Human Elective Overpopulation V. Redmond 2011 Overpopulation

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Human Elective

  • Overpopulation
  • V.Redmond 2011


  • Overpopulation occurs when there are more people living in an area than there are resources to support them.
  • Resources could include clean water, food, shelter, land, education, medicine, etc.


  • North east Africa
  • Largest African country
  • Barren, only 5% of land is fertile. Desert climate in north and Tropical in south.
  • Capital is Khartoum
  • Political divisions between Islamic north and Black south.

Map of Sudan

Population in Sudan

  • 32 million
  • 50% under 18 years
  • Life expectancy 55 years
  • Uneven distribution
  • 33% population living on 7% of land
  • 66% of population live within 300 km of Khartoum

Causes of Overpopulation

  • High Birth Rates
  • Migration and Conflict
  • Environmental Degradation
  • …….Overpopulation is confined to certain parts of Sudan (near Khartoum and the Darfur region)

Birth Rates

  • Stage 2 in population cycle
  • High level of natural increase
  • Large families, 5 children average
  • High infant mortality
  • Lack education/ Family planning
  • 50% of population under 18
  • High Dependency Ratio


  • 2003
  • Sudanese Liberation Army & Justice and Equality Movement
  • Rebelled against government
  • Blamed govt for not protecting farming communities and not developing the Darfur region of Sudan
  • Govt responded with violence

Conflict and Migration

  • Govt bombed villages
  • Supported Janjawid (mounted Arab militia)
  • Continuous fighting in rural areas
  • Villages looted, burned, abandoned
  • Over a million displaced people (refugees) within Darfur and thousands fled to Chad
  • Thousands killed

Effect of Conflict on Population

  • Overpopulation in certain areas
  • Lack of services and employment in these areas
  • Refugees require huge amount of food and medical aid
  • Brain drain as professionals emigrate

Influx from Ethiopia

  • Famine and Conflict
  • One million refugees flee to Darfur
  • Lack skills/education
  • Unemployment
  • Burden of aid provision


  • Internal
  • External to Chad
  • Immigration from Ethiopia
  • Brain drain

Environmental Degradation

  • Drought reduces food production capacity
  • Regular drought
  • Deforestation for fuel
  • Deforestation causing Desertification
  • Sahara spreading south 10 km a year

Exam Questions

  • Explain the term overpopulation and examine two causes of overpopulation in a region you have studied. (30 marks)
  • Discuss two effects of overpopulation in a region or country that you have studied. (30 marks)
  • Examine one cause and one effect of overpopulation, with reference to examples you have studied. (30 marks)

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