Human Body Exam Multiple Choice



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a.

9

c.

6

b.

7

d.

4

____ 21. Refer to the illustration above. Which of the structures in the diagram are composed mainly of dead cells?



a.

1 and 6

c.

3 and 4

b.

2 and 8

d.

None of the above

____ 22. nail root : nails ::



a.

lunula : hair

c.

melanin : hair

b.

keratin : melanocytes

d.

hair follicle : hair

____ 23. The ventricles are



a.

the upper chambers of the heart.

b.

the chambers of the heart that pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body.

c.

the chambers of the heart that receive blood from the lungs and the rest of the body.

d.

lower chambers of the heart that contract separately.


____ 24. Refer to the illustration above. Structure 4 is



a.

the right atrium.

c.

the right ventricle.

b.

the left atrium.

d.

the left ventricle.

____ 25. Refer to the illustration above. Blood in chamber 1



a.

is full of oxygen.

c.

has a low concentration of oxygen.

b.

is going toward the lungs.

d.

has very little plasma.

____ 26. The heart chamber that receives blood from the venae cavae is the



a.

left atrium.

c.

left ventricle.

b.

right atrium.

d.

right ventricle.

____ 27. Oxygenated blood from the lungs is received by the



a.

left ventricle.

c.

left atrium.

b.

right atrium.

d.

right ventricle.

____ 28. Which type of blood vessel is both strong and elastic?



a.

capillary

c.

vein

b.

artery

d.

venule

____ 29. The smallest and most numerous blood vessels in the body are the



a.

venules.

c.

arteries.

b.

veins.

d.

capillaries.

____ 30. An artery



a.

usually carries oxygen-rich blood.

b.

has thin, slightly elastic walls.

c.

has valves that prevent blood from flowing backward.

d.

All of the above

____ 31. The pressure exerted on the inner walls of the arteries when the heart relaxes between beats is the ____ pressure.



a.

systolic.

c.

barometric.

b.

diastolic.

d.

residual.

____ 32. Which of the following is not involved in the formation of blood clots?



a.

platelet congregation at the site of rupture of a blood vessel

b.

release of clotting factors from platelets

c.

production of fibrin, a protein

d.

formation of fibrinÐred blood cell complexes that circulate in the blood and are too large to move through ruptured blood-vessel walls

____ 33. A person with antigen A on their red blood cells can give blood to someone with blood type(s)



a.

A and AB.

c.

only AB.

b.

B and AB.

d.

only O.


____ 34.

Refer to the illustration above. The structure labeled ÒXÓ is the



a.

epiglottis.

c.

trachea.

b.

pharynx.

d.

larynx.

____ 35. Each alveolus



a.

contains many air sacs.

c.

is surrounded by capillaries.

b.

attaches directly to the larynx.

d.

is a large air sac.

____ 36. Gas exchange occurs when



a.

oxygen in the alveoli diffuses into the blood in the capillaries.

b.

oxygen binds with hemoglobin in the red blood cells.

c.

the red blood cells give up oxygen to the cells of the body tissues.

d.

All of the above

____ 37. Which of the following occurs as air rushes into the lungs from the environment to equalize air pressure?



a.

inspiration

c.

expiration

b.

contraction

d.

None of the above

____ 38. Which of the following is the final step in using KochÕs postulates to demonstrate that a particular agent causes a disease?



a.

A healthy animal inoculated with the disease agent contracts the disease.

b.

The disease agent is found in animals that have the disease but not in animals that are free of the disease.

c.

An animal infected by injecting the suspected disease agent from an animal with the disease is found to also have the disease agent in its tissues, because a pathogen cultured from the second animal is found to be the same as the pathogen cultured from the first.

d.

The disease agent is collected from a sick animal and cultured in the laboratory.

____ 39. Mucous membranes



a.

cover all the bodyÕs surfaces.

b.

line internal body surfaces that are in contact with the environment.

c.

produce antibodies to combat infection.

d.

secrete sweat, which has antibacterial enzymes.

____ 40. All of the following have mucous membranes except



a.

the digestive tract.

c.

the nasal passages.

b.

the surface of the skin.

d.

the vagina.

____ 41. Mucus is produced by the cells lining the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles



a.

only when a person has a severe respiratory infection.

b.

to allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood more efficiently.

c.

as a lubricant for the expulsion of food that might Ògo down the wrong tube.Ó

d.

to protect against microbes that might be inhaled.

____ 42. The redness and swelling associated with an inflammatory response is caused by



a.

secretion of antibodies.

b.

expansion of local blood vessels.

c.

complement activity.

d.

natural killer cells destroying bacteria.

____ 43. Which of the following engulfs foreign cells?



a.

a helper T cell

c.

a macrophage

b.

a B cell

d.

an antibody

____ 44. neutrophils : ingesting pathogens ::



a.

macrophages : releasing chemicals

b.

natural killer cells : releasing chemicals

c.

natural killer cells : puncturing membranes of infected cells

d.

macrophages : puncturing membranes of infected cells


____ 45. Refer to the illustration above. During which time period are the first antibodies to the pathogen produced?



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