History 351: Seventeenth Century Europe 2011


Jacobus Arminius (Jakob Hermanszoon, 1560-1609); Franciscus Gomarus (1563-1641)



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Jacobus Arminius (Jakob Hermanszoon, 1560-1609); Franciscus Gomarus (1563-1641).

  • Antinomianism.

    Jacobus Arminius (Jakob Hermanszoon, 1560-1609)

    Franciscus Gomarus (1563-1641)

    Gomarist/ Calvinist Theology of Grace: TULIP

    • Total Depravity.

    • Unconditional Election.

    • Limited Atonement.

    • Irresistible Grace.

    • Perseverance of the Saints.

    • (nothing to do with the great Tulip Bubble, which burst in 1637).

    Dutch History: Narrative

    • Jan van Oldenbarnevelt; Maurice of Nassau.

    • 1609: Twelve Years Truce.

    • 1610: Remonstrance; Remonstrants; Arminians; Simon Episcopius; Johan Uytenbogaert.

    • Counter- (/ Contra-) Remonstrants.

    • 1618-19: Synod of Dort (Dordrecht).

    • 1619: execution of Oldenbarnevelt.

    • Grotius imprisoned in Loevestein Castle (to 1621).

    The Synod of Dort (Dordrecht) 1618-19

    Dutch History: Narrative

    • 1621: Renewal of War with Spain.

    • Arminians; Academy at Amsterdam 1632; Philip van Limborch.

    • 1625: loss of Breda; succession of Frederick Henry; recapature of ‘s-Hertogenbosch 1629;

    • Maastricht 1632; Breda 1637 (but not Antwerp).

    • Alliance with France 1635.

    Dutch History: Narrative

    • 1641: marriage alliance with England links Orange and Stuart families; 14-year old Prince William marries 9-year old Princess Mary.

    • 1647: William II (now 20) succeeds Frederick Henry.

    • 1648 peace with Spain; question of whether to disband army, and of religion in Generality lands.

    • 1650: William’s coup against Holland; he dies of smallpox; William III born.

    • 1653-72: Johan de Witt Pensionary; stadholderless period.

    England before the Civil War, 1600-42

    • Elizabeth I, 1558-1603: divisions on religious questions; puritans and papists; growth of the House of Commons; Spanish Armada 1588; Ireland and the Nine Years War 1594-1603.

    • James I, 1603-25: divisions on constitutional and religious issues; Divine Right of Kings; foreign policy and the Spanish Match; Buckingham.

    • Charles I, 1625-49: Arminianism; constitutional issues; the Personal Rule 1629-40; the Scottish troubles 1637-41; the Irish Revolt 1641.

    William II and Maria Henrietta Stuart, 1641; by Anthony Van Dyck

    England before the Civil War, 1600-42

    • Elizabeth I, 1558-1603.

    • The Elizabethan Reformation: 1559 Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity.

    • The Royal Supremacy: personal or parliamentary?

    • Puritans (ceremonies and vestments); Presbyterians; Separatists.

    • Catholics (papists; recusants); seculars and regulars; Jesuits (from 1580).

    Elizabeth I (1533/58-1603): the Rainbow Portrait (c.1600-2)

    England before the Civil War, 1600-42

    • Elizabeth I, 1558-1603:

    • The Spanish Armada 1588.

    • Growth of the House of Commons.

    • The Nine Years’ War (1594-1603) and the conquest of Ireland.

    • Fiscal conservatism; sale of royal land.

    • James I, 1603-25.

    • The Stuarts - a new and foreign dynasty; Great Britain.

    • Character; the Divine Right of Kings; extravagance.

    England before the Civil War, 1600-42

    • James I, 1603-25:

    • Ulster.

    • Tensions with parliament.

    • The Union; Robert Cecil (Salisbury) and impositions; the Great Contract (1610); parliaments – 1604-10; the Addled Parliament 1614; Howard family. George Abbot.

    • Religion: Catholics – Gunpowder Plot 1605; Guy Fawkes. Puritans – Hampton Court Conference 1604.



    James VI and I (1566/1567/1603-25), c. 1606

    Ulster Plantation 1611

    The Gunpowder Plotters (including Guy – or Guido – Fawkes)

    England before the Civil War, 1600-42

    • James I, 1603-25:

    • Economic crisis: Alderman Cockayne’s project 1614; Thirty Years War.

    • Sir Edward Coke (sacked 1616).

    • Buckingham (George Villiers).

    • Foreign Policy: the Spanish Match; Frederick and the Palatinate.

    • 1621 Parliament: monopolies; impeachment (Bacon); foreign policy; Protestation of the Commons.

    George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham (1592-1628)

    England before the Civil War, 1600-42

    • James I, 1603-25:

    • 1623: Jack and Tom Smith go to Spain.

    • 1624: Parliament calls for war with Spain.

    • 1625: death of James.

    • Charles I, 1625-49:

    • Character; Arminianism.

    • 1625: Parliament: impositions and tonnage and poundage.

    • 1625: the Cadiz expedition.

    England before the Civil War, 1600-42

    • Charles I, 1625-49:

    • 1626: attempted impeachment of Buckingham.

    • 1626-7: war with France as well as Spain; Forced Loan; imprisonment of refusers, without cause shown; Five Knights’ Case (1627; habeas corpus).

    • 1628: Petition of Right. Assassination of Buckingham.

    • 1629: the three resolutions; Arminianism and tonnage and poundage.

    England before the Civil War, 1600-42

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