I. Colonial Time 1607 1775



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AP US HISTORY FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS SINCE 1971


I. Colonial Time 1607 - 1775

1. Puritanism bore within itself the seeds of its own destruction. Apply this

generalization. (74)
2. In the seventeenth century, New England Puritans tried to create a model society.

What were their aspirations, and to what extent were those aspirations fulfilled during

the seventeenth century? (83)
3. Between 1607 and 1763, Americans gained control of their political and economic

institutions. To what extent and in what ways do you agree or disagree with this

statement? (71)
4. What role did unfree labor play in colonial American society? (72)
5. Although many Northerners and Southerners came later to think of themselves as

having separate civilizations, the Northern and Southern colonies in the seventeenth

and eighteenth centuries were in fact more similar than different. Assess the validity

of this statement. (75)


6. Although the thirteen American colonies were founded at different times by people

with different motives and with different forms of colonial charters and political

organization, the Revolution the thirteen colonies had become remarkably similar.

Assess the validity of this statement. (78)


7. Throughout the colonial period, economic concerns had more to do with the settling

of British North America than did religious concerns. Assess the validity of this

statement with specific reference to economic and religious concerns. (90)
8, To what extent and why did religious toleration increase in the American colonies

during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? Answer with reference to Three

individuals, events, or movements in American religion during the seventeenth and

eighteenth centuries. (81)


9. From 1600 – 1763, several European nations vied for control of the North American

continent. Why did England win the struggle? ( 73)


10. The American Revolution should really be called the “British Revolution” because

marked changes in British colonial policy were responsible for final political

division than were American actions. Assess the validity of this statement for the

period 1763 – 1776. (82)


11. Britain’s wars for empire, far more than its mercantilist policies, dictated the

economic fortunes of Britain’s North American colonies in the eighteenth century.

Assess the validity of this statement. (87)
12. In the two decades before the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, a

profound shift in the way many Americans thought and felt about the British

government and their colonial governments. Assess the validity of this statement in

view of the political and constitutional debates of these decades. (89)


13. For the period before 1750, analyze the ways in which Britain’s policy of salutary

neglect influenced the development of American society as illustrated in the

following:

Legislative assemblies

Commerce Religion (95)
14. Analyze the extent to which religious freedom existed in the British North American

colonies prior to 1700. (98)




  1. Analyze the cultural and economic responses of TWO of the following groups to the Indians of North America before 1750.

British French Spanish (00)

II. American Revolution – Early Republic ( 1776 – 1800)
1. To what extent did economic issues provoke the American Revolution? ( 74)
2. The Declaration of Independence has been variously interpreted as a bid for French

support, an attempt to swing uncommitted Americans to the revolutionary cause, a

statement of universal principles, and an affirmation of the traditional rights of

Englishmen. To what extent, if any are these interpretations in conflict? ( 75)


3. During the seventeenth and increasingly in the eighteenth century, British colonists in

America charged Great Britain with violating the ideals of rule of law, self government, and, ultimately, equality of rights. Yet the colonists themselves violated these ideals in their treatment of blacks, Native Americans, and even poorer classes of white settlers. Assess the validity of this view. (79)


4. Despite the view of some historians that the conflict between Great Britain and its

thirteen North American colonies was economic in origin, in fact the American

Revolution had its roots in politics and other areas of American life. Assess the

validity of this statement. ( 86)


5. This history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and

usurpation, all having in direct object, the establishment of an absolute tyranny over

these States. Evaluate this accusation made against George III in the Declaration of

Independence. (88)

6. Analyze the extent to which the American Revolution represented a radical alteration

in American political ideas and institutions. Confine your answer to the period 1775

to 1800. (97)


  1. Analyze the degree to which the Articles of Confederation provided an effective

form of government with respect to any TWO of the following:

Foreign relations

Economic conditions Western lands ( 96)
8. Evaluate the relative importance of domestic and foreign affairs in shaping American

politics in the 1790’s. (94)


9. The Bill of Rights did not come from a desire to protect the liberties won in the

American Revolution, but rather from a fear of the powers of the new federal

government. Assess the validity of the statement. (91)
10. Evaluate the relative importance of the following as factors prompting Americans to

rebel in 1776:

Parliamentary taxation British military measures

Restriction of civil liberties The legacy of colonial religious and political ideas (92)


11. “ Our prevailing passions are ambition and interest; and it will be the duty of a wise

government to avail itself of those passions, in order to make them subservient to

the public good.”

Alexander Hamilton, 1787


How was this viewpoint manifested in Hamilton’s financial program as Secretary

of the Treasury? ( 71)


12. What evidence is there for the assertion that the basic principles of the Constitution

were firmly grounded in the political and religious experience of America’s

colonial and revolutionary periods? (84)
13. Between 1783 and 1800, the new government of the United States faced the same

political, economic , and constitutional issues that troubled the British

government’s relations with the colonies prior to the Revolution. Assess the

validity of this generalization. (80)


14. In the two decades before the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, a

profound shift occurred in the way many Americans thought and felt about the

British government and their colonial governments. Assess the validity of this

statement in view of the political and constitutional debate of these decades. (89)


15. What evidence is there for the assertion that the basic principles of the Constitution

were firmly grounded in the political and religious experience of America’s

colonial and revolutionary periods. (84)

III. Jeffersonian Democracy 1800 – 1825

1. There is no American history separate from the history of Europe. Test this

generalization by examining the impact of European events on the domestic policies

of the U.S. from 1789 to 1815. (72)


2. The achievements of Generals are in the long run more decisive than the

achievements of diplomats. Assess the validity of this generalization for the U.S. in

the period 1800 – 1825. (74)
3. Early United States foreign policy was primarily a defensive reaction to perceived or

actual threats from Europe. Assess the validity of this generalization with reference

to United States foreign policy on TWO major issues during the period from 1789 –

1825. (83)


4. The Era of Good Feeling (1816-1824) marked the appearance of issues that

transformed American politics in the next 20 years. Assess the validity of this

generalization. (75)


IV. Jackson and American Life 1825 – 1860

1. Andrew Jackson’s election as President marked the beginning of a new age in

American political history. Assess the validity of this generalization. (71)
2. From the American Revolution to the Civil War, American writers (both fiction and

non-fiction) sought to discuss a uniquely national culture. Analyze this statement for

any period of approximately thirty years between 1775 and 1860. (73)
3. Account for the emergence of utopian communities from the mid-1820’s through the

1840’s and evaluate their success and/ or failure. (74)


4. In the first half of the nineteenth century, the American cultural and intellectual

community contributed to the development of a distinctive American national

consciousness. Assess the validity of this statement. (86)
5. American social reform movements from 1820 to 1860 were characterized by

unyielding perfectionism, impatience with compromise, and distrust of established

social institutions. These qualities explain the degree of success or failure of these

movements in achieving their objectives. Discuss with reference to BOTH anti-

slavery and ONE other reform movement of the period 1820 –1860 (for example,

temperance, women’s rights, communitarianism, prison reform or educational

reform). (79)
6. American reform movements between 1820 and 1860 reflected both optimistic and

pessimistic views of human nature and society. Assess the validity of this statement

in reference to reform movements of THREE of the following areas:

Education Utopian experiments

Temperance Penal Institutions (88)

Women’s Rights


7. Analyze the ways in which Two of the following influenced the development of

American society.

Puritanism during the seventeenth century

The Great Awakening during the eighteenth century

The Second Great Awakening during the nineteenth century (94)
8. In what ways did the early nineteenth –century reform movements for abolition and

women’s rights illustrate both the strengths and weaknesses of democracy in the early

American republic? (93)
9. Analyze the extent to which Two of the following influenced the development of

democracy between 1820 and 1840.

Jacksonian economic policy Changes in electoral politics

Second Great Awakening Westward movement (96)


10. How did Two of the following contribute to the reemergence of a two party system

in the period 1820 to 1840?

Major political personalities States’ rights Economic issues (99)
11. Discuss the impact of the “transportation revolution,” 1820 – 1860, on the U.S. (73)
12. In the period 1815 to 1860, improvements in transportation and increased inter-

regional trade should have united Americans, but instead produced sectional

division and finally disunion. Discuss with reference to the impact of improved

transportation and increased inter-regional trade on the Northeast (New England and

Middle Atlantic states), the South, and the West. (80)
13. Developments in transportation, rather than in manufacturing and agriculture,

sparked American economic growth in the first half of the nineteenth century.

Assess the validity of this statement. (89)


V. Manifest Destiny 1840 –1860

1. Although Americans perceived Manifest Destiny as a benevolent movement, it was

infact an aggressive imperialism pursued at the expense of others. Assess the

validity of this statement with specific reference to American expansionism in the

1840’s. (90)
2. Although historically represented as distinct parties, the Federalists and the Whigs in

fact shared a common political ideology, represented many of the same interest

groups, and proposed similar programs and policies. Assess the validity of the

statement. (91)




  1. Compare the expansionist foreign policies of Presidents Thomas Jefferson and

James K. Polk. To what extent did their policies strengthen the United States? (93)
4. Discuss the impact of territorial expansion on national unity between 1800 and 1850.

(97)



VI. Slavery and Pre Civil War Issues 1840 – 1860

1. Why did the institution of slavery command the loyalty of the vast majority of ante-

bellum whites, despite the fact that only a small percentage of them owned slaves

(73)
2. Slavery was the dominating reality of all southern life. Assess the validity of this

generalization for TWO of the following aspects of southern life from about 1840 to

1860: political, social, economic, and intellectual life. (84)


3. Supreme Court decisions reinforce state and federal legislation. Assess the validity of

this generalization for THREE decisions of the Supreme Court prior to the Civil

War. (72)
4. At various times between 1789 and 1861, Americans changed their positions on the

constitutional question of loose construction or strict construction as best suited their

economic or political interests. Discuss this statement with reference to any TWO

individuals or groups who took positions on this constitutional question. (81)


5. Throughout our history, the Supreme Court has acted as a partisan political body

rather than a neutral arbiter of constitutional principles. Assess the validity of this

generalization for the period 1800 – 1860. (84)
6. Analyze the ways in which supporters of slavery in the nineteenth century used legal,

religious, and economic arguments to defend the institution of slavery. (95)




  1. Assess the moral arguments and political actions of those opposed to the spread of slavery in the context of TWO of the following:

Missouri Compromise Mexican War

Compromise of 1850 Kansas – Nebraska Act (00)



VII. Civil War and Reconstruction 1860 – 1877
1. The South never had a chance to win the Civil War. To what extent, and why, do you

agree or disagree with this statement? (71)


2. “I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and

political equality of the white and black races.” How can this 1858 statement of

Abraham Lincoln be reconciled with his 1862 Emancipation Proclamation? (88)
3. How do you account for the failure of Reconstruction (1865 – 1877) to bring social

and economic equality of opportunity to the former slaves? (83)


4. The unpopular ideas and causes of one period often gain popularity and support in

another, but the ultimate price of success is usually the alteration or subversion of the

original ideas and programs. For the period 1830-1870, discuss this statement with

reference to BOTH (A) the ideas and activities of abolitionists and (B) the policies of

the Republican Party. ( 78)
5. Discuss the political, economic, and social reforms introduced in the South between

1864 and 1877. To what extent did these reforms survive the Compromise of 1877?

(92)
6. Analyze the economic consequences of the Civil War with respect to any TWO of

the following in the United States between 1865 and 1880.

Agriculture Transportation

Labor Industrialization (97)




VIII. Agricultural and Industrial America 1865 – 1900

1. A number of writers and reformers in the period 1865-1914 discussed the growing

gap between wealth and poverty in the United States. Compare and contrast THREE

of the following authors’ explanations for this condition and their proposal for

dealing with it.

Henry George : Progress and Poverty

Edward Bellamy: Looking Backwards

Andrew Carnegie: The Gospel of Wealth

William Graham Sumner: What Social Classes Owe to Each Other

Upton Sinclair: The Jungle


2. Andrew Carnegie has been viewed by some historians as the “prime representative of

the industrial age” and by others as “an industrial leader atypical of the period.

Assess the validity of these views. (86)
3. The path to labor organization was marked by false starts and wrong moves. Assess

the validity of this generalization for the period 1865 – 1900. (77)


4. Popular fascination with the cowboy, the pioneer, and stories of Horatio Alger in the

period 1870 to 1915 reflected America’s uneasiness of transition from an agrarian to

an industrial society. Assess the validity of this statement. (87)

5. Ironically, popular belief in the “self-sufficient farmer” and the “self-made man”

increased during the nineteenth century as the reality behind these beliefs faded.

Assess the validity of this statement. (79)


6. Compare and contrast the attitudes of THREE of the following toward the wealth

that was created in the United States during the late nineteenth century.

Andrew Carnegie Horatio Alger Ida M. Tarbell

Eugene V. Debs Booker T. Washington (94)


7. Although the economic development of the Trans-Mississippi West is popularly

associated with hardy individualism, it was in fact largely dependent on the federal

government. Assess the validity of this statement with specific reference to western

economic activities in the nineteenth century. (91)


8. Analyze the impact of any TWO of the following on the American industrial worker

between 1865 and 1900.

Government actions Labor Unions

Immigration Technology changes (98)




IX. Intellectual, Cultural and Social Trends 1860 – 1900

1. Describe the thesis advanced by Frederick Jackson Turner about the relationship of

the frontier to political democracy, and assess the principal arguments that later

historians have made to attack or defend the thesis. (71)


2. The United States in the Gilded Age (1865 –1900) was a materialistic society, sterile

in all forms of artistic expression. Assess the validity of this statement by discussing

literature and the arts (include architecture if you wish) (71)
3. Although the United States is widely regarded as the home of free enterprise, business

values, and materialism, American fiction since 1865 has generally been critical of

business behavior and values. Assess the validity of this generalization with

reference to the work of at least TWO writers who have treated the behavior and

values of businessmen in their fiction since 1865. (80)
4. Most major religious movements reflect significant shifts in religious beliefs and

produce important social changes. Apply this generalization to TWO of the

following:

Seventeenth century Puritans The Second Great Awakening

The First Great Awakening The Social Gospel Movement (85)
5. Assess the validity of this statement in view of the experience of TWO of the

following:

The Scotch-Irish on the eighteenth century Appalachian frontier

The Irish in the nineteenth century urban Northeast

The Chinese in the nineteenth century west (87)
6. From the 1840’s through the 1890’s, women’s activities in the intellectual, social,

economic and political spheres effectively challenged traditional attitudes about

women’s place in society. Assess the validity of this statement. (91)
7. Account for the growth of ONE of the following major urban centers during the

period indicated:

Boston, 1630 – 1700 Cincinnati, 1790 – 1860

New York, 1790 –1860 Chicago, 1830 – 1900

New Orleans, 1790 – 1860 Salt Lake City, 1845 – 1900

Atlanta, 1870 – 1940 Los Angeles, 1890 –1960 (71)


8. Assess the changing status of Blacks between emancipation and the end of the

nineteenth century. (74)


9. Americans have been a highly mobile people. Describe and account for the dominant

Population Movements between 1820 and 1900. (82)




X. Politics 1877 –1900

1. Did the Republican Party from 1877 –1896 abandon its earlier principles and

succumb to expediency? (72)
2. Although the economic growth of the United States between 1860 and 1900 has been

attributed to a governmental policy of laissez-faire, it was in fact encouraged and

sustained by direct governmental intervention. Assess the validity of this statement.

(88)
3. Political movements in the U.S. often reflect a yearning for the past. Assess the

validity of this statement in reference to the Populists. (73)
4. Both the Jacksonian Democrats during 1824-1840 and the Populists during 1890 –

1896 attacked and sought out special privilege in American life. The Jacksonian

Democrats attained power and succeeded; the populists failed. Assess the validity of

this view. Give roughly equal attention to the Jacksonian Democrats and the

Populists. (74)
5. In what ways were the late nineteenth century Populists the heirs of the Jacksonian

Democrats with respect to overall objectives AND specific proposals for reform?

(89)
6. Analyze the reasons for the emergence of the Populist movement in the late

nineteenth century. (95)


7. How were the lives of the Plains Indians in the second half of the nineteenth century

affected by technological developments and government actions? ( 99)




XI. Expansionism 1890’s – 1914

1. United States foreign policy between 1815 and 1910 was determined less by

economic than strategic, moral, or political interests. Assess the validity of this

generalization with reference to at least TWO major episodes ( for example: treaties,

wars, proclamations, annexations, etc.) in the foreign policy of the United States

between 1815 and 1910. (80)


2. How and why did the Monroe Doctrine become the cornerstone of United States

foreign policy by the late nineteenth century? (85)


3. Both the Mexican War and the Spanish American War were premeditated resulting

from deliberately calculated schemes of robbery on the part of a superior power

against weak and defenseless neighbors. (86)
4. Compare the debates that took place over American expansionism in the 1840’s with those that took place in the 1890’s, analyzing the similarities and differences in the debates of the two eras. (92)


XII. The Progressives 1900 –1920

1. Analyze and evaluate Booker T. Washington’s program for American Blacks and

W.E.B. DuBois’s challenge to that program. (71)
2. Discuss the development of the women’s suffrage movement and account for its

success. (72)


3. The legal, political, and economic rights achieved by minorities and women in the

United States have come largely during periods of major reform movements, which

both helped the struggle of these groups and set limits to them. Assess the validity

of this statement for the history of one or more of these groups in the period 1830-

1920. (76)
4. Paradoxically, Darwinism provided a justification for both social conservatism and

social reform in the period from 1870-1915. Discuss this statement (77)


5. In American politics the most significant battles have occurred within the major

parties rather than between them. Discuss this statement with reference to the

periods 1850 –1861 and 1900 –1912. (81)
6. The Progressive movement of 1901 to 1917 was a triumph of conservatism rather

than a victory for liberalism. Assess the validity of this generalization. (87)


7. Analyze the ways in which state and federal legislation and judicial decisions,

including those of the Supreme Court, affected the efforts of any TWO of the

following groups to improve their position in society between 1880 and 1920.

African Americans Farmers Workers (93)


8. Although many Americans between 1870 and 1915 blamed political corruption at

the state and local level on public indifference or greedy politicians, such corruption

reflected a serious crisis of traditional institutions in dealing with social and

economic problems of modern America. Assess the validity of this generalization

(75)


XIII. World War I 1914 - 1920





  1. The U.S. in the period 1898-1919 failed to recognize that it had vital interests at

take in Europe, where it tried to stay aloof. At the same time, it had fewer or no such

interests in Asia, where it eagerly became involved. Assess the validity of this

generalization. (77)
2. The United States entered the First World War not “to make the world safe for

democracy” as President Wilson claimed, but to safeguard American economic

interests. Assess the validity of this statement. (74)
3. Assess the relative influence of THREE of the following in the American decision

to declare war on Germany in 1917.

German naval policy Allied propaganda

American economic interests America’s claim to world power

Woodrow Wilson’s idealism (95)


  1. To what extent did the United States achieve the objectives that led it to enter the

First World War? (00)


XIV. The 1920’s

1. Alienation from American society is a dominant theme of the literature of the

1920’s. Discuss this statement with reference to TWO writers (novelists, poets,

playwrights, journalists, etc.) citing evidence from their works. (72)


2. The 1920’s witnesses an assault by rural and small town America on Urban

America. Assess the validity of this generalization. (74)


3. From 1790 to the 1870’s, state and national governments intervened in the American

economy mainly to aid private economic interests and promote economic growth.

Between 1890 and 1929, however, government intervention was designed primarily

to curb and regulate private economic activity in the public interest. Assess the

validity of this statement, discussing for EACH of these periods at least TWO major

areas of public economic policy. (77)


4. In what ways did economic conditions and developments in the arts and

entertainment help create the reputation of the 1920’s as the Roaring Twenties? (99)


5. In the work of American writers from the 1820’s through the 1920’s, the city

mirrored America’s darkest fears, whereas the wilderness, the country and the farm

reflected the fondest hopes. Assess the validity of this generalization. You may

draw your evidence from fiction and or non-fiction. (76)


6. The legal, political, and economic rights achieved by minorities and women in the

United States have come largely during periods of major reform movements, which

both helped the struggles of these groups and set limits to them. Assess the validity

of this statement for the history of one or more of these groups in the period 1830 –

1920. (76)
7. The economic policies of the federal government from 1921 to 1929 were

responsible for the nation’s depression of the 1930’s. Assess the validity of this

generalization. (83)


XV. The New Deal 1932 - 1945

1. How do you account for the onset of the Great Depression of the 1930’s? (71)


2. Account for the increased urbanization of Black Americans in the period 1914 to

1945. (72)


3. The depression of the 1890’s delayed reform; the depression of the 1930’s stimulated

it. To what extent and in what ways do you agree or disagree with this

statement?(72)
4. The New Deal did not radically alter American business, but conserved and protected

it. Assess the validity of this statement. (73)


5. Despite artificial similarities, the domestic programs of the New Deal constituted a

fundamental departure from those of the Progressive Era. Assess the validity of this

generalization. (74)
6. The history of the U.S. shows that none of the three branches of the federal

government is immune from the temptation to upset the system of checks and

balances established by the Constitution. Assess the validity of this generalization in

regard to BOTH Congress versus the President 1865 – 1868 AND the President

versus the Supreme Court 1935 – 1937. (75)
7. Although often defended and attacked on purely economic grounds, the federal tariff

policies of the U.S. have been more important politically than economically. Assess

the validity of this generalization in regard to TWO tariffs in U.S. history. (75)
8. Major American writers have been indifferent to the social problems of their day.

State whether you agree or disagree with generalization and defend your position

with reference to THREE novelists/ or poets. (75)
9. Most reform legislation since 1900 has been the work of special interests seeking to

advance their own well-being, but the adoption of such legislation has required the

general support of others who were not directly affected but who perceived it to be in

the public interest. Assess the validity of this statement with reference to THREE

examples of reform legislation since 1900. You may draw your examples from

reform at any level of government: national, state or municipal. (79)


10. The New Deal secured the support of labor and agriculture after 1932 as the

Republican party had secured the support of industry and commerce since 1920 –

with special interest programs giving financial aid, legal privileges, and other types of

assistance. Assess the validity of this statement, giving attention to both periods

(1920 –1932 and 1932 – 1940). (81)
11. Despite often brutal clashes between labor and capital in the United States during the

period 1865-1940, collective working-class protest did not constitute a basic attack on

the capitalistic system. Assess the validity of this statement. (82)
12. During the past four decades, historians have consistently have rated Washington,

Lincoln, and FDR as the greatest presidents. Assess the greatness of any TWO of

these, making clear the criteria on which you base your judgement. (85)
13. Reform movements of the twentieth century have shown continuity in their goals

and strategies. Assess the validity of this statement for ONE of the following pairs of

reform movements.

Progressivism and the New Deal

Women’s suffrage and post-Second World War Feminism

The New Deal and the Great Society (86)

14. Why did socialism fail to become a major force in American politics between 1900

and 1940 despite widespread dissatisfaction with the social and economic order and

significant support for radical movements during that time period? (88)
15. Analyze the ways in which the Great Depression altered the American social fabric

in the 1930’s. (96)


16. Identify Three of the following New Deal measures and analyze the ways in which

each of the three attempted to fashion a more stable economy and a more equitable

society.

Agricultural Adjustment Act Wagner National Labor relations Act

Securities and Exchange Commission Social Security Act (93)
17. Although American writers of the 1920’s and 1930’s criticized American society, the

nature of their criticisms differed markedly in the two decades. Assess the validity of

this statement with specific reference to writers in both decades. (90)


XVI. Isolationism and War 1921 - 1945

1. President Franklin Roosevelt was naïve and ineffective in his conduct of foreign

policy from 1933 and 1941. To what extent and in what ways do you agree or

disagree with this statement. (71)


2. The term “isolationism “ does not adequately describe the reality of either United

States foreign policy or America’s relationships with other nations during the period

from Washington’s Farewell Address 1796 to 1940. Assess the validity of this

generalization. (76)


3. War has frequently had unexpected consequences for the United States foreign

policy but has seldom resulted in major reorientations of policy. Discuss with

reference to the First and Second world wars giving about equal attention to each.

(78)
4. Prior to American involvement in both the First and Second World Wars, the United

States adopted an official policy of neutrality. Compare the policy and its

modifications during the period 1914-17 to the policy and its modifications during

1939-41. (82)
5. Between 1776 and 1823 a young and weak United States achieved considerable

success in foreign policy when confronted with the two principal European powers,

Great Britain and France. Between 1914 and 1950, however, a far more powerful

United States was less successful in achieving its foreign policy objectives in Europe.

Discuss by comparing United States foreign policy in Europe during the period 1776

1823, with United States policy in Europe during ONE of the following periods:

1914 – 1932 OR 1933 -1950. (77)
6. To what extent and why did the United States adopt an isolationist policy in the

1920’s and 1930’s? (98)




XVII. Postwar Years 1945 -1960

1. Discuss the changing attitudes of historians towards the origins of the Cold War. (72)


2. Harry S. Truman was a realistic, pragmatic President who skillfully led the American

people against the menace posed by the Soviet Union. Assess the validity of this

generalization for President Truman’s foreign policy. (84)
3. The size, character, and effectiveness of the organized labor movement changed

significantly during the late nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth

century. Apply this statement to TWO of the periods:

1870 -1915 1915 - 1935 1935 - 1950 (85)


4. In 1945 Winston Churchill said that the United States stood at the summit of the

world. Discuss the developments in the thirty years following Churchill’s speech

which called the global preeminence of the United States into question. (92)
5. Analyze the influence of TWO of the following on American-Soviet relations in the

decade following the Second World War.

Yalta Conference Communist Revolution in China

Korean War McCarthysim (96)


6. To what extent did the decade of the 1950’s deserve its reputation as an age of

political, social, and cultural conformity? (94)


7. How do you account for the appeal of McCarthyism in the United States in the era

following the Second World War? (97)


8. Although the 1960’s are usually considered the decade of the greatest achievement

for Black civil rights, the 1940’s and 1950’s were periods of equally important gains.

Assess the validity of this statement. (91)


XVIII. 1960’s to the Present

1. Discuss the adjustments of ONE of the following minority groups to American life.

American Indians from 1860 -1900 Puerto Ricans from 1910 – 1970 (72)

Mexican -Americans from 1910 – 1970 Japanese Americans from 1910 - 1970


2. Controversy between integrationist and separatist viewpoints has long been a

dominant theme within the black community. Analyze the controversy among

blacks for the period 1920 - 1970. (73)
3. In the period since 1945, the Republican Party, as represented in the administrations

of Dwight Eisenhower (1953-1961) and Richard M. Nixon (1969-1974), virtually

abandoned the opposition to the New Deal expressed in the 1930’s. assess the

validity of this generalization. (75)


4. Greater similarities than differences have characterized the experiences of all ethnic

and racial groups who have migrated to American cities. Assess the validity of this

generalization with reference to the Irish and Germans from the 1840’s to the 1890’s

AND black Americans from 1915 - 1970. (75)


5. Presidents who have been notably successful in either foreign affairs or domestic

affairs have seldom been notably successful in both. Assess this statement with

reference to TWO presidents, on in the nineteenth century, and the other in the

twentieth century, giving reasons for success or failure in each case. (77)


6. The leadership, organization, and programs of ethnic and racial minority movements

after 1945 represented a fundamental departure from those which had existed from

1900 to 1945. Discuss with reference to black Americans or Mexican Americans,

giving about equal attention to the periods before and after 1945. (77)


7. From 1914 to the present, the main trend in the relationship between the central

government and the states has been toward concentration of power in the federal

government. Discuss with reference to such areas of governmental power as

regulation of business, social welfare, and civil rights. (78)


8. During the twentieth century, American “progressives” or “liberals” at some times

advocated a strong presidency and expanded executive power, while “conservatives”

opposed the expansion of these powers. At other times, the “liberals” and

“conservative” positions were reversed. Assess the validity of this statement with

reference to the periods 1900 – 1940 AND 1965 – 1974. (79)
9. A presidential election that results in defeat of the party in power usually indicates

the failure of the party in power to have dealt effectively with the nation’s problems,

rather than indicating the positive appeal of the winning candidate and his party

platform. Assess the validity of this generalization with reference to TWO of the

elections in which the party in power was defeated: 1912, 1920,1932,1952, 1960,

1968. (80)


10. Compare the goals and strategies of Black reform movements in the period 1890 –

1910 to the goals and strategies of Black reform movements in the period 1950-

1970. (82)
11. What accounted for the growth between 1940 and 1965 of popular and

governmental concern for the position of Blacks in American society? (85)


12. “Hawks” and “doves” have disagreed on United States involvement in wars since the

inception of the nation. Compare the “hawk” to the “dove” position for both a war

of the nineteenth century and a war of the twentieth century. (73)
13. Candidates elected to the presidency in the twentieth century have usually

campaigned as middle – of – the - road men without strong commitments. Assess

the validity of this generalization. (73)
14. The principal cause of the expansion of the American presidential power in the

twentieth century has been war and diplomacy rather than domestic growth and

crisis. Assess the validity of this statement. (76)
15. Shifts in party control of the presidency during the twentieth century have typically

NOT brought major shifts in domestic policy. Assess the validity of this statement.

Illustrate your argument by discussing the extent to which TWO of the following

presidents adopted the DOMESTIC programs of the previous presidential

administrations given in parentheses beneath their names.

Woodrow Wilson

(administration of William H. Taft and Theodore Roosevelt)

Franklin D. Roosevelt

(administration of Herbert Hoover)

Dwight D. Eisenhower

(administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman)

Richard M. Nixon

( administration of Lyndon B. Johnson and John F. Kennedy) (83)
16. Vice -Presidents who have succeeded to the presidency on the death of the President

have been less effective in their conduct of domestic AND foreign policy than the

men they have replaced. Assess the validity of this statement for any TWO of the

following pairs.

William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman

John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson (89)
17. Most of the reform legislation since 1900 has been the work of special interests

seeking to advance their own well – being, but the adoption of such legislation has

required the general support of others who were not directly affected but who

perceived it to be in the public interest. Assess the validity of this statement with

reference to THREE examples of reform legislation since 1900. You may draw your

examples from reform at any level of government: national, state, or municipal. (77)


18. Social dislocations resulting from wartime conditions frequently bring lasting change

within a society. Evaluate the relevance of this generalization to American society in

the twentieth century in view of the experience of Blacks AND women. (87)
19. 1968 was a turning point for the United States. To what extent is this an accurate

assessment? In your answer, discuss TWO of the following:

National Politics Vietnam War Civil Rights (98)
20. In what ways did the Great Society resemble the New Deal in its origins, goals, and

social and political legacy? Cite specific programs and policies in support of your

arguments. (92)
21. Describe THREE of the following and analyze the ways in which each of the three

has affected the status of women in American society since 1940.

The persistence of traditional definitions of women’s roles

Advances in reproductive technology

The rebirth of an organized women’s movement

Changing economic conditions (93)




  1. Foreign affairs rather than domestic issues shaped presidential politics in the

Election year 1968. Assess the validity of this statement with specific reference to foreign and domestic issues. (90)
23. Assess the success of the United States policy of containment in Asia between 1945

and 1975. (99)




  1. Discuss with respect to Two of the following, the view that the 1960’s represented a

period of profound cultural change.

Education Gender roles



Music Race Relations (00)

sue reeder wshs 1999

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