pages : 91 p.

This is a workbook for training community women to conduct hazard assessments and plan mitigation for their local neighbourhoods. The model was developed and tested in communities in the Dominican Republic,  El Salvador, St. Lucia and Dominica. Elaine Enarson with Lourdes Meyreles, Marta González, Betty Hearn Morrow, Audrey Mullings, and Judith Soares. June

Gender Note Series

E. Enarson for the global Gender and Disaster Network

Gender Note # 1 Women, Gender and the Hyogo Platform for Action

http ://www.gdnonline.org/resources/GDN_GenderNotes1.pdf

Gender Note #2 Women, Gender and Disaster: Hazards & Hazard Mitigation

http ://www.gdnonline.org/resources/GDN_GenderNote2_Mitigation.pdf

Gender Note #3 Women, Gender and Disaster: Men & Masculinities

http ://www.gdnonline.org/resources/GDN_GenderNote3_Men&Masculinities.pdf

Gender Note #4 Women, Gender and Disaster: Abilities and Disabilities

http ://www.gdnonline.org/resources/GDN_GenderNote4_Abilities.pd

Gender Note #5 Women, Gender and Disaster Risk Communication

http ://www.gdnonline.org/resources/GDN_GenderNote5_RiskCommunication.pdf

Gendering Disaster Risk Reduction A Working Glossary

http ://www.gdnonline.org/resources/GDN_Gendering_DRR_Glossary.pdf

Gender-sensitive Preparedness Guides also offer good background information and tools
Sexual Violence in Disasters: A Planning Guide for Prevention and Response

The Louisiana Foundation Against Sexual Assault (La FASA) & the National Sexual Violence Resource Centre (NSVRC) created this guide to ensure that those planning for disaster relief and response do not forget to consider safety from sexual victimization and the importance of creating policies that could prevent it. It offers readers important information about sexual violence and disasters that will help communities to understand the connection and develop better disaster responses. It presents a range of recommendations from suggesting small changes to developing comprehensive plans, making preparations, and coordinating far-reaching policy change. Available in English and Spanish.

It Could Happen to Your Agency! Tools for change—Emergency Management for Women.

During and after disasters, violence against women increases and it is more difficult for women to obtain help. This workbook helps agencies develop an emergency response plan. Developed by the Ending Violence Association of British Columbia.


Battered Women in Disaster: Case Study of Gendered Vulnerability

Enarson, 1998, 4 pp. Transcript and related materials from on-line emergency management discussion, including a planning guidelines for shelters and planning guides for emergency management agencies

Emergency Preparedness and Response, Publications and Materials, Centers for Disease Control Office of Women’s Health. Short, practical guides on public health emergencies with attention to women’s health conditions and concerns.


Critical Needs In Caring For Pregnant Women During Times Of Disaster For Non-Obstetric Health Care Providers, 1 p. Centres for Disease Control.


Climate Change
Gender, climate change and natural disasters (2008) by Tranter, Kellie http://www.sciencealert.com.au/opinions/20080502-16850-2.html

The article is a summary of existing knowledge on the area, including the following:

More women than men die as the direct and indirect result of natural disaster Men in Sri Lanka coped better in the tsunami then women because they had been taught to swim and clim. Women trying to save their children from the tsunami in Aceh were themselves swept away while pushing children on to buildings or trees .
The text also sums up the recommendation given by four organizations and female environmental ministers to the countries at the Bali Conference and the Secretariat of the UNFCCC: Recognizes that women are powerful agents of change and that their full participation is critical in adaptation and mitigation climate policies and initiatives, and guarantee that women and gender experts participate in all decisions related to climate change; Take action in order to ensure UNFCCC compliance with human rights frameworks, international and national commitments on gender equality and equity, including the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Develop a gender strategy, invest in gender-specific climate change research and establish a system for the use of gender-sensitive indicators and criteria for governments to use in national
Final Report: Gender and Climate Change Workshop Dakar, 2-3 June 2008http://www.wedo.org/files/FINALReport.%20Dakar%20Workshop.%202008.pdf

Conclusions from the workshop were: Climate change is happening now, must take action now

A holistic approach to manage climate change is needed. In many examples, entities develop policies and guidelines without coordination. Adaptation efforts should embrace a bottom-up approach. There is a gap between policy and implementation. There is a disconnection between what exists on the paper and the actual situation on the ground. Important to use clear and unified messages and avoid technical jargon. Adding the gendered dimension cannot be an excuse to further marginalize or fragment the issue. Focus must not only be on women or women’s vulnerability. A gendered approach means a rights-based approach

Outcomes of advocacy will include awareness-raising and education in target communities; mobilize women’s groups to take leadership on the issue of climate change and comprehensive gender-sensitive climate change policies on local and national level

Gender Equality and Adaptation by Araujo, Ariana and Andrea Quesada-Aguilar


Women and children are 14 times more likely to die than men during a disaster. In the 1991 cyclone disasters which killed 140,000 in Bangladesh, 90% of victims were women (Aguilar, 2004). Similarly, in industrialized countries, more women than men died during the 2003 European heat wave. During Hurricane Katrina in the USA, African-American women who were the poorest population in that part of the country faced the greatest obstacles to survival. During the 2006 tsunami, more women died than men – for example in Indonesia and Sri Lanka, male survivors outnumber female survivors by 3 or 4 to 1 (Davis et al. 2005).
In Sri Lanka, swimming and tree climbing are taught mainly to boys, which helped them survive and cope better than women when the waves of the tsunami hit. Social prejudice keeps girls and women from learning to swim, which severely reduces their chances of survival in flooding disasters (Oxfam, 2005). Women become less mobile because they are the primary care-givers in times of disaster and environmental stress.
After a natural disaster, women are more likely to become victims of domestic and sexual violence therefore women often avoid using shelters from fear (Davis et al. , 2005). The household workload increases substantially after a disaster, which forces many girls to drop out of school to help with chores (Davis et al. , 2005). Nutritional status determines the ability to cope with the effect of natural disasters (Cannon, 2002). Women are more prone to nutritional deficiencies because of their unique nutritional needs, especially when they are pregnant or breastfeeding, and some cultures have household food hierarchies. For example, in South and Southeast Asia 45–60% of women of reproductive age are underweight and 80% of pregnant women have iron deficiencies. In sub-Saharan Africa, women carry greater loads than men, but have a lower intake of calories because the cultural norm is for men to receive more food (FAO, 2000).
Gender Perspectives on the Conventions on Biodiversity, Climate Change and Desertification by Lambrou, Yianna and Regina Laub FAO, 2004


The article deals with gender and climate change in the broader sense as the impact on human security. It then presents case studies from Senegal, Ghana and Bangladesh. A case study from Bangladesh may illustrate the gender issue on this subject: a community-based cyclone preparedness program in Bangladesh has found that sites where women were not involved in village level disaster preparedness committees, responsible for maintaining cyclone shelters and transmitting warnings, made up the highest proportion of cyclone victims. In Cox’s Bazaar in east Bangladesh, where women are now fully involved in disaster preparedness and support activities (education, reproductive health, self-help groups, and small and medium enterprises), there has been a huge reduction in the numbers of women killed or affected by cyclones.”
Climate Wrongs and Human Rights Oxfam, September 2008

http://www.oxfam.org/files/bp117- climate-wrongs-and-human-rights-0809.pdf

Executive Summary: http://www.oxfam.org/files/bp117-climate-wrongs-human-rights-summary-0809.pdf

The text argues that continuing emissions from rich countries is a violation of the human rights of people in poor countries. It says that the rich world cannot use an economic argument to continue emissions, and says it is appalling to weigh off financial costs of emissions cuts to human costs of climate change among the world’s poor. It lists how the effects of climate change are in breach with human rights, and also suggests a human rights-based approach to mitigation and adaptation. A table for this is presented in the executive summary. “Safeguarding women’s rights must also be at the core of adaptation strategies. Yet a focus on women is missing from the text of the UNFCCC: gender-disaggregated data are not even required in national reporting on impacts or adaptation. Likewise, the vast majority of National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs), drawn up by the 50 LDCs, acknowledge the importance of addressing gender in adaptation, but fail to propose specific activities to ensure it happens. One exception is Malawi, which plans to build women’s resilience by digging more boreholes and planting new trees to ensure easier access to water and fuel, and by promoting micro-credit schemes so women can diversify their incomes.”

Network and link to several publications on Climate Change

ReliefWeb – Humanitarian Implications of Climate Change

Wide collection of articles and documents of the broader issue of climate change and humanitarian implications. It has a section on gender, of which most articles are revised in the table above.

Gender and Climate Change

A resource more relevant to development issues.

Women Environment and Development Organization, WEDO

WEDO’s mission is to empower women as decision makers to achieve economic, social and gender justice, a healthy, peaceful planet, and human rights for all.


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