History 351: Seventeenth Century Europe 2011


Catholicism: Quietism. Miguel de Molinos (d. 1697)



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Catholicism:

  • Quietism. Miguel de Molinos (d. 1697).

  • Jansenism: Cornelius Jansen; (Blaise Pascal);

    ascetic, puritanical; stress human sinfulness and divine predestination.

    Ideas

    • Scholasticism; Aristotle.

    • Humanism.

    • Cabala (Cabbala); Cabalism.

    • Hermeticism.

    • Millenarianism; John Napier.

    • Jean Bodin (d. 1596); political science.

    • Witchcraft; the witch-craze; key factors: judicial use of torture; cases decided by locals; areas of heightened religious tension; only about 15% of witches were men; the Inquisition (Spain, Portugal, Italy).

    William Perkins (d. 1602) on Witchcraft

    Thirty Years War 1618-48: Outline

    • (1) Origins

    • (2) The Bohemian Phase and the Palatinate 1618-24

    • (3) The Danish Phase 1625-9.

    • (4) The Swedish Phase 1630-5.

    • (5) The French (and Swedish) Phase 1635-48.

    • (6) The Peace of Westphalia 1648.

    The Thirty Years War, 1618-48

    • Linked wars: Spain vs. France 1635-59; Spain vs. Dutch, 1568-1609, 1621-48.

    • Germany before the War:

    • The Peace of Augsburg 1555; cuius regio eius religio

    • Catholicism; Lutheranism

    • Calvinism; the Elector Palatine (Palatinate); the Elector of Brandenburg (from 1613)



    The Thirty Years War: origins

    • Germany before the War:

    • The “ecclesiastical reservation” in the Peace of Augsburg: land belonging to the Catholic church after 1552 cannot be taken from it.

    • War over Cologne 1583-8; Bavarian Wittelsbach family controls Cologne thereafter.

    • Imperial free cities; crisis at Donauwörth 1606-8.



    The Thirty Years War: origins

    • Donauwörth crisis: Protestants walk out of the Imperial Diet 1608; the Elector Palatine (Wittelsbach) founds the Protestant Union.

    • 1609: Maximilian of Bavaria founds the Catholic League.

    • 1610: Cleves/ Jülich succession crisis.

    • 1610: assassination of Henry IV of France.



    Maximilian the Great, Duke of Bavaria (1573/1597-1651). His sister married Ferdinand of Austria in 1600; he married their 25-year old daughter in 1635.

    Thirty Years War: the Bohemian Crisis 1618-20

    • Rudolf II (Emperor 1576-1612)

    • Matthias (Emperor 1612-19)

    • Ferdinand II (Emperor 1619-37); Styria; Graz.

    • Letter of Majesty (Bohemia) 1609.

    • Estates of Bohemia revolt 1618.

    • Hradschin Palace/ Prague Castle

    • The defenestration of Prague; Martinitz and Slavata (also Philip Fabricius von Hohenfall)



    The Defenestration of Prague, May 23 1618

    Rudolf II, by Giuseppe Arcimboldo, 1590-1.

    Ferdinand II (1578/1619-37; here in 1614)

    The Bohemian Crisis 1618-20

    • Revolts in Bohemia, Austria, and Hungary 1618-20.

    • Bethlen Gábor (Gabriel Bethlen; 1580-1629; Prince of Transylvania 1613-29).

    • 1619: Estates of Bohemia elect Frederick V (Elector Palatine) as King in place of Habsburg Ferdinand II.

    • Frederick V married to Elizabeth, daughter of British King James I.

    • John George of Saxony.

    Elizabeth Stuart (1596-1662): the Winter Queen

    Bethlen Gábor (1580/1613-29), Prince of Transylvania

    John George of Saxony, 1626

    The Bohemian Crisis and the Palatinate 1618-24

    • 1620: battle of the White Mountain near Prague; defeat of the Winter King and Queen.

    • Tilly (Johann Tserclaes, Graf von Tilly)

    • 1620: Ambrogio (/Ambrosio) Spinola invades the Lower Palatinate (on the Rhine)

    • Ernst von Mansfeld; Christian of Brunswick

    • 1623: Ferdinand appoints Maximilian of Bavaria as Elector Palatine.

    • 1624: Breakdown of English plans for a “Spanish Match” between Prince Charles and the Infanta Maria Anna.

    The Thirty Years War: the Danish Phase 1625-9; Wallenstein.

    • Christian IV of Denmark (1577-1648; King 1588-1648); Duke of Holstein; uncle of Charles I of Britain.

    • Spinola captures Breda 1625.

    • English expedition to Cadiz, 1625.

    • Lutheran Dukes of Mecklenburg; Mansfeld; Bethlen Gábor.

    • Wallenstein (Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Waldstein/ Wallenstein; 1583-1634; Duke of Friedland 1625; Duke of Mecklenburg 1628).

    The Surrender of Breda 1625; painted 1634-5 by Diego Velázquez

    Wallenstein in 1629

    The Thirty Years War: the Danish phase 1625-9

    • Battle of Lutter 1626; Tilly defeats Christian.

    • Meanwhile Wallenstein fights Mansfeld (d. 1626) and Bethlen Gábor.

    • 1627: Persians defeat Turks at Baghdad; Bethlen Gábor backs out of the war.

    • 1627: Wallenstein conquers Jutland.

    • 1628: Wallenstein fails to capture Stralsund.

    • 1629: Wallenstein makes peace with Denmark.

    The Thirty Years War: the Swedish Phase 1630-35.

    • The Edict of Restitution (1629) and the dismissal of Wallenstein (1630).

    • The succession crisis in Mantua 1628: war between France and the Habsburgs 1629-31.

    • The “Spanish Road”.

    • Piet Hein captures the Spanish treasure fleet 1628.

    • Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632; King of Sweden 1611-32) invades Germany 1630.

    Piet Hein captures the Spanish silver fleet in the Bay of Matanzas, Cuba, 1628



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