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Course Title: Teaching of Accountancy

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Course Title: Teaching of Accountancy

Course Code: 125 Credits - 4

Time Allotted: 64 Hours

MM: 100 (External 75, Internal 25)

This course has been developed to familiarize the student-teachers of B.Ed. with the pedagogy of teaching accountancy.

The Expected Outcomes

After completing this course, student-teachers should be able to:

  1. acquaint themselves with the nature of accountancy being taught at +2 level,

  2. justify the rationale of including accountancy in the school curriculum,

  3. enumerate the general and specific objectives of teaching accountancy at +2 level,

  4. develop the technique of writing instructional objectives of teaching various topics of accounting,

  5. appraise the +2 accounting curriculum developed by CBSE,

  6. have an insight into the details of the various approaches and methods of teaching accountancy,

  7. utilize the different teaching aids for effective transaction of the contents in accounting,

  8. rationalize the organization of co-curricular activities for strengthening the knowledge of accounting,

  9. make use of workbooks and practice sets for gaining practical knowledge of the world of accounting,

  10. equip themselves with the essential quantities of an ideal accounting teacher,

  11. familiarize themselves with the techniques of evaluation in accounting,

  12. develop awareness about curricular innovations in Accounting.

Course Content

Unit - I: Introductory framework and Objectives (10 hours)

        • Nature and Need of Accounting: Nature and need of accounting, rationale of its inclusion in the school curriculum. Development of Accounting as a ‘Profession’. Skills required by Contemporary Accounting Professionals.

          • Development of Accounting Curriculum: Comparative analysis of the present accounting syllabus of CBSE & ICSE. Critical appraisal of CBSE accounting syllabus

          • Integration of Accountancy with Business studies, Mathematics & Economics.

Unit - II: Planning and Objectives: (12 hours)

          • Unit and Lesson Planning: Concept of Unit planning and Lesson Planning. Planning lessons for Theoretical aspects, Practical/numerical sessions and Projects.

          • Objectives of Teaching Accounting: General and specific objectives of teaching accounting. Domains of writing specific objectives. Techniques of writing objectives.

Unit - III: Learning resources, Methods & Techniques (26 hours)

  • Learning Resources

    • Workbooks, Practice sets and Worksheets

    • Use of software and hardware for the teaching of accountancy, including the use of computers

  • Methods and Techniques of Teaching Accounting

  • Lecture cum Discussion method

  • Question –answer technique

  • Problem solving method

  • Games method

  • Project method

  • Case study

  • Computer Assisted Instructions

    • Recent trends in Teaching Accountancy

Team Teaching, Co-operative learning, Peer learning
  • Co-Curricular Activities: Different types of co-curricular activities for strengthening the learning of accounting.

Unit - IV: Professional requirements and Evaluation (16 hours)
  • Accounting Teacher: Qualities of an ideal accounting teacher, Avenues available for professional growth

  • Text Book: Critical appraisal of an Accounting text book. Journals (Conceptual, Professional and from Industry) in relation to Accounting.

  • Professional Accounting Software: Working knowledge about the prevalent accounting (business record maintaining) software [Tally, Busy, etc.]. Use of spread sheets in Accounting.

  • Evaluation in Accounting: Evaluating assignments, project work and giving feedback. Types of test items in accounting. Open book examination. Remedial Teaching.

Suggested Readings:

    • Bhatia, S.K. (2012). Teaching of Business Studies and Accountancy. New Delhi: Arya Book Depot.

    • Bhatia. S.K. (1996). Methods of Teaching Accounting. Publication No. 16. CIE. Delhi.

    • Binnion. John E. (1956). When you use a Book-Keeping Practice Set. Journal of Business Education. Vol. 32 Oct. pp. 30-33

    • Boynton. Laewis.D. (1955). Methods of Teaching Book-Keeping. Cincinnati; South Western Publishing Co.

    • Business and Management Education in Transitioning and Developing Countries: A Handbook; McIntyre, John R. and Alon, Ilan (Editors); M. E. Sharp. Inc.; New York; 2005.

    • Commerce Education in India: Views of Employers of Private Firms- A Case Study of Delhi; Sherwani, N.U.K. and Siddiqui, Saif in Journal of Indian Education, NCERT; New Delhi; Vol. XXX; No. 4; Feb.2005

    • Forkher Handen L., R.M. Swanson and R. J. Thompson (1960) The Teaching of Book-Keeping South Western Publishing.

    • Maheswari, S.B. (1969) Teachers’ Guide in Book-Keeping & Accountancy, Monograph. NCERT Regional College of Education, Ajmer.

    • Ments, M. (1960). Simulations, Games and Role Play. Handbook of Education Ideas and Practices, London: Routledge.

    • Musselman, Vernon A and J.M. Hanna (1960). .Teaching Book-Keeping and Accounting. New York. McGraw Hill Book Co.

    • Sapre, P.M. (1968), Trends in Teaching Book-Keeping and Accountancy, Regional College of Education, Mysore.

    • Singh, Kamal. D. (2010). Development of Computer Assisted Instruction in Accountancy and Evaluation of its Effectiveness at Senior Secondary School Level. (Unpublished Doctoral thesis). Delhi: Jamia Millia Islamia.

    • Support material for PGT (Commerce) (2011). New Delhi: State Council of Educational Research and Training. Retrieved from:

    • Verma, D.P.S.; Commerce Education in Rajput, J.S. (Ed.) Encyclopaedia of Indian Education, Vol. I; NCERT; 2000.

    • Wadhwa, Toolika; Commerce Education at Senior- Secondary Level: Some Reflections: in MERI Journal of Education; New Delhi; Vol. III; No. II; October 2008.

Course Title: Teaching of Business Studies

Course Code: 127 Credits - 4

Time Allotted: 64 Hours

MM: 100 (External 75, Internal 25)
This course has been developed to familiarize the student-teachers of B.Ed. with the pedagogy of teaching Business.
The Expected Outcomes

After completing this course, student- teachers should be able to:

  1. develop an awareness why business studies is taught at +2 level,

  2. develop an analytical ability to appraise the existing CBSE curriculum of commerce meant for +2 students, and compare with other school boards

  3. familiarize with the nature of business studies being taught at the school level

  4. be conversant with the different methods of teaching meant for teaching +2 students,

  5. develop positive outlook and skill for the use of modern teaching aids,

  6. instill the competence of organizing co-curricular activities for enriching the subject matter of business studies,

  7. develop the ability of exploiting good books and other study material in business studies,

  8. develop the tools and techniques of evaluation for appraising and enhancing students knowledge in business studies,

  9. develop awareness of curricular innovations in Business Studies.

Course Content

Unit - I: Introductory Framework (14 hours)

  • Business Studies: Nature & Need of Business Studies, its scope and rationale of its introduction at senior school level, recent advancements in Business Studies. Evolution of education for business.

  • Curriculum of Business Studies: Concept of curriculum and syllabus. Comparative analysis of the present syllabus of CBSE with ICSE. Critical appraisal of present syllabus developed by CBSE.

  • Integration of Business Studies with other subjects: Concept, objectives and Importance of Integration. Integration of Business Studies with other subjects – Accountancy, Economics and Social Science.

Unit - II: Objectives and Planning for Business Education (12 hours)

  • Learning Planning: Meaning & Nature of Lesson Planning, Lesson Planning according to Herbertian approach.

  • Objectives of Teaching Business Studies

Nature of general & specific objectives, behavioral objectives, techniques of writing objectives

Unit - III: Methods & Instructional Media for Teaching Business Studies (26 hours)

  • Methods, techniques and skills of teaching Business Studies

    1. Lecture Method

    2. Question-answer technique

    3. Discussion Method

    4. Project Method

    5. Problem Solving method

    6. Teaching through Games

    7. Computer Assisted Instruction

    8. Case study

    9. Development of Higher Order Thinking Skills (through following activities) Collaborative group activities, Problem-solving activities and Questioning for higher level thinking.

  • Co-curricular activities

Business Studies based co-curricular activities and their utility, linkage of school and outside organizations for strengthening knowledge about business.

  • Instructional Media

  • Meaning, Types of Instructional Media, scope of using Instructional Media for the teaching of Business Studies.

  • Selection of text books, reference books and professional journals for business studies.

Unit - IV: Technology Integration and Evaluation (12 hours)
  • Technology integration: NTeQ model for Business Studies at senior school level

  • Evaluation: Concepts of Evaluation, Measurement & Tests. Types of Evaluation.

  • Developing Achievement test in business studies. Types of test items.

  • Evaluation of Assignment and Project work. Remedial Teaching.

  • Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation as the latest Examination Reform

Suggested Readings:

    • Bhatia, S.K. (2012). Teaching of Business Studies and Accountancy. New Delhi: Arya Book Depot.

    • Bhatia, S.K. (1979), Teaching of Principles of Commerce and Accountancy, CIE Publication, Delhi.

    • Business and Management Education in Transitioning and Developing Countries: A Handbook; McIntyre, John R. and Alon, Ilan (Editors); M. E. Sharp. Inc.; New York; 2005.

    • Business education and Emerging Market Economics: Perspectives and Best Practices. Alon, Ilan and McIntyre, John R Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston; 2004.

    • Calfrey C. Alhon(1988), Managing the Learning Process in Business Education, Colonal Press USA

    • Commerce Education in India: Views of Employers of Private Firms- A Case Study of Delhi; Sherwani, N.U.K. and Siddiqui, Saif in Journal of Indian Education, NCERT; New Delhi; Vol. XXX; No. 4; Feb.2005

    • Markulis, Peter M; Howe, Harry and Strang, Danisi R; ‘Integrating the Business Curriculum with a comprehensive case study: A Prototype’ in Simulation and Gaming; Sage Publications; Vol. 36; No. 2; June 2005; 250-258;

    • Megary, J. (1989). Simulation and Gaming. The international Encyclopedia of Educational Technology, Oxford Pergamon Press.

    • Musselman Vernon A. and Musselman Donald Lee. (1975). Methods in Teaching Basic Business Subjects, 3rd ed Dannirl III. The Interstate Printers and Publishers

    • Nolan, C.A. (1968), Principles and Problems of Business Education, Cincinnati, South Western Publishing Company

    • Schrag & Poland (1987). A System for Teaching Business Education. McGraw Hill Book Company. New York.

    • Siddique, M. Akhtar and Khan, R. S. (1995). Handbook for Business Studies Teachers, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi.

    • Support material for PGT (Commerce) (2011). New Delhi: State Council of Educational Research and Training. Retrieved from:

    • Tonne, Herbhert & Lovis C. Nancy. (1995). Principles of Business education. McGraw Hill, New York

    • Verma, D.P.S.; Commerce Education in Rajput, J.S. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Indian Education, Vol. I; NCERT; 2000.

    • Wadhwa, Toolika; Commerce Education at Senior- Secondary Level: Some Reflections: in MERI Journal of Education; New Delhi; Vol. III; No. II; October 2008.

Course Title: Teaching of Physics
Course Code: 129 Credits - 4

Time Allotted: 64 Hours

MM: 100 (External 75, Internal 25)

Course Content:

Unit-I (14 hours)

      • Nature of Physics and Significance of teaching it

(i) Nature and scope of Physics.

(ii) Significance of teaching physics in secondary & senior secondary schools.

      • Aims and Objectives of Teaching Physics

(i) General aims of teaching physics at senior secondary level.

(ii) Writing objectives in behavioral form in Physics.

      • Pedagogical Analysis of Content

(i) Meaning and need of pedagogical analysis of content

(ii) Identification of concepts

(iii) Developing learning experiences/activities.

Unit-II (18 hours)

      • Planning a Lesson

(i) Unit Planning in physics

(ii) Planning a lesson for unit, a day, and individual experiment, with special

emphasis on general objectives.

      • Approaches and Methods of Teaching Physics

(i) Concept approach - meaning of concept, concept formation with reference to J. Bruner and Hilda Taba

(ii) Process approach - teaching science as a process, scientific method, problem solving method.

(iii) Cooperative learning approach.

  1. Activity based approach - investigatory approach, project method, laboratory method.

(v) Constructivist approach

Unit-III (12 hours)

      • Physics Curriculum

(i) Characteristics of a good curriculum for physics.

(ii) A critical study of present Physics curriculum at secondary/senior

secondary school.

(iii) Textbook in Physics - its need and use, evaluation of a textbook.

      • Instructional Aids in Physics

(i) Use of audio-visual aids in teaching of Physics with special reference to new technologies like interactive TV, Computer Aided Instruction.

(ii) Use of community resources.

(iii) Preparing low cost aids.

Unit-IV (20 hours)

      • Activities in Physics

(i) Importance of co-curricular activities.

(ii) Planning and Organization of co-curricular activities for physics.

      • Evaluation of Learners' Progress

(i) Evaluation and measurement.

(ii) Comprehensive & continuous evaluation, need & importance of class


(iii) Different type of tests-essay, short answer, objective types.

(iv) Achievement test-its construction, administration and item analysis.

(v) Diagnostics test & Remedial Teaching.

Suggested Readings:

  • Anderson R.D. (1970), Developing Children's Thinking Through Science, New Delhi: Prentice Hall.

  • Barbe, R.H.(1995), Science in the Multicultural Class room, Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

  • Chauhan, S.S.(2000), Innovation in Teaching Learning Process, New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

  • Edigar M. and Rao D.B.(1996), Science Curriculum, New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.

  • Gupta N.K. (1997), Research in Teaching of Science, New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation.

  • Kochar, S.K.(1997), Methods and Techniques of Teaching, New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

  • Maitre, K. (1991), Teaching of Physics, New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.

  • Mukalel, J.C. (1998), Creative Approaches to Classroom Teaching, New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.

  • Prakash, R. and Rath, T.N. (1996), Emerging Trends in Teaching of Physics, New Delhi: Kanisha Publishers.

  • Rao, D.B.(1997), Reflections on Scientific Attitudes, New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.

  • Romay, W.D.(1968), Inquiry Technique for Teaching of Science, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

  • Sharma, R.C.(1981), Modern Science Teaching, Delhi: Dhanpat Rai and Sons.

  • Thurber, W.A. and Collette, A.T.(1970), Teaching Science in Today's Secondary Schools, Boston: Allyn & Bacon Inc.

  • Vanaja, M.(1999), Inquiry Training Model, New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.

  • Venkataiah, N. (1993), Curricular Innovations for 2000 AD, New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House.

Course Title: Teaching of Chemistry

Course Code: 131 Credits - 4

Time Allotted: 64 Hours

MM: 100 (External 75, Internal 25)

  1. To acquire the understanding of the various concepts, facts, terms and developments in the field of science education.

  2. To critically analyze the curriculum/evaluation process/methodology of teaching in school to bring about changes in future.

  3. To apply the understanding in a teaching learning process in schools.

  4. To develop teaching skills for conducting theory and practical lessons.

  5. To enable the students to use audio-visual aids and information technology for promoting effective teaching - learning.

  6. To develop the abilities for planning and organizing chemistry laboratory.

Course Content:

Unit-I (18 hours)

      • Nature and Significance of teaching chemistry

        • Meaning, nature and scope of chemistry.

        • Significance of chemistry in daily life.

      • Aims and Objectives of teaching chemistry

  • Relevance, meaning and need of Objective Based Teaching.

  • General and specific aims of teaching chemistry at senior secondary level.

  • Specific objectives in behavioral terms in chemistry.

Unit-II (22 hours)

    • Planning a lesson

      • Unit Planning.

      • Lesson Planning.

    • Instructional Strategies

  • Lecture cum Demonstration Method.

  • Scientific Method.

  • Laboratory Method.

  • Heuristic Method.

  • Problem Solving Method.

  • Project Method.

Unit-III (12 hours)

    • Role of Information Technology and Audio Visual Aids

      • Use of Audio Visual aids in Chemistry.

      • Computer Assisted Learning in Chemistry.

      • Programmed Instructions.

    • Curriculum

  • Place of Chemistry in School Curriculum.

  • Chemistry as a component of Integrated Science upto Secondary Level.

  • Textbooks in Chemistry: Analysis, Evaluation of textbooks in chemistry.

Unit-IV (12 hours)

    • Evaluation

      • Concept of evaluation.

      • Preparation and administration of an achievement test in Chemistry.

      • Criteria of a good achievement test in Chemistry.

        • The Professional Growth of a Chemistry Teacher

          • Competencies associated with laboratory techniques.

          • Organization of co-curricular activities in chemistry.

          • Maintenance of Chemistry Lab.: Safety, security and preventive measures.

Suggested Readings:

            • Jerry Wellington (1996), Secondary Science Contemporary Issues and Practical Approaches, Routledge London and New York.

            • Mangal, S.K. (1997), Teaching of Science, Arya Book Depot.

            • Newbury, N.F.(1965), The Teaching of Chemistry, 3rd Edition, London: Heinemann Education Books Ltd.

            • Sharma, R.C. (2002), Science Teaching, Dhanpat Rai Publication.

            • Sonders, H.N. (1971), Science Teaching in Senior Secondary Schools, Oxford & IBH Publishing Company.

            • T.N. Ratho & Ravi Prakash (1996), Emerging Trends in Teaching of Chemistry, Kanishka Publishers.

            • Waddington, D.J.(1984), Teaching of School Chemistry, UNESCO.

Course Title: Teaching of Life Sciences
Course Code: 133 Credits - 4

Time Allotted: 64 Hours

MM: 100 (External 75, Internal 25)


The main objectives for teaching of Life Sciences, is to enable the student-teacher to:

  1. Appreciate the broad principles used in Life Science Education.

  2. Critically analyze the Life Science Curriculum as an Integrated area of study.

3. Develop essential teaching skills for practicing Life Science Education.

4. Use various approaches and methods of teaching Life Science.

5. Prepare Unit plans and Lesson Plans in Life Science.

6. Apply various techniques of evaluation to assess students’ learning.

Course Content:

Unit I (10 hours)

  • Nature and Significance of Teaching Life Science

(i) Nature and Scope of Life science.

(ii) Life science as an integrated area of study.

  • Objectives of Teaching of Life Science

  1. Aims & objectives of teaching Life Science at secondary stage.

(ii) Formulation of General and Behavioural objectives

(iii) NCF 2005: Critical study of recommendations on Teaching of Science.

Unit II (10 hours)

  • Life Science Teaching : Aids and Competencies

  • Textbooks, Laboratory manuals and Teachers’ Handbook in Life Science: Need and Relevance for a teacher.

  • Professional Competencies of Life Science Teacher:

Competencies associated with organisation and management of a Life Science laboratory including Techniques and skills in collection, preservation, display and maintenance of the following - Herbarium, Aquarium, Terrarium, Vivarium, Dry and wet specimens, Preparation of Temporary mounts, Student Laboratory Squad or kit improvisation.

  • Organization of Life Science clubs, fairs, excursions, field trips.

Unit III (24 hours) Instructional Planning in Life Science

  • Conceptual Underpinnings: (Clarity on the differences between the under-mentioned categories taking examples from Life Science)

: Fact, Concept, Principle, Theory, Law.

: Approach, Method, Technique, Skill, Strategy.

  • Unit Planning and Lesson Planning

  • Lecture method, Lecture-cum-demonstration, Laboratory method, Problem Solving, Project method.

  • Use of online resources, AV Aids in Curriculum Transaction in a Smart Classroom

Unit IV:

Evaluation in Life-Science (20 hours)

  • Purpose of Evaluation

  • Test types and Construction

  • Qualities of a good (Evaluating instrument) test

  • Observation as a technique of Evaluation (with special emphasis on Peer Observation)

  • Preparation and administration of an achievement test in Life Science

  • Review of Life science curriculum at secondary stage: Parameters and Process.

Suggested Readings:

      • Bremmer, Jean (1967), Teaching Biology, London: Mac Millian.

      • Green, T.C. (1967), The Teaching and Learning Biology, London, Aliman & sons.

      • Heller, R. (1967), New Trends in Biology Teaching, Paris : UNESCO

      • Miller, David, F. (1963), Methods and Materials for Teaching the Biological Sciences, New York, McGraw Hill.

      • NCERT (1969), Improving Instructions in Biology, New Delhi.

      • Novak, J.D. (1970), The Improvement of Biology Teaching Modern Science Teaching, Delhi: Dhanpat Rai & Sons.

      • Nunn, Gordon (1951), Handbook for Science Teachers in Secondary Modern Schools, London: John Murry.

      • Thurber, Walter (1964), Teaching of Science in Toda's Secondary Schools, New Delhi: Prentice Hall.

      • Vaidya, N. (1971), The Impact of Science Teaching, New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publication Co.

      • Voss, Burton F.A. and Bren, S.B., Biology as Inquiry: A Book of Teaching Methods.

      • Waston, N.S. (1967), Teaching Science Creativity in Secondary School, London U.B. Saunders Company.

Course Title: Teaching of Political Science
Course Code: 135 Credits - 4

Time Allotted: 64 Hours

MM: 100 (External 75, Internal 25)

Course Content
Unit-I            (08 hours)


  • Nature of political science, its needs & significance.

  • Objective Based Teaching

Its concept. Objectives of teaching political science, product-process objectives, Long term – short term objectives. Knowledge, skills and value based objectives. Identifying and stating objectives in terms of content and behavior outcomes in learning.

Unit-II            (18 hours) 

  • Learner Centered and Activity Based Teaching

Development of thinking and concept formation, analysis of political processes and events, Mass media and scrapbook approaches to teaching especially current events, investigations and projects in political science. 

(i)                  Text book

(ii)                 Low cost improvised teaching aids

(iii)                Bulletin board

(iv)                Radio, films and television

(v)                 Visits and field studies 

  • Transactional Strategies

(i)                   Preparation of lesson Plan.

(ii)                 Unit plan on a topic from above given areas of enrichment content by stating objectives, developing concepts and contents involved and planning classroom interaction activities of the teacher and the pupils

(iii)                Maintaining the ecology of the classroom. 

Unit-III             (24 hours)

  • Pedagogical analysis of Political Science

    • Classroom interactions, heuristic, discussion, problem solving, role playing, lecture and question-answer, curriculum development and text book evaluation as used in schools.

    • Curriculum evaluation and evaluation of text book.


Unit-IV:    Evaluation in Political Science      (14 hours)

(i)         Comprehensive and continuous evaluation

(ii)        Norm reference and criterion reference tests

(iii)       Evaluation devices – written, open book examination, oral, observation, record.

(iv)       Preparation of a unit tests

(v)        Preparation of an achievement test

(vi)       Remedial Teachings


Suggested Readings:

  • Aggarwal, N. N., et. al. (1978), Principles of Political Science, 6th  Edition. New Delhi: Ram Chand & Co.

  • Ambrose, A. and Mial, A. (1968), Children’s Social Learning, New York: Association for supervision and Curriculum Development.

  • Apter, David, E. (1978), Introduction to Political Analysis, New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.

  • Bining, A.C. (1952), Teaching of Social Studies in Sec. School, New York: McGraw Hill.

  • Burner, Jerome, S. (1971), Towards a Theory of Instruction, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  • Dhanija Neelam (1993), Multimedia Approaches in Teaching Social Studies, New Delhi: Harmen Publishing House.

  • Kochhar, S. K. (1963), The Teaching of Social Studies, Delhi: University Publishers.

  • Wesley, F. B. (1950), Teaching social Studies in High School, Boston: D.C., Health & Co.

  • Buch, M. B. (1969), Improving Instruction in Civics, New Delhi: NCERT.

  • Fenton, Edwin (1967), The New Social Studies, New York: Hlot Rinehart & Winston, Inc.

  • Finer, (1953), Teaching Techniques in Social Studies, New York: Bank Street Publication.

  • Gleeson Denis & Whitty Geoff (1976), Developments in Social Studies Teaching, London: Open Book.

  • Nicholson & Write, Social Studies for Future Citizen, Geoirge Harrap.

  • Verma, S. P. (1975), Modern Political Theory, New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

  • White, F.M., Teaching of Modern Civics, Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

Course Title: Teaching of Economics

Course Code: 137 Credits - 4

Time Allotted: 64 Hours

MM: 100 (External 75, Internal 25)

Course Objectives

  1. To familiarize the student-teachers with various strategies, methods, techniques and skills of teaching Economics at the senior secondary level.

  2. To develop competence in use of appropriate strategy in relation to the content to be taught.

  3. To inculcate spirit of experimentation for finding out effectiveness of alternative strategies of teaching.

  4. To promote reflection on issues pertaining to teaching of Economics.

  5. To develop competence in designing effective instructional strategies to teach Economics.

  6. To develop ability to design, develop; and use various tools & techniques of evaluation.

  7. To develop awareness about syllabus prescribed by different State Boards.

  8. To develop awareness about recent advancements in teaching of Economics.

Course Content:
Unit- I: Introduction to teaching of Economics (10 hours)

  • Aims and objectives of teaching Economics at secondary and senior secondary school level. Instructional objectives of teaching Economics.

  • Integration of Economics with other school subjects – Commerce, Political Science, Geography, History, Mathematics & Sociology.

  • Comparative analysis of prescribed syllabus of CBSE & ICSE.

Unit- II: Instructional Methods & Skills (28 hours)

  • Methods of teaching Economics: - Lecture method, Discussion method, Debate method, Inquiry method, Problem solving method, Survey method, source method, project method, seminar(s) method. Assignment method (principles of giving assignments, types and techniques of framing assignments).

  • Recent advancements in teaching of Economics – Team teaching, Co-operative learning, Computers in teaching of Economics.

  • High Order Thinking Skills: Meaning, Activities to develop High Order Thinking Skills- Collaborative group activities, Problem-solving activities & Questioning for High level thinking.

  • Essential Qualities of a good economics teacher and role of economics teacher in teaching of current affairs.

Unit-III: Instructional Media & Co-curricular Activities (10 hours)

  • Instructional Media: Concept, Importance and types of instructional media and their use in teaching of economics.

  • Co-Curricular Activities: Type, role and significance of co-curricular activities in teaching of Economics.

  • Text Book: Criteria for evaluation of economics textbook.

Unit - IV: Lesson Planning & Evaluation (16 hours)

  • Lesson Planning: - Meaning, Need and preparation of lesson plan according to Herbertian Approach.

  • Evaluation: - Nature of educational evaluation, its need, role in education process. Types of Evaluation [Formative, Summative, Diagnostic].

      • Evaluation procedure for appraising learners’ performance. Planning & preparation of achievement test in Economics, Types of test items.

      • Open book examination, Evaluating project work, Question Bank, Remedial teaching,

      • Recent trends in evaluation – continuous and comprehensive evaluation (CCE).

Suggested Readings:

    • Arora, P.N. (1985). Evaluation in Economics. New Delhi: NCERT.

    • Arora, P.N. And Shorie, J.P. (1986), Open Book Examination Question in Economics, New Delhi, NCERT.

    • Assistant Masters Association (1974), The Teaching of Secondary School Examinations, London Cambridge University Press.

    • Bawa M. S. (ed.) (1998), Source Book on Strategies of Teaching Social Sciences, IASE, Deptt. of Education, Delhi University.

    • Bawa, M. S. (ed.) (1995), Tendering of Economics: Contemporary Methods and Strategies for Secondary and Senior Secondary levels, IASE, Deptt. of Education, Delhi University.

    • Bawa, M. S. (ed.) (1996), Evaluation in Economics, IASE, Deptt. of Education, Delhi University.

    • Chakravorty, S. (1987), Teaching of Economics in India, Bombay, Himalaya Publishing.

    • Hicks, J.R. (1960), The Social Framework- An introduction to Economics, London: Oxford University Press.

    • Hodkinson, Steve, Whitehead and David J. (ed) (1986), Economics Education: Research and Development Issues, London, New York: Longman.

    • Kanwar, B.S. (1973), Teaching of Economics, Ludhiana; Prakash Brothers.

    • Khan, R.S., Teaching Economics (In Hindi), Kota Open University, BE-13.

    • Lee, N. (ed) (1975), Teaching Economics, London: Heinemann Educational Books, Prentice Hall.

    • NCERT (1974), Teaching Units in Economics for High and Higher secondary Stage, New Delhi.

    • Oliver, J. M. (1977), The principles of Teaching Economics within the curriculum, London Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    • Sachs, I, (ed.) (1971), Main trends in Economics Project and Role Playing Economics, London, Macmillan.

    • Siddiqi, M.H. (1998) Teaching of Economics: New Delhi; Ashish Publishing House.

    • Srivastava, H.S. (1976), Unit Tests in Economics, New Delhi, NCERT.

    • Tyagi, S.D. (1973), Teaching of Economics (In Hindi), Agra: Vinod Pustak Bhandar.

    • Whitehead, D. J. (ed.) (1974), Curriculum Development in Economics, London, Heinemann Education Books.


Course Title: Teaching of Geography

Course Code: 139 Credits - 4

Time Allotted: 64 Hours

MM: 100 (External 75, Internal 25)

Course Content:
Unit-I            (10 hours)


(i)           Geography as a study of spatial differentiation

(ii)          Geography as a study of spatial relationship

(iii)         Geography as a study of spatial organization



(i)           Type of objectives

(ii)          Writing specific objectives of geography teaching in behavioral terms.

Unit-II            (24 hours)


(i)          Conceptual learning in Geography

-          Spatial conceptualization – use of cognitive/mental maps

-          Perception and geography learning

  (ii)          Approaches in Geography teaching

–         Expository approach, Story telling and regional method

–         Discovery approach

–         Problem solving approach

–         Project method

(iii)        Individualized instruction


(i)          Preparation of lesson plans

(ii)         Preparation of unit plans

(iii)        Maintaining harmony of the classroom, individual difference, group and individual learning.

(iv)       Teaching aids and designing a geography laboratory



(i)         Excursion

(ii)        Bulletin board

(iii)       Geography club

(iv)       Geography exhibition

(v)        Use of community resources

 Unit-III            (18 hours) 


(i)      Pedagogical analysis of a few units from enrichment content

(ii)        Identification and classification of concepts from the above mentioned unit

(iii)       Development of map reading skills



(i)         Criteria used in the formulation of geography curriculum

(ii)        Guidelines for course construction

(iii)       Geography text book and its evaluation

Unit - IV: EVALUATION         (12 hours) 

(i)         Comprehensive and continuous evaluation

(ii)        Developments of different types of test items.

(iii)       Diagnostic testing and remedial measurement

(iv)       Preparation of one diagnostic test.

(v)        Preparation of achievement test, and analysis and interpretation of test data.

(vi)       Remedial Teaching.

 Suggested Readings:

  • Arrora K. K. (1976), The Teaching of Geography, Jalandhar: Prakash Brothers.

  • Broadman, David (1985), New Directions in Geography Education, London: philadelphia, Fehur Press.

  • Chorely R. J. (1970), Frontiers in Geography Teaching, London: Mathews and Co. Ltd.

  • Dhanija Neelam (1993), Multimedia Approaches in Teaching Social Studies, New Delhi: Harmen Publishing House.

  • Graves N. G. (1982), New Source Book for Geography Teaching, London: Longman the UNESCO press.

  • Hall David (1976), Geography and Geography Teacher, London: Unwin Eduation Books.

  • Huckle J. (1983), Geographical Education Reflection and Acion, London: Oxford University Press.

  • Leong, Goh Chey (1976), Certificate of Human and Physical Geography,  Singapur: Oxford University Press.

  • Morrey D.C. (1972), Basic Geography, London: Hien Manns Edu. Book Ltd.

  • Mohd. Z.U. Alvi (1984), Tadrees Jugrafia, Taraqqui Urdu Board

  • UNESCO, New Source Book for Teaching of Geography.

  • Verma J.P. (1960), Bhugol Adhyhan, Agra: Vinod Pustak Mandir.

  • Verma O. P. (1984), Geography Teaching, N. D: Sterling Publication Pub. Ltd.

  • Walford Rex (1981), Signposts for Geography Teaching, London: Longman.

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