Home & careers food laboratory procedures



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Baking soda reacts with the acid in foods to produce carbon dioxide which, along with trapped, expanding air and steam, leavens the food.

Baking powder contains baking soda, plus its own acid in a dry form. When it is mixed with liquid, the acid reacts with the baking soda forming carbon dioxide gas bubbles. Baking powder acts again when the dough or batter is heated. For this reason it is called double-acting.

It is a good idea to test baking powder for freshness by mixing ½ teaspoon of baking powder with one quarter cup of hot water. The fresher the baking powder, the more actively this mixture will bubble. If this reaction is weak, the baking powder will not properly raise what you are planning to bake.



Yeast is made up of minute one-cell fungi that rapidly multiply if given their favorite foods (sugar and starch) in a moist environment. The ideal temperature for bread-leavening purposes is 80 to 95 degrees. When yeast cells feast on the sugar, a chemical reaction takes place: The sugar ferments and, as a result, is converted for the most part into alcohol and carbon dioxide. As with baked goods made with baking powder, the carbon dioxide, along with trapped expanding air and steam, leavens the food. The heat of the oven or griddle evaporates the alcohol and kills the live yeast cells.

Yeast is a rich source of B vitamins.

The three different types of yeast available are active dry yeast, rapid rise yeast and compressed yeast cakes. These can be found in either the refrigerated section or the baking section of the supermarket.


  1. What is the function of flour in yeast breads?

The function of flour is to thicken mixtures, as in gravy, and to hold all of the ingredients in a mixture together.

Another function of wheat flour is to provide GLUTEN, a protein found in wheat. Gluten provides the structure and framework for baked products. Because of gluten, flour is able to stretch and hold the other ingredients and gasses in a batter or dough.

Gluten is formed when water is added for flour and the flour becomes elastic, sticky and strong. Strong development of gluten structure is required for breads so that the dough can stretch and hold the ingredients and the gasses in the dough. The gluten is developed when the dough is beaten and kneaded.

Products like cakes, pies, cookies, pastries and quick breads do not need strong gluten formation because they do not rise as much as yeast breads.



  1. What is PROOFING?

Proofing is the process of allowing the dough to rise in a warm and humid spot. Dough should double in size in about 1 to 2 hours.

The best method for proofing at home is:



  1. Fill a large container with hot water.

  2. Put a cooling rack over the large container to act as a shelf.

  3. Place the pan of dough on the rack over the hot water.

  4. Use clean towels to make a tent over the dough and hot water.

The towels will keep in the heat and humidity needed for rising.

6. What are the causes of failure of yeast bread?

1. Too much salt or sugar in the dough prevents gluten formation.

2. Too much heat destroys the yeast.

3. Too little heat slows down the development of carbon dioxide.

4. Not enough kneading prevents development of the gluten.

5. Too much flour causes heavy a dough which is not soft and stretchy enough to rise.



Name :_________________________________ Period :_____



Function of Ingredients

Directions: Using the function of ingredients information worksheet, complete the questions below by filling each blank in with the correct answer.

  1. A leavening agent is an ingredient that makes a food ____________________.



  1. One example of an unleavened bread is ____________________________.



  1. A quick bread is any leavened bread that uses a _______________ method of rising.



  1. Three examples of quick breads are ________________ __________________ _____________.



  1. Yeast takes _______________ hours to make a product rise.



  1. Three examples of products made with yeast are __________ ____________ ______________.



  1. The most common quick leavening agents are _______________ and _____________________.



  1. Baking soda reacts with the ____________ in foods to form _________________ which makes the product rise.



  1. Baking powder contains ________________ plus its own __________________ in a dry form.



  1. Baking powder is called double acting because it produces carbon dioxide once when mixed with _________________ and again when the batter is ___________________.



  1. Why is it important to have fresh baking powder? _____________________________________



  1. Yeast is a harmless kind of one cell _____________________.



  1. In order to multiply and produce carbon dioxide, yeast needs three things. They are __________________, _____________________, and _________________________.



  1. The source of moisture in yeast products is ________________________.



  1. The source of food in yeast products is ________________________.



  1. The source of warmth in yeast products is __________________ and _____________________.



  1. When yeast cells cause the sugar to ferment, what chemical reaction takes place?

____________________________________

  1. What happens to the alcohol? ____________________



  1. What happens to the live yeast cells? ________________



  1. Yeast is a rich source of this nutrient. _________________________



  1. In the supermarket, what are the three types of yeast available?

_____________________ ________________________ _________________________

  1. In which two departments, in the supermarket, can yeast be found?

__________________________ or ______________________________

  1. What are the three functions of flour? _______________, _________________, or __________________.



  1. What is it that causes the dough to become elastic and strong? _________________



  1. Why is it that products like cakes and cookies do not need strong gluten formation? ____________________________



  1. What is proofing? ________________________________________________________



  1. What are the five things that will cause the failure of yeast breads?



    1. Too much ______________ or _______________



    1. Too much _____________________.

    2. Too little ______________________.



    1. Not enough ____________________.




    1. Too much _____________________.




Whole Wheat Pizza Dough

Ingredients:

1 teaspoon + 1/4 teaspoon yeast

1/4-teaspoon sugar

3/4-cup warm water (105-115 degrees)

1 1/4 - 1 1/2 cups flour, divided

1/2-cup whole wheat flour

1 teaspoon + 1/2 teaspoon oil

3/4-teaspoon salt

1 lb. mozzarella cheese
DIRECTIONS:

_____ 1. Measure water in a LARGE bowl

_____ 2. Add yeast and sugar, stir to dissolve.  Let rest 5 minutes.

_____ 3. Add 1 cup flour, whole wheat flour, oil and salt to yeast mixture.

_____ 4. Stir above mixture until well blended.

_____ 5. Set up a lightly floured board for kneading.

_____ 6. If necessary add a small amount of flour until dough is ready to be kneaded.

_____ 7. Knead dough on board until smooth and elastic About 5-6 minutes.

_____ 8. Shape into a ball and place in a greased bag.  Label with kitchen color and period.

_____ 9.  Place on tray on demo table.


DAY 2
________ 1) Move oven rack to lowest position.
________ 2) Preheat oven to 375 degrees.
________ 3) Grease the bottom of one pizza pan.
________ 4) Carefully spread dough out on pizza pan. (Work from the middle out.)
________ 5) Once pizza is spread out over entire pan, poke dough with fork, all over, to allow steam to escape while cooking.
________ 6) Bake uncovered about 10 minutes or until crust just begins to brown. (during baking, begin clean-up of any equipment you may have used.)
________ 7) Shred block of mozzarella cheese using the grater
________ 8) Carefully take pizza out of the oven, let cool 5 minutes.
________ 9) After pizza cools, spread ¼-1/2 cup of sauce onto the pizza crust.
________ 10) Sprinkle shredded cheese over the pizza.
________ 11) Cover your pizza with plastic wrap and label with your kitchen color

and period.


________12) Set aside in kitchen.

Day 3
Mrs. Lutman-Bake pizza at 375 degrees for 20-30 minutes.
CLEAN UP!!!!


Pizza Sauce

1 small can tomato paste

¼ cup tomato sauce

3 Tablespoons water

½ teaspoon garlic powder

½ teaspoon minced onion

½ teaspoon oregano

1/8 teaspoon pepper



DIRECTIONS:
_____ 1. Place tomato paste in small glass bowl.
_____ 2. Add tomato sauce to small bowl.
_____ 3. Add water to small bowl.
_____ & _____ 4. Measure and add garlic powder, minced onion, oregano and pepper to small bowl.
_____ 5. Stir all ingredients well.
_____ 6. Cover bowl with paper toweling and microwave on high for 1 1/2 minutes, stirring 1 time halfway through.
_____ 7. Spread sauce on crust and add toppings of choice.

Home and Careers 8 Name_______________

Yeast Lab Reflection Period _____


Kitchen Lab Wrap Up

Answer the following questions with a Y for Yes or a N for No:


Did the group:

_____ read the whiteboard, complete what it states and put books away

_____ read the recipe together

_____ develop lab plan deciding who was to complete each task

_____ gather ingredients and utensils

_____ set up dishwater in the beginning of class and cleaned as you go

_____ have jobs occurring simultaneously

_____ followed recipe steps accurately

_____ measured all ingredients properly

_____ cooperate and work quietly

_____ worked together to clean up the kitchen

_____ finished on time

How would you rate your lab with 1 being the worst and 10 being the best?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

What went GOOD and WHY with the whole group and the whole lab?

What was one of your main jobs in the lab and how do you feel about your skill level of completion?

List two (2) things you learned that you did not know before?


Directions: Please answer the following questions as completely as possible.


  1. Define the following vocabulary terms:

yeast –
knead –


gluten –


  1. Using the phrases below list the correct order for mixing a basic yeast dough from beginning #1 to the end #6.

_____ add flour and other ingredients, mix until smooth

_____ bake

_____ knead

_____ dissolve yeast in warm water

_____ punch down and shape dough for 2nd rising

_____ place kneaded dough in a greased bowl to rise


  1. What is the function of the following ingredients in yeast dough?

Flour –


Yeast –

Sugar –




  1. How do you know dough is ready to be kneaded?


  1. How do you set up dough for kneading?


  1. Describe how to knead. You may use 2 words.


Name :______________________ Period: _________
Kitchen Equivalents
Use the table of equivalents below to convert the recipe ingredients given in Column A to the amount requested in Column B.

3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon

16 tablespoons = 1 cup

2 cups = 1 pint

2 pints = 1 quart

4 quarts = 1 gallon



COLUMN A COLUMN B

  1. 9 teaspoons shortening = _____________ tablespoons

  2. 8 tablespoons milk =_____________ cup

  3. 4 cups cream = _____________ pints

  4. 1 quart orange juice = _____________cups

  5. 32 tablespoons sour cream = _____________ pint

  6. 2 quarts ice cream = _____________ gallon

  7. 24 tablespoons flour = _____________ cups

  8. 8 pints yogurt = _____________ gallon

  9. ½ tablespoon baking soda = _____________ teaspoons

  10. 3 gallons cider = _____________ quarts

  11. 12 tablespoons of brown sugar = _____________ cup

  12. 5 tablespoons and 1 teaspoon of honey = _____________ cup

  13. 1/3 cup of heavy cream = _____________ tablespoons and

_____________ teaspoon

  1. 6 teaspoons baking soda = _____________ tablespoons

  2. ½ tablespoon of vanilla = _____________ teaspoon

KITCHEN MATH

Did you ever ask yourself this question: Why do I need to use math in a foods class? One answer is that you need math for recipe conversions. The following list of ingredients for a chocolate chip cookie recipe makes 2 dozen cookies. Convert it again to make 4 dozen cookies.



Chocolate Chip Cookies

(2 dozen)

2 ¼ cups flour 2 eggs

1 teaspoon baking soda ½ cup butter

½ teaspoon salt 1 ½ cups chocolate chips

¾ cup brown sugar ¾ cup white sugar



Chocolate Chip Cookies

(1 dozen)
____ cup + ____ tablespoons flour

____ teaspoon baking soda

____ teaspoon salt

____ cup + ____ tablespoons brown sugar

____ cup + ____ tablespoons white sugar

____ egg


____ cup butter

____ cup chocolate chips






Chocolate Chip Cookies

(4 dozen)

____ cups flour

____ teaspoons baking soda

____ teaspoon salt

____ cup brown sugar

____ cup white sugar

____ eggs

____ cup butter



____ cups chocolate chips



Home and Careers 8

Soup
Potato Corn Chowder


Ingredients:
3 medium potatoes, cubed

1 medium onion, chopped

3/4 cup celery, diced

3/4 cup carrot, diced small

1/4 tsp. dried parsley

1/4 thyme

¼ tsp. Basil

1 cup water

1T. and 1t.. instant chicken bouillon
1/4 can (17 oz.) kernel corn

1 tablespoon margarine



1/4 cup milk
Directions Day 1:
1. ________ Potatoes: peel, rinse, and remove eyes. Cut into 1/2 inch cubes
2. ________ Peel onion and chop (small pieces)
3. ________ Wash celery and dice (small pieces)
4. ________Peel carrots; rinse and dice into small pieces
5. ________ Measure dried parsley and add to large bowl
6. ________ Combine all vegetables in a large bowl
7. ________ Add thyme and basil
8. ________ Pour in water and bouillon: stir all together
9. ________ Pour entire mixture in the one large pot on the stove top
10. Mrs. R. - Bring to a boil, then cover and reduce heat to low. Simmer for 10 minutes until potatoes and carrots are tender
Directions Day 2:
1. Gently stir in corn and butter
2. Add milk and heat through on medium heat. DO NOT BOIL
3. Season with pepper, if desired


REMEMBER: At home quadruple this for a full batch. If you accompany this with a whole wheat bread, fruit and cheese, you have a complete meal.


Home and Careers 8 Name _____________________

Soup Lab Reflection Period _____


Kitchen Lab Wrap Up

Answer the following questions with a Y for Yes or a N for No:


Did the group:

_____ read the whiteboard, complete what it states and put books away

_____ read the recipe together

_____ develop lab plan deciding who was to complete each task

_____ gather ingredients and utensils

_____ set up dishwater in the beginning of class and cleaned as you go

_____ have jobs occurring simultaneously

_____ followed recipe steps accurately

_____ measured all ingredients properly

_____ cooperate and work quietly

_____ worked together to clean up the kitchen

_____ finished on time

How would you rate your lab with 1 being the worst and 10 being the best?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
What went GOOD and WHY with the whole group and the whole lab?
What was one of your main jobs in the lab and how do you feel about your skill level of completion?
List two (2) things you learned that you did not know before?
Directions: Please answer the following questions as completely as possible.


  1. Define the following vocabulary terms:

chowder –

stock –

peel –



  1. What does it mean when a recipe states remove the eyes from the potatoes?




  1. List three (3) safety measures to keep in mind when using a knife.

4. Explain the difference between cubed, chopped, diced and minced.


5. List two (2) reasons why we wash vegetables before using:

Name: _____________________ Period: ______

Adjusting a Recipe Mrs. Lutman

Recipes usually tell you how many servings they will yield, but sometimes you will want to make a different number of servings. When that happens, you must adjust the amount of each ingredient in the recipe. Look at this chart:



Half Recipe

Divide by 2



To get half as many servings, you make half a recipe. Divide the amount of each ingredient by 2.

Double Recipe

Multiply by 2



To get twice as many servings, you double the recipe. Multiply the amount of each ingredient by 2.

Directions: Here is the list of ingredients from a recipe that serves four people. Fill in the blanks below to adjust the quantities for making a half recipe and then double the recipe.

Italian Meatballs to serve 4: Half Recipe (to serve 2): Double Recipe(to serve 8):

3 slices dry bread ___________________ ______________________

1 ½ pounds ground beef ___________________ ______________________

2 eggs ___________________ ______________________

½ cup grated cheese ___________________ ______________________

1 tablespoon butter ___________________ ______________________

4 tablespoons chopped onion ___________________ ______________________

2 tablespoons chopped parsley ___________________ ______________________

1 clove garlic, minced ___________________ ______________________

½ teaspoon crushed oregano ___________________ ______________________

¼ teaspoon salt ___________________ ______________________

1/8 teaspoon ground pepper ___________________ ______________________



Combining Dry Ingredients




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