Hist 413 Imagining the Nation: Canada 19th and 20th centuries (W-2013)

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HIST 413

Imagining the Nation: Canada 19th and 20th centuries (W-2013)
Professor: Michel Ducharme

Office: Buchanan Tower 1104

Phone number: (604) 822-5642 (during Office Hours)

Office hours: Wednesday, 1pm to 4pm

Email: michel.ducharme@ubc.ca

Course Description

This course examines the evolution of the concept of nation in Canada, the different forms of nationalism it has inspired from the middle of the nineteenth-century in French and English Canada to the patriation of the Canadian Constitution in 1982 and beyond. It examines the tensions inherent to Canadian nation-building process.

Learning Objectives and Learning Outcomes

In this course, students will develop an understanding of the emergence and evolution of different national identities in Canada over the last 200 years. They will become familiar with the following topics:

  • the theoretical differences between different concepts of nation and nationalism

  • the relationship between the concepts of race, ethnicity and nation

  • the origins of different national identities in Canada in the 19th century (French Canadian, English Canadian, Acadian, and Métis identities)

  • the political struggles between different national groups over the nature of Canada in the 19th and 20th centuries

  • the major transformations of the 1960s which led to current forms of national discourses and nationalisms

This course will also sharpen students’ analytic skills in reading, writing, and oral presentation, and encourage them to question received authority of all kind. Accordingly, students will be required to participate in weekly discussions about a specific relevant theme. They will also have to write a book review and an analytic essay on an issue relating to one aspect of Canadian nationalism. These assignments are designed to develop students’ knowledge about nationalism in Canada, as well as their reading, writing and research skills.

Books and Course Package

Students will need two books and a course package (available at the UBC Bookstore):

  • H.V. Nelles, The Art of Nation-Building: Pageantry and Spectacle at Quebec's Tercentenary (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999).

  • George Grant, Lament for a Nation, 40th anniversary edition, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2005

For students with no background in Canadian history, these short surveys could be useful (available in the library OR on amazon.ca):

  • H.V. Nelles, A Little History of Canada, Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 2004.

  • Desmond Morton, A Short History of Canada, Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 2006.


Participation: 15 %

Book Review: 20 % (due date: October 10, 2013)

Research Essay (10-12 pages): 40 % (due date: November 28, 2013)

Take-home Exam: 25 % (due date: December 5, 2013)

University of British Columbia values academic integrity. Therefore all students must understand the meaning and consequences of cheating, plagiarism and other academic offences. For more information, see these two websites:

Book Review: Due October 10, 2013

Students will have to prepare a book review (5-6 pages) on this book: H.V. Nelles, The Art of Nation-Building: Pageantry and Spectacle at Quebec's Tercentenary (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999).

*** Book reviews are due at beginning of class on the due date. No late submission will be accepted, as the book will be discussed in class. Exception could be made for students who get an academic concession from Arts Advising. In this case, students will review another book chosen by the instructor.
Research Essay: Due November 28, 2013.

Students will have to write an essay (10-12 pages) on a subject of their choice related to the nation question in Canada. Students are free to choose any topic between the 1840s (emergence of different trends of nationalism in Canada) and 1982 (patriation of the Constitution). They must seek the instructor=s approval before October 31st. The paper must follow a history format and include a table of contents, notes, and a full bibliography (see: Jeffrey W. Alexander and Joy Dixon, Thomson Nelson Guide to Writing in History, 2nd edition (Toronto: Nelson, 2010).)

*** Students will need to submit hard copies of their essays to the instructor as well as an electronic copy to TurnItIn by the paper deadlines. I do not expect to find plagiarism, but I use the TurnItIn system to protect students and to keep the marking fair. More explanation on how to submit essays to TurnItIn will be provided later on.

*** Late papers will be penalized 5% per day beginning with the end of class on the due date.

Take-home Exam:

A take-home exam will be held at the end of the semester. Students will receive the questions on the last day of class (November 28, 2013) and will have to bring their answer back to the secretariat of the History Department on December 5, 2013 before 4:30PM.

***No late submission will be accepted.

Week 1: Introduction

September 5: Introduction: Canada and the National Question

Week 2: What is a Nation? What is Nationalism?

September 7: What is a nation?

Suggested Readings

  • Ernest Renan, “What is a Nation?” (“Qu’est-ce qu’une nation”) (1882)

Link: http://www.nationalismproject.org/what/renan.htm

Link: http://library.flawlesslogic.com/fichte.htm
September 12: What is nationalism? Nations in Western World History (19th-20th centuries)

Suggested Readings:

Link for all these texts: http://www.nationalismproject.org/what.htm

  • Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983. Eric Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

  • Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, revised ed. London and New York: Verso, 1991

  • Anthony D. Smith, “Gastronomy or Geology? The Role of Nationalism in the Reconstruction of Nations." Nations and Nationalism 1, 1 (1994): 3-23

  • John Breuilly, Nationalism and the State, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

Week 3: The Emergence of Nationalism in Canada I: From Patriotism to French Canadian nationalism

September 17: British North America before 1840

September 19: The Emergence of French Canadian Nationalism

Suggested Readings:

  • François-Xavier Garneau, “Preliminary Discourse to History of Canada” (1845), History of Canada: From the Time of Its Discovery Till the Union Year 1840-41, Montreal: Richard Worthington, 1866, Volume 1, p. xxiv-xxxiii

Links: available at http://books.google.ca

  • Calixa Lavallée and Basil Routier, “O Canada”(1880):

Lyrics available at: http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/cpsc-ccsp/sc-cs/anthem_e.cfm

Lyrics with an exact English translation of the French original text: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O_Canada

Music (French version): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L8Sw6ScUmnk
Week 4: The Emergence of Nationalism in Canada II: The Emergence of an Acadian and a Canadian nation

September 24: The Acadian Renaissance

Suggested Readings:

  • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Evangeline: A Tale of Acadia (1847)

Link: available at http://books.google.ca
September 26: The Emergence of (English) Canadian National Identity

Suggested Readings:

  • John Mercier McMullen, “Preface,” History of Canada, from Its First Discovery to the Present Time, Brockville: J.M. McMullen Publisher, 1855.

Link: available at http://books.google.ca

  • Edward Hartley Dewart, “Introductory Essay,” in Selections from Canadian Poets, Montreal: John Lovell, 1864, ix-xix.

Link: available at http://books.google.ca

  • Alexander Muir, “The Maple Leaf Forever”

Lyrics available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Maple_Leaf_Forever

Music: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=78LuJa_cKjI

Week 5: Canada: Nation, Dominion or Empire?

October 1: Canada: From Colony to Nation

October 3: Canada as an Empire: Canada and Aboriginal Peoples

Suggested Readings:

  • Numbered Treaties 1-7 (1871-1877)

Link: http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100028653/1100100028654
Week 6: An Era of National Struggles (1867-1917)

October 8: Struggles between French and English Canadians (1867-1917)

October 10: Struggle over Public Memory: The Tercentenary of Quebec City

Reading: (due date for book review)

  • H.V. Nelles, The Art of Nation-Building: Pageantry and Spectacle at Quebec's Tercentenary, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999

Week 7: The Emergence of Canadian Nationalism

October 15: Nationalism, Imperialism and the Great War

October 17: The Great War, Vimy Ridge, and Canadian Identity


  • Jonathan Vance, “To Found a Country,” in Vance, Death So Noble: Memory, Meaning, and the First World War, Vancouver: UBC Press, 1997, 226-256.

  • Jacqueline Hucker, “‘Battle and Burial’: Recapturing the Cultural Meaning of Canada’s National Memorial on Vimy Ridge,” The Public Historian, 31: 1 (2009): 89-109.

Link: available through the UBC Library
Week 8: Race, Ethnicity and Immigration

October 22: Racism and Nationalism

October 24: Antisemitism


  • Irving Abella and Harold Troper, “‘The Line Must be Drawn Somewhere’: Canada and the Jewish Refugees, 1933-9,”Canadian Historical Review 60, 2 (1979): 178-209.

Link: available through the UBC Library

  • Pierre Anctil, ““Interlude of hostility: Judeo-Christian relations in Quebec in the interwar period, 1919-1939,” in Antisemitism in Canada: History and Interpretation, ed. Alan Davies, Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1992, 135-165.

Week 9: Evolving Canadian Identity (1945-1970)

October 29: Transformations of the English Canadian Identity

October 31: Conservatism and the Advent of a New Canadian Nationalism


  • George Grant, Lament for a Nation, 40th anniversary edition, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2005

Week 10: The Emergence of Quebec Nationalism

November 5: From French Canadian to Québécois

November 7: Competing visions of the Nation


  • Pierre Elliott Trudeau, ANew Treason of the Intellectuals,@ in Federalism and the French Canadians, Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1968, 151-181.

  • René Lévesque, René Lévesque, An Option for Québec, Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1968, 14–30.

  • FLQ Manifesto (October 1970)

Link : http://www.marxists.org/history/canada/quebec/flq/1970/manifesto.htm
Week 11: Constitutional Crisis

November 12: The 1980 Referendum and the Patriation of the Constitution

November 14: Canadian Identity under Attack


  • Neil Bissoondath, “The Uses of Ethnicity” in Bissoondath, Selling Illusions: The Cult of Multiculturalism, Toronto: Penguin Book, 1994, p. 98-134.

  • Robert Martin and Philip L. Bryden, “Is the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms antidemocratic?” in Mark Charlton and Paul Barker, eds., Crosscurrents: Contemporary Political Issues, Toronto: ITP Nelson, 1998, 96-107.

Week 12: Art, Marketing and National Identity

November 19: Art and National Identity

November 21: Marketing and Nationalism


  • Paula Hasting, “Branding Canada: Consumer Culture and the Development of Popular Nationalism in the Early Twentieth Century,” in Canadas of the Mind: The Making and Unmaking of Canadian Nationalisms in the Twentieth Century, ed. Norman Hillmer and Adam Chapnick, Montréal: McGill-Queen’s University, 2007, 134-158.

  • Steve Penfold, “Eddie Shack Was No Tim Horton: Donuts and the Folklore of Mass Culture, 1974-1999” in The Donut: A Canadian Story, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008, 165-189.

  • Catherine Carstairs, “Roots Nationalism: Branding English Canada Cool In The 1980s and 1990s,” Histoire sociale/ Social History 39: 77 (2006): 235-255.

Link: available through the UBC Library
Week 13: Nation or Nations?

November 26: First Nations and the Canadian Nation

November 29: History of the Nation or National History


  • Lyle Dick, “‘A Growing Necessity for Canada’: W. L. Morton’s Centenary Series and the Forms of National History, 1955-80,” Canadian Historical Review 82, 2 (2001): 223-252

Link: available through the UBC Library

  • Bliss, Michael. “Privatizing the Mind: The Sundering of Canadian History, the Sundering of Canada,” Journal of Canadian Studies 26, 4 (1991-1992): 5-17.

  • Veronica Strong-Boag, “Contested Space: The Politics of Canadian Memory,” Journal of the Canadian Historical Association 5 (1994): 3-17

Link: available through the UBC Library
Selected Bibliography

Nations and Nationalism

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso Editions, 1983.

Breuilly, John. Nationalism and the State. London: Manchester University Press, 1982.

Brubaker, Rogers. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Calhoun, Craig J. Nationalism. Buckingham: Open University Press, 1997.

Deutsch, Karl Wolfgang. Nationalism and Social Communication: An Inquiry into the Foundations of Nationality. Cambridge: Published jointly by the Technology Press of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Wiley, New York, 1953.

Geary, Patrick J. Myth of Nations: The Medieval Origins of Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983.

Gellner, Ernest. Nationalism. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1997.

Greenfeld, Liah. Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.

Hayes, Carlton Joseph Huntley. Essays on Nationalism. New York: Macmillan, 1926.

Hayes, Carlton Joseph Huntley. Historical Evolution of Modern Nationalism. New York: Macmillan, 1951 (1931).

Hayes, Carlton Joseph Huntley. Nationalism: A Religion. New York: Macmillan, 1960.

Hobsbawm, Eric J. Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Hobsbawm, Eric J. and Terence O. Ranger, eds. The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Hroch, Miroslav. Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe: A Comparative Analysis of the Social Composition of Patriotic Groups among the Smaller European Nations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Hutchinson, John and Anthony D. Smith, eds. Ethnicity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Hutchinson, John and Anthony D. Smith, eds. Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Kamenka, Eugene, ed. Nationalism: The Nature and Evolution of an Idea. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1973.

Kedourie, Eli. Nationalism. 4th ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.

Kymlicka, Will. Politics in the Vernacular: Nationalism, Multiculturalism, and Citizenship. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Kymlicka, Will, ed. The Rights of Minority Cultures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Kohn, Hans. The Idea of Nationalism: A Study in its Origins and Background. New York: Macmillan, 1944.

Kohn, Hans. Nationalism, its Meaning and History. Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1955.

Kohn, Hans. Prelude to Nation-States: The French and German Experience, 1789-1815.
Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1967.

Leca, Jean. “Nationalisme et universalisme,” Pouvoirs 57 (1991): 33-42.

Miller, David. On Nationality. New York: Clarendon Press, 1995.

Pearson, R. The Longman Companion to European Nationalism 1789-1920. London: Longman, 1994.

Seton-Watson, Hugh. Nations and States: An Enquiry into the Origins of Nations and the Politics of Nationalism. Boulder: Westview Press, 1977.

Smith, Anthony D. The Antiquity of Nations. Cambridge, UK; Malden, MA: Polity, 2004.

Smith, Anthony D. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: B. Blackwell, 1988.

Smith, Anthony D. Myths and Memories of the Nation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Smith, Anthony D. Nationalism and Modernism: A Critical Survey of Recent Theories of Nations and Nationalism. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Smith, Anthony D. Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press; Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 2001.

Smith, Anthony D. National Identity. London: Penguin Books, 1991.

Smith, Anthony D. The Nation in History: Historiographical Debates about Ethnicity and Nationalism. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 2000.

Smith, Anthony D. Theories of Nationalism. London, Duckworth, 1971.

Tamir, Yael. Liberal Nationalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Woolf, Sturat J., ed. Nationalism in Europe, 1815 to the Present: A Reader. London: Routledge, 1996.

Nation and Nationalism in Canada

Acheson, Jamesa and Reginald Berry, eds. Regionalism and National Identity: Multi-Disciplinary Essays on Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Christchurch, N.Z.: Association for Canadian Studies in Australia and New Zealand, 1985.

Armstrong, Elizabeth Howard. The Crisis of Quebec, 1914-1918. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1974.

Azzi, Stephen. Walter Gordon and the Rise of Canadian Nationalism. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1999.

Balthazar, Louis. Bilan du nationalisme au Québec. Montreal: L'Hexagone, 1986. 

Balthazar, Louis. French-Canadian Civilization. Washington, D.C.: Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, 1996.

Bashevkin, Sylvia B. True Patriot Love: The Politics of Canadian Nationalism. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Bauhn, Per, Christer Lindberg and Svante Lundberg. Multiculturalism and Nationhood in Canada: The Cases of First Nations and Quebec. Lund, Sweden: Lund University Press, 1995.

Bélanger, Damien-Claude. Prejudice and Pride: Canadian Intellectuals Confront the United States, 1891-1945. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.

Bellavance, Marcel. Le Québec au siècle des nationalités (1791-1918): essai d'histoire comparée. Montréal: vlb éditeur, 2004.

Berger, Carl. Imperialism and Nationalism, 1884-1914: A Conflict in Canadian Thought.
Toronto: Copp Clark, 1969.

Berger, Carl. The Sense of Power: Studies in the Ideas of Canadian Imperialism, 1867-1914. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1970.

Berlin, Barry. The American Trojan Horse: U.S. Television Confronts Canadian Economic and Cultural Nationalism. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Bissoondath, Neil. Selling Illusions: The Cult of Multiculturalism in Canada. Toronto: Penguin, 1994.

Bock, Michel. Quand la nation débordait les frontières: les minorités françaises dans la pensée de Lionel Groulx. Montréal: Hurtubise HMH, 2004.

Bouchard, Gérard. The Making of the Nations and Cultures of the New World: An Essay in Comparative History. Montreal and Kingston: McGill Queen’s University Press, 2008.

Bourque, Gilles and Jules Duchastel. L'identité fragmentée: Nation et citoyenneté dans les débats constitutionnels canadiens, 1941-1992. Saint-Laurent: Fides, 1996.

Braz, Albert. The False Traitor: Louis Riel in Canadian Culture. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003

British Columbia. National Unity Project. British Columbia and Canadian Unity.
Victoria: Queen's Printer for British Columbia, 1997.

Buckner, Phillip A., eds. Canada and the British Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Buckner, Phillip A. and R. Douglas Francis, ed. Canada and the British World: Culture, Migration, and Identity. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2006.

Buckner, Phillip A. ed. Canada and the End of Empire. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2005.

Cameron, David R. Nationalism, Self-Determination and the Quebec Question. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1974.

Carens, Joseph H. Is Quebec nationalism Just? Perspectives from Anglophone Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1995.

Champion, C.P. The Strange Demise of British Canada: The Liberals and Canadian Nationalism, 1964-68. Montreal and Kingston: McGill Queen’s University Press, 2010.

Chennells, David. The Politics of Nationalism in Canada: Cultural Conflict since 1760. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001.

Clark, Joe. A Nation too Good to Lose: Renewing the Purpose of Canada. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1994.

Coates, Colin M. and Cecilia Morgan. Heroines and History: Representations of Madeleine de Verchères and Laura Secord. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001.

Collins, Richard. Culture, Communication, and National Identity: The Case of Canadian Television. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990.

Cologue, Ray. Impossible Nation: The Longing for Homeland in Canada and Quebec. Stratford: Mercury Press, 1996.

Comeau, Robert and Bernard Dionne, eds. A propos de l'histoire nationale. Sillery: Septentrion, 1998.

Cook, Ramsay and Michael Behiels, eds. The Essential Laurendeau. Vancouver: Copp Clark Pub., 1976.

Cook, Ramsay, ed. French-Canadian Nationalism: An Anthology. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1969.

Cook, Ramsay. Canada and the French-Canadian Question. Toronto: Macmillan, 1966.

Cook, Ramsay. Canada, Quebec, and the Uses of Nationalism. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1995 (1986).

Cook, Ramsay. Provincial Autonomy, Minority Rights and Compact Theory, 1867-1921. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1969.

Cook, Ramsay. The Maple Leaf Forever: Essays on Nationalism and Politics in Canada. Toronto : Macmillan of Canada, 1971.

Corse, Sarah M. Nationalism and Literature: The Politics of Culture in Canada and the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Couture, Claude. Paddling with the Current: Pierre Elliott Trudeau, Étienne Parent, Liberalism, and Nationalism in Canada. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1998.

Dawn, Leslie Allan. National Visions, National Blindness: Canadian Art and Identities in the 1920s. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2006.

Desbarats, Peter. The State of Quebec: A Journalist's View of the Quiet Revolution. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1965.

Dion, Léon. Québec: The Unfinished Revolution. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1976.

Dion, Stéphane. Straight Talk: On Canadian Unity. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1999.

Djebabla-Brun, Mourad. Se souvenir de la Grande Guerre: La Mémoire plurielle de 14-18 au Québec. Montréal: vlb éditeur, 2004

Doran, Charles F. Why Canadian Unity Matters and why Americans Care: Democratic Pluralism at Risk. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001.

Dumont, Fernand. Vigil of Quebec. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974.

Eddy, J. J. and D.M. Schreuder, eds. The Rise of Colonial Nationalism: Australia, New Zealand, Canada and South Africa First Assert their Nationalities, 1880-1914. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1988.

Edwardson, Ryan. Canadian Content: Culture and the Quest for Nationhood. Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2008.

Foster, William Alexander. Canada First, or, Our New Nationality an Address. Toronto: [s.n.], 1888.

Francis, Daniel. National Dreams: Myth, Memory, and Canadian History. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press, 1997.

Francis, Daniel. The Imaginary Indian: The Image of the Indian in Canadian Culture. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press, 1992.

Gibbins, Roger. The New Face of Canadian Nationalism. Kingston: Institute of Intergovernmental Relations, Queen's University, 1995.

Gordon, Alan. Making Public Pasts: The Contested Terrain of Montreal=s Public Memories, 1891-1930. Montréal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2001.

Gordon, Alan. The Hero and the Historians: Historiography and the Uses of Jacques Cartier. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2010.

Granatstein, J. L. Yankee Go Home? Canadians and Anti-Americanism. Toronto: Harper Collins, 1997.

Granatstein, J.L. Who Killed Canadian History? Toronto: Harper Perennial, 1998.

Grant, George. Lament for a Nation: The Defeat of Canadian Nationalism. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1965.

Griffiths, Rudyard. Great Questions of Canada. Toronto: Stoddart, 2000.

Gwyn, Richard J. The 49th Paradox: Canada in North America. Don Mills: Totem Books, 1986.

Gwyn, Richard. Nationalism without Walls: The Unbearable Lightness of Being Canadian. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, c1996.

Hayes, Geoffrey, Andrew Iarocci and Mike Bechthold, eds. Vimy Ridge: A Reassessment. Waterloo: Wilfrid University Press, 2007.

Hillmer, Norman and Adam Chapnick, eds. Canadas of the Mind: The Making and Unmaking of Canadian Nationalisms in the Twentieth Century, Montreal and Kingston: McGill Queen’s University Press, 2007.

Horton, Donald James. André Laurendeau: French Canadian nationalist, 1912-1968. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Hossay, Patrick. Contentions of Nationhood: Nationalist Movements, Political Conflict, and Social Change in Flanders, Scotland, and French Canada. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2002.

Hurtig, Mel. At Twilight in the Country: Memoirs of a Canadian Nationalist. Toronto: Stoddart, 1996.

Igartua, José. The Other Quiet Revolution: National Identities in English Canada, 1945-71. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2006.

Ignatieff, Michael. The Rights Revolution. Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 2000.

Johnson, Daniel. Égalité ou indépendance. Montreal: Editions Renaissance, 1965.

Johnson, William. A Canadian Myth: Quebec, between Canada and the Illusion of Utopia. Montreal: R. Davies, 1994.

Kertzer, Jonathan. Worrying the Nation: Imagining a National Literature in English Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.

Lacombe, Sylvie. La rencontre de deux peuples élus: comparaison des ambitions nationale et impériale au Canada entre 1896 et 1920. Sainte-Foy: Presses de l'Université Laval, 2002.

Laforest, Guy. Trudeau and the End of a Canadian Dream. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1995.

LaSelva, Samuel V. The Moral Foundations of Canadian Federalism: Paradoxes, Achievements, and Tragedies of Nationhood. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1996.

Laxer, James and Robert M. Laxer. The Liberal Idea of Canada: Pierre Trudeau and the

Question of Canada's Survival.
Toronto: J. Lorimer, 1977.

Leskun, Charles and Tim Tobin. Nationalism and French Canada. Oakville, Ont.: Rubicon Pub., 2003.

Létourneau, Jocelyn. A History for the Future: Rewriting Memory and Identity in Quebec, Montreal and Kingston: McGill Queen’s University Press, 2004.

Lévesque, René. An Option for Quebec. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1968.

Lipset, Seymour Martin. Continental Divide: The Values and Institutions of the United States and Canada. Toronto: Canadian-American Committee, 1989.

Logan, Robert K. and Stephen D. Berkowitz. Canada's Third Option. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1978.

Mackey, Eva. The House of Difference: Cultural Politics and National Identity in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.

Madison, Gary Brent, Paul Fairfield and Ingrid Harris. Is there a Canadian Philosophy? Reflections on the Canadian Identity. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2000.

Martel, Marcel. French Canada: An Account of its Creation and Break-up, 1850-1967. Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association, 1998.

Massey, Vincent. On Being Canadian. Toronto: J. M. Dent, 1948.

Mathews, Georges. Quiet Resolution: Quebec's Challenge to Canada. Toronto: Summerhill Press, 1990.

Mathieu, Geneviève. Qui est Québécois? Synthèse du débat sur la redéfinition de la nation. Montréal: VLB, 2001.

McKay, Ian. In the Province of History: The Making of the Public Past in Twentieth-Century Nova Scotia. Montréal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2010.

McRoberts, Kenneth. Misconceiving Canada: The Struggle for National Unity. Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Mills, Sean. The Empire Within: Postcolonial Thought and Political Activism in Sixties Montreal. Montreal and Kingston: McGill Queen’s University Press, 2010.

Mintzberg, Henry. The Canadian Condition: Reflections of a "Pure Cotton". Toronto: Stoddart, 1995.

Monet, Jacques. The Last Cannon Shot: A Study of French-Canadian Nationalism, 1837-1850. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1969.

Morton, W. L. The Canadian Identity. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1961.

Murrow, Casey. Henri Bourassa and French-Canadian Nationalism; Opposition
to Empire
. Montreal: Harvest House, 1968.

Nelles, H.V. The Art of Nation-Building: Pageantry and Spectacle at Quebec's Tercentenary. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.

Nemni, Max. Ethnic Nationalism, and the Destabilisation of the Canadian Federation. Québec: Université Laval, Laboratoire d'études politiques et administratives, 1993.

Nish, Margaret Elizabeth Abbott. Racism or Responsible Government: The French Canadian Dilemma of the 1840's. Toronto: Copp Clark, 1967.

Ouellet, Fernand. Lower Canada, 1791-1840: Social Change and Nationalism. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1980.

Owram, Douglas. ‘The Myth of Louis Riel.’ Canadian Historical Review 63 (1982): 315-333

Palmer, Brian. Canada's 1960s: Historicizing the Ironies of Identity. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.

Paquin, Stéphane. L’invention d’un mythe. Le pacte entre deux peuples fondateurs. Montreal: vlb éditeur, 1999.

Poulter, Gillian. Becoming Native in a Foreign Land: Sport, Visual Culture, and Identity in Montreal, 1840-85. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2008.

Reid, Jennifer. Louis Riel and the Creation of Modern Canada. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2008

Resnick, Philip. Thinking English Canada. Don Mills, Ont.: Stoddart, 1994.

Resnick, Philip. Toward a Canada-Quebec Union. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1991.

Resnick, The Politics of Resentment: British Columbia Regionalism and Canadian Unity. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2000.

Richard, Béatrice. La mémoire de Dieppe: Radioscopie d’un mythe. Montréal: vlb éditeur, 2002

Richler, Mordecai. Oh Canada! Oh Quebec! Requiem for a Divided Country. New York: Viking, 1992.

Richmond, Anthony H., ed. After the Referenda: The Future of Ethnic Nationalism in Britain and Canada. Downsview, Ont.: York University, Institute for Behavioural Research, 1982.

Ross, Malcolm, ed. Our Sense of Identity: A Book of Canadian Essays. Toronto: Ryerson, 1954.

Roy, Patricia. The Oriental Question: Consolidating a White Man's Province, 1914-41. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2003.

Rudin, Ronald. Founding Fathers: The Celebration of Champlain and Laval in the Streets of Quebec, 1878-1908. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.

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