With something good and bad of every land; Greater than thee have lost their seat,
Greater scarce none can stand.
THE fact that a highly-civilized race ‘inhabited America long before the modern civilization of Europe made its appearance there, is quite clear from the striking remains of ancient and high refinement existing in the country. Extensive remains of cities which must have been once in a most flourishing condition, of strong and well-built fortresses, as well as the ruins of very ancient and magnificent buildings, tanks, roads and canals that meet the eye over a very wide area of the southern continent of America, irresistibly force us to the conclusion that the country must have been inhabited at one time by a very highly-civilized nation. But whence did this high civilization spring ?
The researches of European antiquarians trace it to India. Mr. Coleman says: “Baron Humboldt, the great German traveller and scientist, describes the existence of Hindu remains still found in America.”‘
Speakiag...af the social usages of the inhabitants of Peru/Mr. Pococke’ays “ The Peruvians and their ancestors;thelnalans, are in this point of view at once seen to be the same people.”2 The architecture of ancient America resembles the Hindu style of architecture.)
1Hindu Mythology, p. 350.
India in Greece, p 174.
Mr. Hardy says: “The ancient edifices of Chicken in Central America bear a striking resemblance to the topes of India,”‘ Mr. Squire also says: “The Buddhist temples of Southern India, and of the islands of the Indian Archipelago, as described to us by the learned members of the Asiatic Society and the numerous writers on the religion and antiquities of the Hindus, correspond with great exactness in all their essential and in many of their minor features with those of Central America.” Dr. Zerfii remarks “ We find the remarkable temples, fortresses, viaducts, acqueducts of the Aryan group.” 3
A still more significant fact proves the Hindu origin of the civilization of ancient America. The mythology of ancient America furnishes sufficient grounds for the inference that it was a child of Hindu mythology. The following facts will elucidate the matter :—
(1) Americans worshipped Mother Earth as a mythological deity, as the Hindus still do—dharti mata and prithvi mata are well-known and familiar phrases in Hindustan.
(2) Footprints of heroes and deities on rocks and hills were worshipped by the Americans as devoutly as they are done in India even at the present day. Mexicans are said to have worshiped the footprints of Quetzal Coatle, as the Indians worship the footprints of Buddha in Ceylon, and of Krishna in Gokal near Muttra.’.
(3) The Solar and Lunar eclipses were looked upon in ancient America in the same light as in modern India. The Hindus beat drums and make noises by beating tin pots and other things. The Americans, too, raise a frightful howl and sound musical instruments. The Carecles (Americans) think that the demon 1i1aleoyo the hater of light, swallows the moon and the sun in the same way as the Hindus think that the demons Mint and Ketu devour the sun and the moon.
(4) The priests were represented in America with serpents round their heads, as Siva, Kali and others are represented by the Hindus.
(5) The Mexicans worshipped the figure made of the trunk of a man with the head of an elephant. The Hindus, as is too well-known, still worship this deity under the name of Ganesh. Baron Humboldt thus remarks on the Mexican deity: “It presents some remarkable and apparently not accidental resemblance with the Hindu Ganesh,”
(6) The legend of the Deluge,’ as believed in by the Hindus, was also prevalent in America.
(7) The Americans believed that the sun stood still at the word of one of their saints. In India, it is said that the cries of Arjuna at the death of Krishna caased)the sun to stand still.
(8) The tortoise myth is common to India and America. Mr. Ty for says: “The striking analogy between the tortoise myth of North America and India is by no means a matter of new observation; it was in-
--- 1 Brahma caused the deluge when only one pious man named Satyavrata, and his family and some animals were saved.---A,qaUic Researches, Vol, I.
deed noticed by Father Lafitan nearly a century and a half ago. Three great features of the Asiatic stories are found among the North American Indians in their fullest and clearest development. The earth is supported on the back of a huge floating tortoise, the tortoise sinks under and causes a deluge, and the tortoise is conceived as being itself the earth floating upon the face of the deep.”‘
(9) The serpent-worship was common to both countries. In India, even to the present day, the serpent is the emblem of wisdom, power, duration, life, eternity and a symbolic representation of the sun. The fact that serpent-worship is common to the Hindu, the Egyptian, the Syrian, the Grecian, the Chinese, the Scandinavian and the American mythologies has been held to be another proof of the Hindu mythology being the parent of these systems of mythology. Their philosophy was also derived from India. Their belief in the doctrine or the transmigration of souls stamp their philosophy also as being of Hindu origin.
Apart from mythology, the manners, customs and habits of the ancient Americans bore a very close resemblance to those of the Hindus. Their dress, costume, and sandals prove them to be of Indian origin. The dress of American women was the same as the national dress of Hindu women.
All that can be safely asserted as to the date of the Hindu colonization of America is, that it took place after the time of Sri Ram Chandra. That America was frequently visited by the Hindus till long after the
Early History of Mankind.
Mahabharata is amply proved by historical records as well as the fictitious literature of the Hindus.
Sri Ram Chandra and Sita are still worshipped in. America, and, remarkably enaugh, under their original names. In America, an annual fair takes place, which closely corresponds with the Dashera (Ram Chandrajeeka-Mela) of the Hindus.] Sir W. Jones says: “Rama is represented as a descendant from the sun, as the husband of Sita, and the son of a princess named Causelya. It is very remarkable that Peruvians, whose Inces boasted of the same descent, styled their greatest festival Rama-Sitva; whence we may suppose that South America was peopled by the same race who imported into the farthest parts of Asia the rites and the fabulous history of Rama.2
Mythology, architecture, philosophy, traditions, manners, and legends of ancient America all argue the Hindu origin of the Americans. This is supported by what we find in the Puranas, the Mahabharata and other historical writings. It is expressly stated in the Mahabharata that Arjuna conquered Patal Desa, and married Alopi, daughter GE the king of that country, named Karoo, and that the fruit of this union was drawan,3 who afterwards distinguished himself as a great warrior.
A word regarding the route to America used by the Hindus. They seem generally to have taken the sea route from Ceylon or from some place in the Bay of Bengal to Java, Bali, or Borneo and thence to America—to Mexico, Central America or Peru. But more
adventurous spirits appear sometimes to have chosen the land passage to America through China, Mongolia, Siberia, Behring Straits (which, as geology has proved, was not in existence until recent times), and North America.
It has been urged that the Hindus, being prohibited from crossing the sea or even the river Attock, could not have gone to foreign climes in considerable numbers, either as traders or as settlers. Such criticism, however, only betPaynignorance of Hindu literature and Hindu_ history.1/4^CQlonel Tod says: “It is ridiculous with all the knowledge now in our possession, to suppose that the Hindus always confined themselves within their! gigantic barriers, the limits of modern India.”‘
The most ancient as well as the most authoritative work in Indian literature, the Veda, enjoins mankind to go to foreign countries in steamers and balloons. The Yajur Veda (Adhyaya 6, Mantra 21), says :—
“ Oh men, who are fit to do administrative work righteously, go to the seas in big, fast-going steamers, and to the high heavens in balloons built on scientific principles.” Also.—
zflo aio Ri I Tie 8 I
1Tod’s Rajasthan, Vol, II, p’ 218,
Manu says :—
44 ‘fcq. fgmK-1:
“Let mankind from the different countries of the world acquire knowledge from-learned men born in this country (India).”
With regard to the adjudication of disputes regarding the amount of fares, Manu says :
“ The final decision as to what is the suitable fare will rest with traders, who are fully acquainted with sea-routes as well as land-routes.
Manu again says :—
1:11’0 sMitzr VitV 8 )
There are numerous instances on record of political and religious leaders of India having gone to Europe and America on political and religious missions. Mahrishi Vyasa with Sukhdeoji went to America and lived there for some time. Sukhdeoji eventually returned to India via Europe (Heero Desa), Persia and Turkistan. The journey took him three years and is succinctly described in the Mahabharata, Santi Parva, (Sookh utpatti, Adh. 326).
Just before the Great War, the Pandavas started on a conquering expedition to foreign countries. The journey was twice undertaken. On the first occasion-
they went to Burmah, Siam, China, Tibet, Mongoliai
Tartary, Persia and returned to India via Hirat, Kabul, Kandahar and Baluchistan. At Kandahar ((sandbar) they were the guests of the father-in.law of Dhritarashtra. The second Mission was towards the West. Starting from Ceylon (Sangal-dwipa) they went to Arabia, thence to Egypt, to Zanzibar and other parts of Africa. See Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Adhyayas, 26-28.
The Great Arjuna, in the course of a voyage visited the following islands (1) Agastha Tiratha, (2) Poolum Tirath, (3) Subhadra Tirath, (4) Karandham Tirath, (5) Bharadwaja, Tirath. See Mahabharata, Adi Parva.
The Emperor Sagarji’s extensive foreign conquests are also well known. His conquest of the ‘islands of the Indian Archipelago is mentioned in the ancient traditions of those islands, where he is still worshipped as the “ God of the Sea.” See also Ramayana. Balkanda, V. 2.
The succession of the sons of Sri Krishna to the throne of Bajrapura’ in Southern Siberia (to the north of the Altai Mountains) has already been mentioned.
It is also well-known that the emperors and kings of India often married foreign princesses. In addition to Dhritrashtra’s marriage with the daughter of the king of Afghanistan, and Arjuna’s with that of the American King Kuru, we find that Unardhaji, grandson of Sri Krishna, married the princess Ookha, daughter of Ban, King of Shoont, which belonged to Egypt. Maharaja Chandragupta married the daughter of Seleucus, King of Babylon; and the then Maharana of Udaipur (Rajputana) married the daughter of Nausherwan the Just, King of Persia.
‘See Hari Vansa Purana, Vishnu Parva, Adhyaya, 97. 2see Hari \Tama, Vishnu Parva, Adh. 116-127.
The obnoxious prohibition to cross the Attock is of recent origin. The Hindu possession of the Afghan and Persian territories was a relic of their ancient conquest. So late even as the first few centuries of the Christian era, the Hindus lived in thousands in Turkistan, Persia and Russia. For an account of the Hindu commercial colony at Astrakhan, see the account given by Professor Pallas. Mr. Elphinstone says: “Even at the present day, individuals of a Hindu tribe from Shikarpur settle as merchants and bankers in the towns of Persia, Turkistan and Russia.”‘ The same may be said of a large number of the natives of Jaisalnier.
A few passages from ancient Sanskrit works of historical importance may be quoted to show that the original founders and forefathers of many of the different nations of the world before they migrated to their respective countries, were inhabitants of India. As quoted above, Manu (Chapter X, page 43) says:—
“ The following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk into the state of Vrishalas (outcastes) from the extinction of sacred rites, and from having no communication with the Brahmans, viz,, Paundrakas, Odras, Dravidas, Kamhojos, Yavanas, Sakas, Paradas, Pahlavas, Chinas, Kiratas, Daradas and Khasas,” etc.
1 Elphinstone’s History of India, p. 135.
Sir W. Jones, in his treatise on the Chinese , understands “by Chinas; the Chinese, who, as the Brahmins report, are descended from the Hindus.” The other names, which are apparently those of other nations, may be thus explained: The Sacas were the ancient Sacs. The Pahlays were Medes speaking Pahlavi or the ancient Persian. The Cambojas were the inhabitants of Kamboja or Cambodia ;2 the Yavans, as is well known, were the Greeks. The Dravids may be the Druids of Great Britain. The Kirats were the inhabitants of Baluchistan, Daradas of Dardasthan in the Chinese territory. The Khases3 were probably some people of Eastern Europe.
The Mahabharata (Anusasana Parva, Verses 2103 and 2104) while giving us a further view of the origin of the various nations of the world, says :—
iSir W. Jones’ Works, Vol. I, p. 99.
2That Kambojas meant the inhabitants of Cambodia is supported. by two verses from the Mahabharata, where they are said to be living towards the north-east :—
“ The son of Indra conquered the Daradas with the Kambojas and the Dasyus who dwelt in the north east region.”-21Iahabharata, Book IT, 1031,82.
3This people is mentioned in the Ramayana also
These tribes of Kshatriyas, viz., Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Dravidas, Kalindas, Pulindas,1, Usinaras, Kolisarpas, and Mahishakas, have become outcastes (and exiled) from seeing no Brahmans.
This is repeated in Verses 2158, 59, where the following additional tribes are named: Mekalas, Latas, Konvasiras, Samdikas, Dorvas, Chauras, Savaras, Barbaras, Kiratas.2
The Kambojas, Sakas, Sabaras, Kiratas, and Varvaras are again mentioned in the Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Verse 4747 :—
VI4KT4i f*UcTRIE 4K-141T 41. II
WINTzr V( E. II
‘The Andhras, Pundras, Sabaras, Pulindas, Mutibas, are also mentioned in the Aitreya Brahmana.
2 V ishnu Purana names over two hundred different peoples known to the Hindus, including Chinas, P,ahlvas, Yavanas, Barbaras, Bahlikas, (people of Balkh) and Huns.—See Wilson’s Vishnu Parana, Vol. 11, p. 156.
“ Sameya destroying the host, converted the beautiful earth into a mass of mud with the flesh and blood of thousands of Kambojas, Sakas, Sabaras, Kiratas and Varvaras. The ground was covered with the shorn and hairless but long-bearded heads of the Dasyus, and their helmets as if with birds bereft of their plumes.”
As many as 16 different foreign tribes are said in Sant.i Parva (Section 65, line 2429ff.) to have descended from the Hindus. King Mandhatri asks Indra
E1’’a-M 4117T: 3g131 TIMI: II
“ The Yavanas, Kiratas, Gandharas, Chinas, Savaras, Varvaras, Sakas, Tushoras, Kantas, Pahlays, Andhras, Madras, Paundras, Pulindas, Romathas, Kambojas men spring from Brahmans and from Kshatriyas, persons of the Vaisya and Sudra castes. How shall all these people of different countries practice duty, and what rules shall kings like me prescribe for those who are living as Dasyus? Instruct me on these points, for thou art the friend of our Kshatriya race.”
Manu’s account of the origin of the Yavanas, Sakas, etc., is supported by the Vishnu Purana. When
) Compare the hairless but long-bearded heath of the Arabs,
Sagara learnt from his mother all that had befallen his father, Bahu, being vexed at the loss of his paternal kingdom, he vowed to exterminate the Haihayas and other enemies who had conquered it.
“Accordingly he destroyed nearly all the Haihayas. When the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Paradas and Pahlavas were about to undergo a similar fate, they had recourse to Vashishtha, the king’s family priest, who interposed on their behalf in these words addressed to Sagara, representing them as virtually dead: You have done enough, my son, in the way of pursuing these men, who are as good as dead. In order that your vow might be fulfilled, I have compelled them to abandon the duties of their caste, and all association with the twiceborn.’ Agreeing to his spiritual guide’s proposal, Sagara compelled these tribes to alter their costume. He made the Yavanas shave their heads, the Sakas shave half their heads, the Paradas wear long hair, and the Pahlavas beards. These and other Kshatriyas he deprived of the study of the Vedas and the Vashatkara. In consequence of their abandonment of their proper duties and of their desertion by the Brahmans, they became Mlechhas.”
The Harivansa Purana also says :—”Sakah Yavana Kambojah Paradah Pahlavas tathal Kolisarpah Sanzahishah Darvas chotah Sa-Keralah Sarve to Kshatriyas tata tesham dharmo nirakritaht Vasistha-vachanad
rajan Sagarena Mahatmana. The Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Paradas, Pahlavas, Kolisarpas, Mahisbas/ Darvas, Cholas and Keralas had been all Kshatriyas, but deprived of their social and religious position by the great Sagara (Hindu king) in accordance with the advice of Vashishtha, Some other tribes are also mentioned in the next verse to have received similar treatment.’
Priyavrata, Swayambhva’s son, divided the earth into seven dwipas :---
(1) Jambu Dwipa. (Asia).
(.fd / J.
k Ail./ 14 UL1
(3) Pushkara 77
Col. Wilford, however, thus interprets them, which is obviously wrong :—
Plaksha includes Lesser Asia and America. Musa answers to the countries between the Persian Gulf, the Caspian Sea, and the Western boundary of India. Krauncha includes Germany. Shaka means the British isles. Pushkara is Ireland. Shalrnali are countries by the Adriatic and Baltic, Jarnbu Dwipa is India.
1Mr. C’olebrooke (Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 1, p. 4531 quotes an ancient Hindu writer, who states that the Barbaric tongues are called the Parasica, the Yavana, the Roniaka and the Barbara “ the first three of which,” says he, “would be’ the Persian, the Greek and the Latin. But which is the fourth and how Latin became known in India, it is difficult to say.” And yet it is a well-authenticated fact that in the time of Vicramaditya there was constant intercourse between India and Rome,
Owing to the destruction of the greater part of Sanskrit literature, it is impossible now to interpret correctly these geographical facts, not only because these are only the fragmentary remains of the Science of Geography inextricably mixed up with Puranic mytholo2y and theology, but to a great extent because many of these ancient dwipas and countries have been so materially altered in consequence of the Cataclysm called the Deluge, as to have become impossible of identification now. The father of the modern geological science, Cuvier, expresses the following opinion regarding this Deluge in his Descours Sur les Revolutions de la Surface du Globe, p. 283 (5th Edition) :— “ I consider with Messrs. Deluc and Dolomieu that if there is anything established in geology, it is the fact that the surface of the earth has been the subject of a great and sudden revolution, the date of which cannot go much further back than five or six thousand years; that this revolution has sunk (enforce) or caused to disappear (fait-disparaitre) some of those lands which were formerly inhabited by men, together with those species of animals which are now the most common.”
We thus find that the Hindu civilization overran the entire universe, and that its landmarks are still to be seen all over the globe. Nay, it still lives and breathes around us. Says Monsieur Delbos: “The influence of that civilization worked out thousands ot years ago in India is around and about us every day of our lives. It pervades every corner of the civilized world. Go to America and you find there, as in Europe, the influence of that civilization which came originally from the banks of the Ganges.”