Sweden and Denmark 1658 (Roskilde) and 1660 (Copenhagen): Sweden gains yellow and purple areas in 1658, but returns purple area in 1660
The War between Spain and France 1635-59
Revolts of Catalonia and Portugal 1640.
Portugal: battle of Villaviciosa 1665; Spain recognizes Portugal as independent 1668.
Catalonia: Louis XIII and XIV of France become Dukes of Barcelona.
France weakened by the Fronde 1648-52.
1652: Barcelona surrenders to Spain.
1655: England joins the war; capture of Jamaica (1655) and Dunkirk (1658) from Spain.
Death of Oliver Cromwell 1658.
Treaty of the Pyrenees 1659; Maria Teresa and Louis marry 1660.
Maria Teresa (1638-83), by Velázquez, 1653; she was the double cousin of Louis XIV, whom she married in 1660
(1) Government; (2) Society; (3) The Economy; (4) Olivares; (5) The Crisis of the 1640s.
Philip II (el Prudente; the prudent); 1556-98.
Philip III (el Piadoso; the pious); 1598-1621.
Philip IV (el Grande; the great; el Re Planeta; the planet king); 1621-65.
Charles II (el Hechizado); 1665-1700.
Spain in the Early Seventeenth Century: Government
Vast resources and territory: Spain, Portugal, Spanish (Southern) Netherlands (and a claim to the Northern provinces), Sardinia, Sicily, Naples, Milan, Franche-Comté (Besançon), Charolais, Luxemburg, much of Central and South America, Philippines.
But the vastness of the territories creates problems of communication and administration
Spain: Government: Disunity
Disunity; different parts of Spain insist on their own rights and privileges (fueros).
Spain divided into different states with their own customs, laws, and institutions, united only by having the same monarch.
The largest and richest state was Castile, which controlled the American territories.
The kingdom of Aragon was subdivided into Aragon proper, Valencia, and Catalonia.
Portugal taken over by Spain only in 1580; Portuguese Empire included Brazil and Goa.
Spain and Portugal in 1492
Spain: Government: Taxation
Each region was reluctant to pay for expenses spent outside the region.
Castile got burdened with greater taxes than other areas.
Other regions thought this was fair, because the American Empire was Castile’s; trade went through Cadiz and Seville.
Castile wanted other regions to pay their fair share in taxes.