How has globalization affected people, nations, and capital?



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How has globalization affected people, nations, and capital?

Guiding Questions: What is globalization? Who controls globalization? Who benefits (and who doesn’t) from globalization?

How does globalization affect me?
Topic: Globalization

Nicole Gilbertson, UC Irvine History Project


History Standards
10.11 Students analyze the integration of countries into the world economy and the information, technological, and communications revolutions (e.g., television, satellites, computers).


CCSS Standards: Reading, Grades 9-10

RH 2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.

RH4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science.

RH7. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g. visually quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.

RH9. Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources.
CCSS Standards: Writing, Grades 9-10

WH 1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

WH2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.

Lesson 1: What is globalization?

This lesson will allow students to develop a nuanced definition of globalization in order to begin to understand the processes of globalization. Students will view a video and develop their own definition of globalization. Through case studies of specific people engaged in the world economy, students will refine their definition of globalization. Finally, the teacher will lead students in a discussion of the periodization of globalization by considering when did globalization begin. Experts debate the beginning of globalization so there is no correct answer. Rather, this exercise is an opportunity for the teacher to lead students in a review of the course by considering important moments of change (the advent of world trade across all oceans, imperialism, and modern technological innovation). Students can develop their own claims based on their prior knowledge to the question, when did globalization begin?


Lesson 1: What is globalization?
Sources


  1. TED-Ed “What is Globalization?” http://ed.ted.com/on/F2HX0akU

  2. Career Connections: Global Brand Manager, found at PBS Learning Media

https://ca.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/7ccf2c1c-df64-4464-bcea-966796aca4be/global-brand-manager-career-connections/#.WLnMERB23bE

  1. Wide Angle: 1-800-India found at PBS Learning Media

https://ca.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/wa08.socst.world.glob.shopping/shopping-culture/#.WLnMMxB23bE

  1. Ethiopian Farms Going Global found at PBS Learning Media

https://ca.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/e9fb1396-7e7b-44c7-ac61-12ff38ccac59/e9fb1396-7e7b-44c7-ac61-12ff38ccac59/#.WLnNNBB23bE

  1. Globalization PowerPoint


Lesson Steps

  1. For homework, have students to watch the TED-Ed “What is Globalization?” video and fill in the accompanying worksheet 1 (below).

  2. In class, the teacher poses the lesson question, What is globalization? and debriefs the video. The teacher may want to record on the board the specific examples/effects of globalization under each category: economic, politics, and culture.

  3. Students get into groups and develop a shared definition of globalization.

  4. Student groups then watch video of a person or group of people affected by globalization. Each group watches one of the videos and discuss the questions below. Each group shares out a summary of the video they watch and how the people described in their video experience globalization.

Videos links:

Video 1: Career Connections: Global Brand Manager

https://ca.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/7ccf2c1c-df64-4464-bcea-966796aca4be/global-brand-manager-career-connections/#.WLnMERB23bE


Video 2: Wide Angle: 1-800-India

https://ca.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/wa08.socst.world.glob.shopping/shopping-culture/#.WLnMMxB23bE

Explain to students that BPO industry is business process outsourcing (BPO) is a subset of outsourcing that involves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of a specific business process to a third-party service provider. For example, a company could have their marketing design team in India, while the rest of the company (scientists, sales, product development, etc.) is in the United States. These are white collar jobs.
Video 3: Ethiopian Farms Going Global

https://ca.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/e9fb1396-7e7b-44c7-ac61-12ff38ccac59/e9fb1396-7e7b-44c7-ac61-12ff38ccac59/#.WLnNNBB23bE


Each group should discuss:

  • What is this video about? (who, what, when where, why)

  • What are some specific benefits of globalization mentioned in this video?

  • What are some challenges of globalization? (these may not be explicit, but students can infer them from the video)

  • How does this relate to their definition of globalization? Does it refine, revise and expand their definition of globalization?

Students share about their summaries of the video and how it connects to their definitions of globalization.




  1. Teacher asks students, when did globalization begin? Students discuss. Teacher shares the PPT. Students develop a claim and use evidence from their knowledge of the course. Teacher collects this as an exit slip.


Worksheet 1: What is Globalization?
Watch the video clip defining this concept and use the information presented to answer the questions below.
TED-Ed “What is Globalization?” http://ed.ted.com/on/F2HX0akU


  1. What are some causes of globalization?


  1. What is an example and effect of economic globalization?

Example:

Effect:




  1. What is an example and effect of political globalization?

Example:

Effect:




  1. What is an example and effect of cultural globalization?

Example:

Effect:




  1. According to the video, who benefits from globalization? Explain your answer.


  1. According to the video, who is challenged by the effects of globalization?



  1. After watching this video, how would you define globalization?



  1. When you think about your life, how have you benefitted from globalization? Explain.

Have you seen or experienced any negative consequences of globalization?
Lesson 2: Who controls globalization? Who are the agents of globalization?

Students will find that there is no correct answer to this question, but rather that globalization is a complex process with many powerful actors. The lesson includes sources that highlight the important role that the nation state has in creating structures (tax rates, treaties, labor laws) that control the flow of wealth, ideas, and technology. In addition, students will also read sources that highlight the wealth and influence of multi-national corporations and corporate interests in the form of marketing and corporate earnings. The influential non-state actors also shape the global economy and influence culture in powerful ways. By considering this topic from a variety of sources, students will analyze who benefits and who loses out on the gains of global capital flow.


Sources


  1. Thomas Friedman, Three Eras of Globalization”,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lp4znWHvsjU


  1. Twilight Greenaway, “How Did Avocados Become the Official Super Bowl Food?” January 30, 2013, Smithsonian.com

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/how-did-avocados-become-the-official-super-bowl-food-8332793/
3. “The North American Free Trade Agreement Explained,” January 27, 2017, The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/video/business/the-north-american-free-trade-agreement-nafta-explained/2017/01/27/0b9e5b94-e4d5-11e6-a419-eefe8eff0835_video.html


  1. Vincent Trivett, “25 US Mega Corporations: Where They Rank If They Were Countries,” June 27, 2011, Business Insider, http://www.businessinsider.com/25-corporations-bigger-tan-countries-2011-6?op=1




  1. Angelo Young, “Welcome to Tax Haven, U.S.A.: Apple, Ireland and the American corporate tax giveaway” September 6, 2016, Salon, http://www.salon.com/2016/09/06/welcome-to-tax-haven-usa-apple-ireland-and-the-american-corporate-tax-giveaway


Lesson Steps

  1. Teacher shares the Thomas Friedman, “Three Eras of Globalization” video with students as a warm-up activity and review of lesson 1. Teacher asks students to describe each era and the agent (summarize) and then consider, Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer by developing a claim and providing two pieces of evidence. Students share out in groups.




  1. Students review the document set to consider the lesson question:

Who controls globalization? Who are the agents of globalization?

Students can engage in “Thesis Evidence Cycle” activity (directions below sources) to highlight how each source provides a different perspective.




  1. Teacher brings class together for a discussion of the question, who controls globalization? Students can conclude that both nation states make many of the rules that govern finances. However, the wealth of the multi-national corporations allow them to be flexible to adapt to laws governing them and provide them with wealth to foster influence.


Source 1:

Twilight Greenaway, “How Did Avocados Become the Official Super Bowl Food?” January 30, 2013, Smithsonian.com

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/how-did-avocados-become-the-official-super-bowl-food-8332793/

Guacamole and the Super Bowl. The two go hand in hand these days don’t they?

And yet, if you visit the California Avocado Commission’s website — brought to you by the state with 60,000 acres of avocado orchards — you won’t find any mention of “Guacamole Sunday.” Instead, a message on the site’s front page reads: “Our season has ended. Look for California avocados in stores from Spring – Fall.”

When I asked Will Brokaw, the California farmer behind Will’s Avocados about this seemingly odd timing, he was quick to point to the irony.

“The California avocado season is just barely getting going at that time of year,” he said. And while it’s great that demand is so high, which in turn raises sales numbers and wholesale prices for everyone, it’s a shame to see that demand at precisely the moment when Hass avocados – the most popular domestic variety – have yet to fully ripen. (The ones that do get picked in February are often watery, he says.)

“Everybody would be better off if the Super Bowl was delayed until early March,“ Brokaw added.

Well, maybe not everybody. In fact, as soon as I started looking into how avocados became the signature food for an event that takes place in the dead of winter, it quickly became clear that the Super Bowl-guacamole tie is a fascinating – perhaps disturbing – example of the way globalization has come to define the food on our plates.

Last year, according to the produce industry publication The Packer, about 75 percent of the avocados shipped within the U.S. in the weeks leading up to the Super Bowl came from Mexico. Most of the rest came from Chile. And that translates to a lot of the creamy green fruits. This year Americans will eat almost 79 million pounds of them in the few weeks before the big game – an eight million pound increase over last year and a 100 percent increase since 2003.

None of this has been an accident. The avocado industry started promoting guacamole as a Super Bowl food back in the 1990s, shortly after the NAFTA agreement began allowing floods of avocados from Central and South America to enter the country in winter. By 2008, Mexico had become the largest supplier of avocados to the U.S.

The Christian Science Monitor wrote about the phenomenon in this 2009 article, Super Bowl success story: Mexico’s avocados.

In the central state of Michoacán, Mexico’s avocado belt, exports generated $400 million last year, and it’s now the second source of income for the state – after remittances sent from Mexicans living in the US.

It has transformed this state, and put a hold on immigration,” says José Luis Gallardo, the head of the Michoacán Avocado Commission and a plantation owner who has watched the industry explode in the past few years.



While fresh avocados have been a staple of the Mexican diet for centuries, in the US they were mostly consumed in California or Texas, where they are grown.

Today, the fruit is as common in California supermarkets as it is in Kansas.”

This is where I start to feel conflicted. On the one hand, I feel truly happy for the Kansans who now have access to one of the world’s most delicious, perfect foods. And I like knowing that so many people are serving guacamole at their Super Bowl parties instead of say, highly-processed cheese dip.

But the fact that the foreign avocado industry was able to create a new market for their product virtually overnight simply by pulling out all the stops on marketing the product as an established Super Bowl food also seems noteworthy.

Our increasing dependence on large monocrops and factory farms (think: vast swaths of almonds grown in California to feed Germany’s hankering for marzipan, or the pork produced in Iowa’s concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) intended for South Korea, Colombia, and Panama) comes with a steep price.

Until just a few decades ago, most Americans had a basic awareness of the way food and farming was connected to place, seasons, and the weather. Not only have we lost these things, but we’ve also lost touch with how and where our food is produced — a key piece of the puzzle when it comes to knowing that your dinner ingredients won’t be, say, recalled for salmonella contamination, filled with antibiotics, or covered in pesticide residue.

I can call up Will Brokaw — or grab him at the farmers market — and ask him how he grows his avocados (everything from how he controls pests, treats the soil, and uses water, to how he treats his workers). And while the growers in Michoacán, Mexico, may very well be using the exact same farming practices, I have no way of knowing either way. That disconnect may not keep most of us from buying winter avocados, but it should give us pause — just like the other windows into the vast complexities of our food system should.

And that “perfect Super Bowl snack”? It may not be quite so perfect anymore.


  1. According to the article, who created a market for avocados during the Super Bowl?

  2. What policy allowed the avocado to become a global commodity?

  3. Who benefits from increased guacamole consumption in the US?

  4. Who is negatively affected by this case study of globalization?

  5. After reading this article, how would you answer the question, who controls globalization? Who are the agents of globalization?


Source 2:

“The North American Free Trade Agreement Explained,” January 27, 2017, The Washington Post.


https://www.washingtonpost.com/video/business/the-north-american-free-trade-agreement-nafta-explained/2017/01/27/0b9e5b94-e4d5-11e6-a419-eefe8eff0835_video.html


  1. What is NAFTA?

  2. Who agreed to NAFTA?

  3. Who benefits from NAFTA?

  4. Who is negatively affected by NAFTA?

  5. After watching this video, how would you answer the question, who controls globalization? Who are the agents of globalization?



Source 3:

Vincent Trivett, “25 US Mega Corporations: Where They Rank If They Were Countries,” June 27, 2011, Business Insider, http://www.businessinsider.com/25-corporations-bigger-tan-countries-2011-6?op=1


Visit article on website and select view as: “one page”

http://www.businessinsider.com/25-corporations-bigger-tan-countries-2011-6?op=1




  1. What information does this article tell us about multi-national corporations?

  2. Who benefits from multinational corporations?

  3. After viewing these statistics, how would you answer the question, who controls globalization? Who are the agents of globalization?



Source 4:

Angelo Young, “Welcome to Tax Haven, U.S.A.: Apple, Ireland and the American corporate tax giveaway” September 6, 2016, Salon, http://www.salon.com/2016/09/06/welcome-to-tax-haven-usa-apple-ireland-and-the-american-corporate-tax-giveaway/.

---Note: Apple and other multi-national companies have offices where they manage their business in countries other than where they are incorporated (in the US). They do this so they do not have to pay taxes on their earnings to the United States government, rather they pay a lower rate to the counties where they house their operations. Ireland is one of these countries.---


It’s hard to come up with a better example of just how topsy-turvy the global corporate tax situation is than Ireland’s effort to prevent Apple Inc. from paying it more than $14 billion in back taxes. The country, which only a few years ago was digging itself out of insolvency, doesn’t want the money. Instead the Irish government is fighting to protect its right to offer sweetheart tax arrangements to multinational companies in return for jobs.

This deal between Apple and Ireland, which the European Commission claims lowered the tech giant’s EU tax bill to 0.005 percent in 2014, is just one of many complex agreements that the world’s largest companies have made with countries to reduce their local tax burdens and, in the case of big American multinationals, shield massive amounts of cash from being taxed by the United States, which has one of world’s highest corporate tax rates.

Now that the EU has thrown down the gauntlet to member states like Ireland, The Netherlands and Luxembourg, demanding that they close the tax loopholes eagerly exploited by companies including Apple, Starbucks, McDonald’s and Amazon.com, the question is what’s going to happen next. Some argue that efforts to curb tax-avoidance practices in one place will simply encourage companies to shop around for another tax jurisdiction…

The prevalence of tax-avoidance schemes among American corporations is hard to overstate. Fortune 500 companies have amassed more than $2 trillion overseas, denying the U.S. Internal Revenue Service a staggering $695 billion in taxes. Apple alone has avoided paying $66 billion in U.S. taxes by diverting its global revenue away from the United States, according to Citizens for Tax Justice, a progressive tax policy group based in Washington, D.C…



Tax competition among countries is bad, and the present system sadly encourages it,” said Kadet. “And I’m not particularly optimistic there will be a solution to this in my lifetime.”

  1. Why does Apple prefer to have its operations in Ireland than the United States?

  2. Why would a state want to offer low tax rates and bring a multinational corporation to their country?

  3. Who benefits from these “tax-avoidance schemes’”?

  4. Who is negatively affected by “tax-avoidance schemes’?

  5. After reading this article, how would you answer the question, who controls globalization? Who are the agents of globalization?





Lesson 3: Who benefits (and who doesn’t) from globalization?

How does globalization affect me?

This lesson allows students to develop their own claim about the impact of globalization in their own lives. The teacher begins the lesson by showing students one of the photo essay collections and asking students to consider what claims the photographer is making and how the photographer uses the medium to present ideas about the impact of globalization. Students will then develop their own project where they create a photograph or photo collection that reflects their understanding and ideas about the effects of globalization on their lives.


Photo Essay collections


  1. Where Children Sleep photo collection juxtaposes children’s bedrooms to highlight cultural and economic differences

https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2011/08/where-children-sleep-a-round-the-world-tour-of-bedrooms/243303/


  1. In this photo essay, photographer Matt Black creates a unique and in-depth overview of poverty throughout California's Central Valley using photos, geolocations, and poverty data. http://www.geographyofpoverty.com/story-map




  1. This photo collection highlights the juxtaposition of the nomadic way of life of the Mongolians and despite their traditional economic and cultural practices they are integrated into a global world https://www.globalonenessproject.org/library/photo-essays/mongolias-nomads#m[]=photo-essay&photo=20




  1. This photo published in 1999 highlights the everyday nature of globalization and the importance of consumerism to drive the connections of goods across the globe. http://100photos.time.com/photos/andreas-gursky-99-cent


Lesson Steps

  1. Teacher introduces the lesson question and shares a photograph or photo essay related to globalization (choose from above). Teachers may want to model photo analysis as a whole class to prepare students for the creation of their own photograph. Use the More You Look handout (below) or the National Archives photo analysis form:

https://www.archives.gov/files/education/lessons/worksheets/photo_analysis_worksheet.pdf

Students will view a selection of photographs and as a class the teacher leads a discussion on how these create a narrative about the effects of globalization in a particular place.



  1. Teacher asks students if they use Instagram and how they use it. Teachers suggest that photography provides an avenue for people to make an argument about a larger idea. Students will develop their own photograph of the effects of globalization on their lives. Students will then brainstorm what aspects of globalization affect them and how they will present that through photographs using the handout included below. Students may want to use the definitions of globalization that they developed in Lesson 1 as a starting point.

  2. Students display and share their photos through online through a shared Google Slide or class-based archive.

Idea for student-led photo journalism project adapted from the Global Oneness Project



https://www.globalonenessproject.org/resources/lesson-plans/citizen-photojournalism
Handouts below




Photographing Globalization Locally
Imagine that you have been asked by National Geographic to develop a photo essay on the role of globalization in your community. Your assignment is to develop a story about the effects of globalization in your life. You will create a claim and then use photos as evidence to answer the question: How does globalization affect me?
Step 1: Narrow your focus. Globalization is a huge topic, consider what, specifically, about globalization is important to you and your community?
You may want to consider the following questions:

  • What aspects of globalization are important in my life? (technology, education, global awareness, consumerism, environment)

  • How am I affected by this aspect of globalization?

  • What are positive and negative consequences of globalization?

Topic:


Step 2: Develop a message. What do you want to say about globalization?


  • You may want to consider the following questions.

  • How can I visually represent this example of globalization?

  • Is this aspect of globalization beneficial to me and my community?

  • Is this aspect of globalization detrimental to me and my community?

Message:


Step 3: Consider how you want to represent this message. What will you photograph to represent your topic and message?
You may want to consider the following questions.

  • What will best represent my message (people, things, places)?

  • Will I take multiple photographs? Will these photographs be similar or in juxtaposition with one another?

  • How will I use photos to tell a story?

Step 4: Take plenty of photos and edit or curate your collection to the ones that reflect your message and topic. Present these photos digitally as a presentation with captions in Google Slides. Make sure the captions reflect your claim and message.










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