Directions:Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.
The Art Contest
It all began two months ago. India’s school announced it would have an art contest in which each student could enter one piece of art, to be judged by a local artist for originality, technique, difficulty, and general quality. First place would go to the student with the highest overall score.
India entered her prized painting, Wanda Wears Yellow. Her art teacher, Mr. Blanco, had praised it, saying it was “hilariously rendered” and “full of life.” India felt she had a good shot at winning the contest, but she didn’t want to jinx things. “I’m putting the contest out of my mind,” she told her mother the evening after she entered the painting. “I’ve done my part. It’s up to the judge now.”
During the two months that passed after she submitted her painting, India went about her business as usual. She produced two new art pieces: a necklace made with objects she’d found in the park and a ceramic vase in the shape of an eggplant. She rarely thought about the contest during the time she was creating the new art and participating in extracurricular activities such as soccer practice and working in her school’s darkroom.
But yesterday morning things heated up. India went to her third-period art class, just as always. She continued working on her current project, an abstract, three-dimensional collage using images clipped from magazines, when Mr. Blanco asked to speak with her in the hallway. India glanced at the clock above the door: it was 10:10.
“India,” he said, his eyes bright with excitement. “I have some wonderful news for you.” He paused, his face breaking out in a huge smile. “You won the contest!”
India screamed with joy, then quickly covered her mouth, remembering that classes were in session. The hallway was empty, and the floor shone. “I can’t believe it,” she said, clapping her hands. “What a shock!”
“It was very close between you and the student who finished in second place, Abel McQueen. But your total score was 93, and his was 92.”
“That’s so close!” India responded. “I’m really lucky.”
“You’re both wonderfully talented artists,” Mr. Blanco said. “Here are the judge’s marks for your painting. You got one score for each of the four categories and some comments regarding your work.” India took the sheet of paper. “You should be proud of yourself, India. This is a magnificent accomplishment.”
He offered his hand in congratulations. “Thanks so much, Mr. Blanco,” India said, still beaming.
“We’ll announce the results tomorrow in the school newspaper,” Mr. Blanco added, “but we wanted to give you and Abel the news a bit early.”
For the rest of the day, India felt like she was walking on clouds. She didn’t tell anyone—even her closest friends—but she kept stealing glimpses of the judge’s marks and comments while she was in class. “Lovely use of color,” the judge had written on the lines next to the category of “general quality,” and “Excellent perspective” was written next to the category of “technique.” India felt joyously proud. She sneaked another peek at the four numbers that landed her in first place: 22, 23, 24, and 23. The judge had used heavy green ink, which soaked through to the other side of the paper.
In geometry, her second-to-last class of the day, India’s thoughts turned to the newspaper article that would announce her win. “What will the article say? Will it reprint the judge’s scores and comments?” she wondered. “How will the other participants in the contest react?”
She looked again at the judge’s scores, this time very closely. She added them up and made a shocking—even potentially scandalous—discovery.
“Look at this—22 plus 23 plus 24 plus 23,” she thought. “That’s only 92.” She added the numbers over and over, writing them in a column in her notebook many times. She even punched the same four numbers into her calculator more times than necessary.
“I only scored a 92,” India thought, her mind racing with thoughts of how she’d be accused of stealing first place and cheating in order to win the contest. She remembered that Abel also scored a 92, so their scores were tied. She felt the energy drain from her body.
India tried to pay attention to her geometry teacher, but her thoughts kept wandering back to the art contest. “What am I going to do?” she thought over and over again.
India’s final class period was study hall, so she had some quiet time to think about what she had just discovered. The room was a soothing blue, and a rose bush stood just outside the window. “I really want to win this contest,” India thought, looking at the roses. “I’ve never won anything before.”
But another thought kept creeping into her head: “It’s not fair to Abel—he worked hard too.”
After school India stopped by Mr. Blanco’s classroom and pointed out the error. He triple-checked the numbers on India’s score sheet, then compared them to Abel’s scores. India was right; she and Abel had tied.
“I’m very impressed by your commitment to truth,” Mr. Blanco eventually said to India. “You’ve shown some remarkable integrity.”
This morning the school newspaper came out with a front-page story announcing the winners of the art contest. There were two pictures, one of India and one of Abel, their smiling faces appearing side by side.
Before classes India sat in the busy cafeteria, surrounded by students sipping orange juice and double-checking their homework. She flipped open the newspaper and began reading the article. She couldn’t help thinking that she had done the right thing.
What is the theme of the story?
Identify one cause-and-effect relationship in the story that supports what you wrote about theme.
What is the conflict that India faces in the story? Does she learn anything from this conflict?
Describe the setting at the end of the story.
What is the setting of the story when India hears that she won the art contest?
After India leaves study hall, having decided to point out the scoring mistake in the art contest, where does she go?
Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.
When I was younger, college seemed like something that belonged to other people, not to me. College students, it seemed, sat around coffee shops wearing sweatshirts that had their school’s name written across the front. They talked about final exams and professors, dorm rooms and majors. They hung out in libraries, pulled “all-nighters,” and crammed for midterms. All of this seemed so foreign to me.
Neither of my parents went to college. My dad works in a restaurant busing tables, and my mom is a seamstress. It’s not that my parents don’t want me to go to college; it just never comes up. Besides, they have a lot on their plates. My grandmother lives with us, and she has diabetes. Plus, my mother worries a lot about her job; there are always rumors that her company plans to lay off its employees. So when it comes to me, I think they’re happy if I just stay out of trouble.
When my senior year of high school rolled around, the subject of college started coming up with kids at school. Everyone talked about what they planned to do after graduation.
“I’m going to get more hours at the movie theater so I can get my own apartment,” my friend Astrid told me in homeroom. That was on the second day of school.
“What about college?” I asked. I knew some people who planned to go.
“Who needs college?” she said, rolling her eyes. “That’s for people who want to postpone reality.”
The bell rang just as she said that, so I didn’t have to answer. And that suited me just fine, because I didn’t really know how to respond. I wasn’t so sure what I thought of college. The whole question felt like a huge weight hanging on my shoulders. It was like someone had filled my backpack with bricks, then slipped my arms through the straps and said, “There you go, Anton. Lug that around night and day.” Should I try to go to college? I didn’t even know how to begin to answer that question.
So it was a good thing that I didn’t have to answer it on my own. All of us seniors had to meet with a counselor in the fall to talk about our plans after high school. My meeting came early because the students met with counselors in alphabetical order and my last name starts with a B. I went to Ms. Green’s office on a Wednesday morning. I always liked being there because she had two turtles, Phoebe and Fluff, in an aquarium and an orange Hula Hoop in the corner. Plus, she wrote with colorful pens. In fact, Ms. Green always signed her name with a pen that contained glitter-filled ink. She was zany, and I liked her.
“What colleges are you looking at, Anton?” she asked before I even sat down.
“Actually,” I said, raising my eyebrows as I dragged the chair toward her desk, “I’m not so sure about college.”
Ms. Green looked at me; her face retained its even smile. “You certainly have the grades,” she said, “and your test scores look good too.” She paused, folding her hands on her desk. “So why not?”
I felt on the spot, unsure what to say. “Isn’t college superexpensive?” I asked, shrugging my shoulders.
“It is, yes,” she answered, nodding her head. “But there are ways of getting around that. You can attend a public college, which is much cheaper. Or you can go part-time. Or better yet, you can get scholarships and student loans to help you pay for it.”
“I don’t know anything about all that stuff,” I said. “It sounds like a big hassle.” I didn’t really mind that, but that’s what came out. In truth, I felt a lot of different things as I sat there in Ms. Green’s office. College seemed scary. Filling out all these forms, sending in fees, paying for a dorm room—all of that stressed me out. But college also seemed like a thrilling, mysterious adventure that could be fun and interesting, and it was very encouraging that Ms. Green believed I could do it!
When our meeting ended, Ms. Green gave me a stack of glossy booklets. “Look through these brochures,” she said, “and we’ll talk about them at our next meeting.” She waited for me to say something, but I was silent, mostly because I didn’t know what to say. “From now on we’re going to meet every two weeks to talk about college.”
Which statement best expresses the theme of the story? College is only for privileged kids.
It’s best to ignore a problem if you don’t have the solution.
Your biggest challenges are the ones you can’t see.
Life’s difficult questions can take time to answer.
Ms. Green tells Anton about public colleges, student loans, and scholarships because Anton thinks that his family will not be able to afford his college education.
Anton thinks that it will be no problem for him to get into a good college.
Ms. Green wants to encourage all students to make use of public education.
Ms. Green is trying to convince Anton that his friend Astrid has other options.
Assignment #6: Due Friday, March 9, 2011
Radio: Shaping American Culture
Standard: WS 1.9 – Revise writing to improve the logic and coherence of the organization and controlling perspective, the precision of word choice, and the tone by taking into consideration the audience, purpose, and formality of the context.
ESLR: Resourceful Learner – Take responsibility for learning
Rationale: On the CAHSEE you will be asked to identify main ideas and details in passages. To answer these questions, you should be familiar with expository passages and find errors that need to be corrected.
Directions: Read the passage and then answer the questions that follow.
May 24, 2004
Radio: Shaping American Culture
(1) Since the 1920’s, radio has advanced and shaped American culture significantly. Radio has become one of the most important electronic inventions in our nation. It has revolutionized American history and culture, and has shaped the collective sense of America.
(2) In the Early 1920’s, few people could afford to own a high-quality radio. Most radios made during this period were handmade, of a lesser quality, and operation was extremely difficult. Handmade radios were small black boxes that contained a large crystal and had no tuner dial, so reception was unpredictable. Listeners used a primitive set of headphones, which were attached to the box with thin wire called cat whisker, to hear talk and music. The goal of most radio operators was to see how far they could hear. Operators could sometimes receive talk programs at night when radio frequencies were more clear.
(3) With the improvement of loudspeakers in 1925, however, radio became a shared activity. Families and neighbors gathered around the radio to listen to children’s stories, lectures, and music. NBC later broadcast symphony and jazz performances live on its national radio program for people to enjoy. For most people in the 1920’s, radio signified leisure time and served as a tool for self-improvement. It fostered a carefree attitude among Americans and gave them a sense of independence. Not until the end of the decade was the radio used as a political tool.
(4) In the 1930’s, during the Great Depression, radio was a way to cheer people up when times were tough. The most popular genre during this time period was comedy. Various advertising agencies were sponsoring radio programs that featured comedians like George Burns and Jack Benny, who became popular company spokespersons. Radio listening became such a big business and impacted Americans so greatly that by 1933, over 62.5% percent of Americans owned at least one radio compared to only 10 percent in 1925. During this period, radio was not only associated with happiness and freedom, but it was used to standardize language and diction, and to create mental images to spark the imaginations of the American public.
(5) During the 1940’s, the role of the radio in American culture changed greatly. By 1944, the number of hours journalists spent reporting news on the radio had increased by 300 percent, and over 20 percent of radio programming schedules consisted of news broadcasts. Americans no longer viewed radio as an entertainment medium but as a medium for news and information. During World War II, radio transported people to other parts of the world without ever having to leave home. Amid the barrage of news on the progress of the war, coverage of political rallies, famous trials, and human-interest stories, people became more aware of what was happening outside their communities. Radio also contributed to a new vision of America’s identity and purpose.
(6) Although radio continued to be an important source of news in the 1950’s and 60’s, the patterns of radio listening and programming changed with the introduction of television. Suddenly, radio stations were forced to compete in a new market. As a result, radio programs were pieced into separate formats, and radio listening became more localized, decentralized and politicized. In response to the increase in television viewing, radio stations targeted younger audiences and hired radio disc jockeys to encourage listener loyalty. Wolfman Jack is one of the most famous rock and roll disc jockies of all time. By 1954, 70 percent of all Americans owned two or more radios. For Americans, radio became a way to mark time, and the portability of radios created a social place for teenagers and rock and roll music.
(7) To satisfy the demands of this new generation of listeners, radio technology was improved by radio manufacturers. In the late 1960s, FM radio became more popular than AM radio. In the late 1960s, FM radio converted to free-form format in an effort to create more concentrated modes of music and to meet the needs of a new and diverce audience who demanded more challenging and complex forms of programming. During the 1970s, phonographs and radios became high-tech. Manufacturers also created new stereophonic sound systems that could separate, emphasize, and layer sounds, and smaller, more compact cassette stereos to replace inferior eight-track systems.
(8) Beginning in the 1980’s and continuing into the 1990’s, radio stations began changing their formats to make radio programming less predictable. By 1989, radio talk shows changed the tone and focus of radio programming and created new forms of dialogue that encouraged audience participation. The popularity of radio talk shows grew so rapidly during the 1990’s, in fact, that by 1995, over 10 million people were tuning in to talk shows. By 1997, over 1,200 radio stations were producing talk shows. This mode of programming significantly redefined the use of radio in America.
(9) Today, radio continues to define our culture. Portable stereos have replaced the old black box, disc jockeys rely on computer-generated playlists, and listeners demand more selective formats. Radio now competes with cable television and the Internet, but remains one of most viable forms of communication in the twenty-first century.
Directions: After using POE to eliminate the wrong answers, circle the letter of the correct answer and respond to any additional questions, following the directions provided.
Read the following sentence from paragraph 2 of the report.
Listeners used a primitive set of headphones, which were attached to the box with thin wire called cat whisker, to hear talk and music.
What is the correct way to punctuate the underlined part of the sentence? headphones which were attached, to the box with thin wire, called cat whisker
headphones which were attached to the box, with thin wire, called cat whisker
headphones which were attached to the box, with thin wire called, cat whisker
Leave as is.
What is an appositive phrase?
What is a prepositional phrase?
Which of these two phrases needs to be surrounded by commas? (Use this to help you find the right answer!)
Read the following sentence from paragraph 4 of the report.
In the 1930’s, during the Great Depression, radio was a way to cheer people up when times were tough.
How should the student revise the underlined part of the sentence to create a more formal tone? radio broadcasts made people happy when things were really bad
radio broadcasts were pleasant distractions in difficult times
radio broadcasts helped people who were having a hard time feel better
Circleall of the “be” verbs and “by . . .” phrases in the incorrect answers.
Read this sentence from paragraph 7 of the report.
In the late 1960’s, FM radio stations converted to a free-form format in an effort to create more concentrated modes of music and to meet the needs of a new and diverce audience who demanded more challenging and complex forms of programming.
What is the correct way to spell the underlined word? diverse