Hello 201 students, The following are chapter overviews and objectives. They are meant to assist you in organizing your study and review preparation for exam2 on Thursday. The exam this time will consist of 70 – 80 mp questions and 1 – 2 short essay type



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Hello 201 students,

The following are chapter overviews and objectives. They are meant to assist you in organizing your study and review preparation for exam2 on Thursday. The exam this time will consist of 70 – 80 MP questions and 1 – 2 short essay type questions. Below is a list of these questions from which any one or two will be given.
I am encouraging you to study and prepare well for this exam. I am also strongly advising that you take your time to thoroughly read every question whether MP or Essay type to make sure you understand what each is asking, and then consider the options intelligently. REMEMBER, these questions are NOT meant to trick you, but are design in such a way that if a student is depending on guessing his or her way through, that the chances of getting the correct item is only 20-25%. If you are convinced however, that you don’t know the answer to a particular question, then it is better to make an intelligent guess than to leave it blank.
!!BEST OF WISHES TO YOU AS YOU PREPARE AND I SINCERELY PRAY THAT YOU ALL DO WELL!!

Essay questions:

  1. Describe the process of intramembranous or endochondral ossification.

  2. Patient X has a tumor of the parathyroid glands that causes hypersecretion of the parathyroid hormone. What effects would this hypersecretion have on:

    1. Blood calcium levels?

    2. The function of the bone cells?

    3. The secretion of calcitonin?

    4. The production of calictriol?

    5. The bone matrix?

    6. The kidneys?

  3. List the zones of the epiphyseal plate and describe the function of each explaining how the plate relates to the growth of and termination of growth of long bones.

  4. List the steps of fracture repair and say how long after injury does this process start.


Chapter 6 you already have

Chapter 7
INTRODUCTION

  1. Note that becoming familiar with the names, shapes, and positions of individual bones helps in the location of other organs and in muscle interaction with bones to produce movement.

DIVISIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

  1. List the various bone groups and the number that are assigned to the axial and appendicular divisions of the skeleton, as well as their fundamental purpose.

TYPES OF BONES

  1. Classify the principal types of bones on the basis of shape and location.



BONE SURFACE MARKINGS

  1. Describe the various markings on the surface of bones and the functions of each.

SKULL

  1. Give the names of the 22 skull bones and how they are grouped into the cranial and facial categories.

General Features

  1. Briefly describe the cavities and major surface markings of the skull.

  1. Mention the basic functions of the skull in terms of protection, muscle attachment, and association with organ and sensory systems.

Cranial Bones

  1. Show the location of the cranial bones and state distinctive characteristics of each, including shape, features, functions, and interconnections.

Frontal Bone

Parietal Bones

Temporal Bones

Occipital Bone

Sphenoid Bone

Ethmoid Bone

Facial Bones

  1. Show the location of the facial bones and state distinctive characteristics of each, including shape, features, and functions.

  2. Nasal Bones

Maxillae

Zygomatic Bones

Lacrimal Bones

Palatine Bones

Inferior Nasal Conchae

Vomer

Mandible

Nasal septum

  1. Study the location and formation of the nasal septum.
    Orbits

  2. View the four regions of the orbit and the bones that make up the regions.

Foramina


  1. Review the openings (Table 7.3) that allow communication for blood, lymph, and neural information between the interior and exterior of the skull.

Unique Features Of The Skull


Sutures

  1. Identify and locate the different sutures and how they interconnect the bones of the skull.

Paranasal Sinuses


  1. Know the location, features, and functions of the paranasal sinuses.

  2. Understand sinusitis as an inflammation of the membranes of the sinuses

Fontanels


  1. Know the locations and principle functions of the fontanels as they change with age.

HYOID BONE

  1. Describe the unique features of the hyoid bone, its functions, and the structures that help suspend it in position.

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

  1. Know the basic functions of the vertebral column.

  2. Know the five regions of the vertebral column.

Normal Curves of the Vertebral Column

  1. Be familiar with the location, direction, purpose, and time of formation of the four curves of the spine.

Intervertebral Discs

  1. Understand the structure and function of the intervertebral discs.

Parts of a Typical Vertebra

  1. Understand the anatomical components, foramen processes, and articular features common to most vertebrae and indicate their purpose.

Regions of the Vertebral Column

Cervical Region

  1. Study the shapes and formations that distinguish cervical vertebrae from other divisions, and the unique structure and operation of the two superior vertebrae.

Thoracic Region

  1. Study the components of thoracic vertebrae and how they change with descent along the column.

  2. Know the number and function of the articular facets of the thoracic vertebrae.

Lumbar Region

  1. Describe the main purpose of the lumbar vertebrae and how their function dictates their structure.

Sacrum

  1. Note the peculiar fusion of these vertebrae and how this effects their job of support, as well as neural protection and connection.

THORAX

Sternum

  1. Describe the parts of the sternum and the function of this composite bone.

Ribs

  1. Describe the functional features of a rib and how they are grouped relative to their attachment to the sternum.

DISORDERS: HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCES

  1. Contrast herniated (slipped) disc, abnormal curves, and spina bifida as disorders associated with the skeletal system.


Chapter 8

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON

Chapter Outline and Objectives

  1. Identify the bones that make up the appendicular skeleton.

PECTORAL (SHOULDER) GIRDLE

  1. Identify the bones of the pectoral girdle and the only point of attachment of the girdle to the axial skeleton.

Clavicle

  1. Identify the clavicle, its markings, functions, and the bones with which it articulates.

  2. Problems associated with a fractured clavicle.

Scapula

  1. Identify the scapula, its markings, functions, and the bones with which it articulates.

UPPER LIMB (EXTREMITY)

  1. Identify the upper extremity, its component bones, and their number.

Humerus

  1. Identify the humerus, its major markings, functions, and peculiar contours that allow it to articulate with the scalpular glenoid fossae and the ulnar trochlear notch.

Ulna and Radius

  1. Identify the ulna, its major markings, functions, and peculiar contours that allow it to have a major articulation with the humeral trochlea and minor interaction with the carpals.

  1. Identify the radius, its major markings, functions, and contours that allow it to have a major articulation with the carpals and minor interaction with the humeral trochlea.

Carpals, Metacarpals, and Phalanges

  1. Identify the names and positions of the carpals.

  1. Identify the names and positions of the metacarpals.

  2. Identify the names and positions of the phalanges.

PELVIC (HIP) GIRDLE

  1. Identify the bones and function of the pelvic girdle.

Ilium

  1. Identify the ilium, its major markings, functions, and the bones with which it articulates.

Ischium

  1. Identify the ischium, its major markings, functions, and the bones with which it articulates.

Pubis

  1. Identify the pubis, its major markings, functions, and the bones with which it articulates.

True and False Pelves

  1. Distinguish between the true and false pelves and give the function of the bony pelvis.

COMPARISON OF FEMALE AND MALE PELVES

  1. Compare and contrast the principal structural differences between female and male pelves

COMPARISON OF PECTORAL AND PELVIC GIRDLES

  1. Compare and contrast the pectoral and pelvic girdles.

LOWER LIMB (EXTREMITY)

  1. Identify the lower extremity and its component bones.

Femur

  1. Identify the femur, its major markings, functions, and surface shapes that allow allow it to articulate with the coxal acetabulum and pedal talus.

Patella

  1. Study the patella in terms of its bone type, its location, and its function.

Tibia and Fibula

  1. Distinguish between the tibia and fibula in terms of their size, features, location, purpose, and articular surfaces.

Tarsals, Metatarsals, and Phalanges

  1. Compare the number, size, and function of the tarsal, metatarsal, and phalangeal bones of the foot with the corresponding bones of the hand.

Arches of the Foot

  1. Define the structural features and importance of the arches of the foot.

FOCUS ON HOMEOSTASIS: SKELETAL SYSTEM


  1. Examine the skeletal system’s contribution to homeostasis

DISEASE: HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCES


  1. Explain that the term hip fracture applies to a break in any bone associated with the hip joint.



Chapter 9

JOINTS

  1. Define a joint (articulation) and identify the factors that determine the types and degree (range) of movement at a joint.

  2. Explain how the anatomy and movement of a joint can be used to classify joints.


JOINT CLASSIFICATION

  1. Explain the two criteria for the structural classification of joints.

  2. Explain how the translation of the terms used for functional classification of joints is related to the range of movement.

FIBROUS JOINTS

  1. Describe the structural and functional features of the fibrous joints.

Suture


  1. Discuss the development of the structure of sutural joints from the newborn to the mature stage.

Syndesmosis


  1. Describe the structure and degree of movement of syndesmosis joints in the body and give examples.

Gomphosis


  1. Describe the structure and degree of movement of gomphosis joints and give examples.

CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS

  1. Discuss the general features of the cartilaginous joints and name the two types of cartilaginous joints.

Synchondrosis


  1. Define the material and connections of the synchondrosis and give examples of temporary and permanent joints of this types.

Symphysis


  1. Note the distinct connective tissue and shape of the symphysis joint, as well as how it is similar in the spine and coxal regions.

SYNOVIAL JOINTS

Structure of Synovial Joints


  1. Discuss the general features of synovial joints.

Articular Capsule

  1. Describe the structure and function of the articular capsule.

  2. List the various techniques for cartilage replacement.

Synovial Fluid

  1. Discuss the nature of synovial fluid and its function.

  2. Examine the steps in synovial fluid aspiration.

Accessory Ligaments and Articular Discs

  1. Discuss the location and functions of the accessory ligaments and articular discs in synovial joints.

  2. Discuss the consequences of tearing an articular disc and treatment involved in repairing the damage.

Nerve and Blood Supply

  1. Describe the nerve and blood supply to the joints.

  2. Define what is meant by a joint sprain and strain.

Bursae and Tendon Sheaths


  1. Discuss the structure and function of the bursae and tendon sheaths.

  2. Define bursitis and examine its causes and symptoms.

TYPES OF MOVEMENT AT SYNOVIAL JOINTS

  1. List the four main categories of movements at synovial joints.

Gliding

  1. Describe the gliding movements and list locations where this movement occurs.

Angular Movements

  1. List the principal angular movements.

Flexion, Extension, Lateral Flexion, and Hyperextension Movements

  1. Define and give examples of flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and hyperextension movements.

Abduction, Adduction, and Circumduction

  1. Define and give examples of abduction, adduction, and circumduction movements.

Rotation


  1. Define and give examples of rotation movements at synovial joints.

Special Movements


  1. List, define, and give examples of the special movements at some synovial joints.

  2. Define dislocation (luxation) and examine its causes.

TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS

  1. Describe the structural features and types of movement for each of the types of synovial joints.

Plantar Joint

Hinge Joint

Pivot Joint

Condyloid Joint

Saddle Joint

Ball-and-Socket Joint

FACTORS AFFECTING CONTACT AND RANGE OF MOTION AT SYNOVIAL JOINTS

  1. List the factors that affect contact and range of motion at synovial joints.

AGING AND JOINTS

  1. Explain the effects of aging on joints.

DISORDERS: HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCES

  1. Describe the causes and symptoms of common joint disorders, including joint injury, rheumatism and arthritis (rheumatoid, osteo-, and gouty).


PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS IS AN OVERVIEW OF CHAPTER 9. I GAVE YOU A CHAP9 HANDOUT WHICH WAS AN ASSIGNMENT TO GET YOU EQUIPT WITH THE MATERIAL OF THE CHAPTER. STUDY/FOLLOW THIS OVERVIEW THEREFORE IN CONJUCTION WITH THE HANDOUT. BY THIS I MEAN, EVEN THOUGH IT WILL BE TREMENDOUS BENEFIT TO YOU TO KNOW ALL OF THE STUFF OUTLINED IN THE OVERVIEW, I AM ONLY HOLDING YOU RESPONSIBLE FOR THAT WHICH I ASSIGNED TO YOU IN THE HAND OUT.
EXPECT TO BE ABLE TO LABLE A TYPICAL SYNOVIAL JOINT

IT IS A GOOD IDEA TO BE FAMILIAR WITH A BALL SOCKET SYNOVIAL JOINT AND PARTS THEREOF.

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