History 351: Seventeenth Century Europe 2011


: Swedes besiege Copenhagen and conquer Scania



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1658: Swedes besiege Copenhagen and conquer Scania.

  • 1660: Treaties of Copenhagen and Oliva.

  • (1667: Truce of Andrusovo: Poland loses Eastern Ukraine – including Kiev – to Russia)



    Sweden and Denmark 1645 (Brömsebro): Sweden gains yellow areas, and red area for 30 years

    Sweden and Denmark 1658 (Roskilde) and 1660 (Copenhagen): Sweden gains yellow and purple areas in 1658, but returns purple area in 1660

    The War between Spain and France 1635-59

    • Revolts of Catalonia and Portugal 1640.

    • Portugal: battle of Villaviciosa 1665; Spain recognizes Portugal as independent 1668.

    • Catalonia: Louis XIII and XIV of France become Dukes of Barcelona.

    • France weakened by the Fronde 1648-52.

    • 1652: Barcelona surrenders to Spain.

    • 1655: England joins the war; capture of Jamaica (1655) and Dunkirk (1658) from Spain.

    • Death of Oliver Cromwell 1658.

    • Treaty of the Pyrenees 1659; Maria Teresa and Louis marry 1660.

    Maria Teresa (1638-83), by Velázquez, 1653; she was the double cousin of Louis XIV, whom she married in 1660

    Spain: Outline

    • (1) Government; (2) Society; (3) The Economy; (4) Olivares; (5) The Crisis of the 1640s.

    • The Monarchs:

    • Philip II (el Prudente; the prudent); 1556-98.

    • Philip III (el Piadoso; the pious); 1598-1621.

    • Philip IV (el Grande; the great; el Re Planeta; the planet king); 1621-65.

    • Charles II (el Hechizado); 1665-1700.



    Spain in the Early Seventeenth Century: Government

    • Vast resources and territory: Spain, Portugal, Spanish (Southern) Netherlands (and a claim to the Northern provinces), Sardinia, Sicily, Naples, Milan, Franche-Comté (Besançon), Charolais, Luxemburg, much of Central and South America, Philippines.

    • But the vastness of the territories creates problems of communication and administration

    Spain: Government: Disunity

    • Disunity; different parts of Spain insist on their own rights and privileges (fueros).

    • Spain divided into different states with their own customs, laws, and institutions, united only by having the same monarch.

    • The largest and richest state was Castile, which controlled the American territories.

    • The kingdom of Aragon was subdivided into Aragon proper, Valencia, and Catalonia.

    • Portugal taken over by Spain only in 1580; Portuguese Empire included Brazil and Goa.

    Spain and Portugal in 1492



    Spain: Government: Taxation

    • Each region was reluctant to pay for expenses spent outside the region.

    • Castile got burdened with greater taxes than other areas.

    • Other regions thought this was fair, because the American Empire was Castile’s; trade went through Cadiz and Seville.

    • Castile wanted other regions to pay their fair share in taxes.

    Spain: Government: Taxation in Castile

    • Servicio ordinario y extraordinario (tax voted by the Cortes).

    • Alcabala (10% sales taxes; towns often compounded; nobles often acquired the right to it).

    • Millones (tax on foodstuffs; voted by the Cortes).

    • Customs duties; taxes on church (including on sale of indulgences).

    • Quint: 20% levy on silver from America (about the same as alcabala in 1600; declined from 1620s)

    • To raise more cash, government sold interest-bearing bonds – juros

    • Weak finances limited military possibilities; 1628: Piet Hein



    A “Piece of 8” Reales, 1687, Potosí mint.

    Spain: Government: the Conciliar System.

    • Philip II: the king governs in person

    • El Escorial.

    • Council of State; Finance; War.

    • Council of Castile; Aragon; Portugal; Indies.

    • Viceroys (Aragon, Navarre, Sicily, Peru, New Spain, Catalonia, Sardinia, Portugal).

    • Consulta. “If death came from Madrid, we would all be immortal”.

    • Audiencias (America). Letrados.



    Philip III, 1578/1598-1621

    • Became King at the age of 20.

    • Lazy; pious; fond of high aristocracy.

    • Married his 14-year old cousin Margaret of Austria in 1599; she had 8 children in the next 12 years, and died in childbirth in 1611.

    Philip IV, 1605/1621-65 (by Velázquez; 1652-3)

    • Became King at the age of 16.

    • Interested in art collecting; court life; religion; actresses; bull fights; horses.

    • His legitimate son and heir Balthasar Charles died of smallpox in 1646 (aged 16).

    • He had another legitimate son in 1661 – Charles II.

    Charles II, 1661/5-1700

    • 2 of Charles’ 4 grandparents were also his great-grandparents.

    • Ferdinand I (d. 1564) was his direct ancestor (great-great grandfather etc.) eight times over.

    • He had serious physical and emotional problems.

    • He married twice, but had no children.

    • His death was long expected (and hoped for by those who stood to inherit).



    Spain: Government: the validos/ privados; valimiento

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