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The Skeletal System

  • Parts of the skeletal system
    • Bones (skeleton)
    • Joints
    • Cartilages
    • Ligaments
  • Divided into two divisions
    • Axial skeleton
    • Appendicular skeleton

Functions of Bones

  • Support of the body
  • Protection of soft organs
  • Movement due to attached skeletal muscles
  • Storage of minerals and fats
  • Blood cell formation

Bones of the Human Body

  • The adult skeleton has 206 bones
  • Two basic types of bone tissue
    • Compact bone
      • Dense & Smooth
      • Homogeneous
    • Spongy bone
      • Small needle-like pieces of bone
      • Many open spaces
  • Figure 5.2b

Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape

  • Figure 5.1

Long Bones

  • Typically longer than wide
  • Have a shaft with heads at both ends
  • Contain mostly compact bone
  • Examples: Femur, humerus

Short Bones

  • Generally cube-shape
  • Contain mostly spongy bone
  • Examples: Carpals, tarsals

Flat Bones

  • Thin and flattened
  • Usually curved
  • Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone
  • Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum

Irregular Bones

  • Irregular shape
  • Do not fit into other bone classification categories
  • Example: Vertebrae and hip

Homework

  • Page 174 Short Answer Essay #1-5
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  • The Function & Classification of Bones
  • Table of Contents

Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone

  • Diaphysis
    • Shaft
    • Composed of compact bone
  • Epiphysis
    • Ends of the bone
    • Composed mostly of spongy bone
  • Figure 5.2a

Structures of a Long Bone

  • Periosteum
  • Sharpey’s fibers (perforating)
    • Secure periosteum to underlying bone
  • Arteries
    • Supply bone cells with nutrients
  • Figure 5.2c

Structures of a Long Bone

  • Articular cartilage
    • Covers the external surface of the epiphyses
    • Made of hyaline cartilage
    • Decreases friction at joint surfaces
  • Figure 5.2a

Structures of a Long Bone

  • Medullary cavity
    • Cavity of the shaft
    • Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults
    • Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants
  • Figure 5.2a

Bone Markings

  • Surface features of bones
  • Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments
  • Passages for nerves and blood vessels
  • Categories of bone markings
    • Projections and processes – grow out from the bone surface
    • Depressions or cavities – indentations

Microscopic Anatomy of Bone

  • Osteon (Haversian System)
    • A unit of bone
  • Central (Haversian) canal
    • Opening in the center of an osteon
    • Carries blood vessels and nerves
  • Perforating (Volkman’s) canal
    • Canal perpendicular to the central canal
    • Carries blood vessels and nerves

Microscopic Anatomy of Bone

  • Figure 5.3

Microscopic Anatomy of Bone

  • Lacunae
  • Lamellae
    • Rings around the central canal
    • Sites of lacunae
  • Detail of Figure 5.3

Microscopic Anatomy of Bone

  • Canaliculi
    • Tiny canals
    • Radiate from the central canal to lacunae
    • Form a transport system
  • Detail of Figure 5.3


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