Guide to Referencing and Bibliographies



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Guide to Referencing and Bibliographies
Learning to reference sources (primary, secondary, print, online etc) and create a bibliography is an essential part of studying English at University. The point of referencing is to allow others to locate the exact text, quotation or idea that you have incorporated into your essay. Accurate referencing is key to avoiding plagiarism (the unacknowledged use of others’ words and ideas).
The Department of English recommends the use of the MHRA style guide, freely available online.
http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/index.html
It is worthwhile downloading the full guide as a pdf for free (click on ‘Style Guide pdf’ link in right column of webpage above). Chapter Ten is the most useful but you will benefit greatly by reading the whole thing.
The following is a summary of the information you will need.
Formatting quotes
Quotes of fewer than 30 words or so are included in the body of the essay and surrounded by single quotation marks. For quotes within quotes use double quotation marks.
Veronica Smith claims the author ‘always liked cats’, but also notes ‘she would inevitably scream “Get out!” when the local hamster put in an appearance’.1
Note the comma/full-stop comes after the closing quotation mark.
Longer quotes are indented, after a colon [:] and without quotation marks.
Munro is well known for her ability to set a scene:
Then my father and I walk gradually down a long, shabby sort of street, with

Silverwoods Ice Cream signs standing on the sidewalk, outside tiny, lighted



stores. This is Tuppertown, an old town on Lake Huron, an old grain port.1
The sounds of the lake at night are ever-present in the story.
Note that even if the quote is extracted from a character’s speech (i.e. the whole thing is in a single set of quotation marks in the original) you still don’t need quotation marks around the indented quote. Only use quotation marks within an indented quote (i.e. for quotes within the main quote).
Footnote reference number
Any quoting or paraphrasing of another writer’s work must be footnoted. In Microsoft Word, this is a matter of clicking ‘Insert Footnote’ under the ‘References’ tag. Click so that the number appears after punctuation and ideally at the end of the sentence (if necessary, the footnote itself can contain references to more than one text). Remember this order: end-quotation, punctuation, footnote.
Please use footnotes, not endnotes, for your essays, as these are easier for examiners to consult when marking work online. And via the footnote and endnote options function please ensure footnote numbers are Arabic rather than Roman numerals (i.e. 7 not vii).
First and subsequent references to the same text
The first time you footnote a text you should provide full details as per the information provided below, but the second and subsequent times you footnote the same text, you can abbreviate the information. The author’s surname will do; but if you have cited two works by the same author, also include an abbreviated version of the book/chapter/article title (e.g. Palmer, p. 93 OR Palmer, ‘Victorians’, p. 93).
Please do not use terms such as ibid and op cit.
The first time you refer to a primary text (see section 8 of the Essay Writing Guide), you should provide a footnote reference giving full publication details, followed by the statement: ‘All further references to this edition are given after quotations in the text’. You may then add page numbers or Act and Scene numbers in parentheses as they are required in your essay.
Remember that all footnotes are counted towards your word-count, so abbreviating footnotes reduces their incursion on your word limit.
Format of footnote references
The way you present information about your sources in footnotes varies according to the form of the publication you are referring to (e.g. a single-authored volume, a chapter from a multi-authored volume, an article in a scholarly journal, a website etc.). See below for the footnote templates of the main forms of publication you will refer to.
Hard-copy book by a single author
Author’s full name as given on title page, Title (Place: Publisher, year), p. 1/pp. 5-6
David Newsome, The Victorian World Picture: Perceptions and Introspections in an Age of Change (London: John Murray, 1997), p. 11.
Note: capitalise all main words in the title and subtitle; separate the title and subtitle with a colon; put a space between p. and the page number; and end with a full-stop. When referencing a passage that continues over more than one page, use pp. (e.g. pp. 18-19).
If the publisher is a university press, spell out the name in full, e.g. Oxford University Press (not OUP; Oxford UP).
E-book by a single author
Author’s full name as given on title page, Title (Place: Publisher, year), e-book format, location information
Andrew O’Hagan, The Life and Opinions of Maf the Dog, and of His Friend Marilyn Monroe (London: Faber, 2010), Kindle DX Version, p. 5.
If there is no publisher information available, include the Digital Object Identifier and/or the source of your download.
Andrew O’Hagan, The Life and Opinions of Maf the Dog, and of His Friend Marilyn Monroe [Kindle DX version], p. 5; [accessed 30 March 2012].
If at all possible, include page numbers. This is crucial in guarding against plagiarism. If you press ‘menu’ on your Kindle you can access a page number/and or location number. Please include one of these in your footnotes. If no page or location numbers are available, you should identify the major sections: Chapter, Section, Paragraph (eg Chapter 5, Section 2, para. 5).
Chapter in a book by multiple authors
Author’s full name as given on contents page, ‘Title of Chapter’, in Book Title, ed. by Editor’s full name as given on title page (Place: Publisher, year), full page range of chapter (page where quote appears).
Maria Absolut, ‘Gin, Tonic, and the Raj’, in Elephant Walk: New Essays in Postcolonial Studies, ed. by Gordon Juniper (New York: Routledge, 2001), pp. 6-18 (p. 7).
Note the need for both the full page range of the chapter and the page number of the quote (worth remembering when you are taking notes in the library). If there are up to three editors, give the name of each in full; if more than three, give the full name of the first before adding ‘and others’.
If you subsequently refer to a different chapter in the same book, give the author’s name and title of the chapter in full, but abbreviate information on the book:
Bruce Oz, ‘Beer in the Sun’, in Elephant Walk, ed. by Juniper, pp. 19-25 (p. 21).
Articles in scholarly journal (or ‘series’)
Author’s full name as it appears in the article, ‘Title of Article’, Journal Title, Volume Number.Issue Number (date), page range of whole article (page where quote appears)
John Jackson Finlandia, ‘Vodka: An Illustrated History’, Drinking Studies, 5.7 (1999), 1-10 (p. 3).
Note: placement of commas; use of Arabic numbers for volume and issue (even where the journal itself uses Roman numerals for these features); do not use ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ for the page range of the whole article; do use p. or pp. for the actual page(s) from which your quote is drawn.
If there is no issue number, but a month or season is noted on the journal title page, add this to the year information.
Millicent Maid, ‘“Make Mine Milk”: Drinking in British Schools, 1960-1980’, Journal of Liquid Consumption Studies, 8 (winter 1998), 82-91 (p. 88).
Online versions of articles in scholarly journal (or ‘series’)
If the e-text is formatted the same as the hard-copy version (with page numbers etc.) you may reference it as if you were citing the hard copy. But ideally you should also add the URL (including the protocol—e.g. http—and the date of access) OR the Digital Object Identifier (which is less likely to change, and therefore does not require a date).
The DOI, which is usually in a numerical format, is available on the title page of journal articles sourced via online databases (e.g. JSTOR) along with other metadata.
Beth Palmer, ‘Are the Victorians Still with Us?: Victorian Sensation Fiction and Its Legacies in the Twenty-First Century’, Victorian Studies, 52.1 (2011), 86-94 (p. 92) .
Beth Palmer, ‘Are the Victorians Still with Us?: Victorian Sensation Fiction and Its Legacies in the Twenty-First Century’, Victorian Studies, 52.1 (2011), 86-94 (p. 92) http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/vic/summary/v052/52.1.palmer.html [accessed 10 July 2014].
Website
Author’s name [or Anon. where there is no obvious author], ‘Website Title’, [accessed day month year].
Anon., ‘King’s College London’, [accessed 10 July 2014].
Hardcopy newspaper articles
Author’s name, ‘Title of Article’, Newspaper, date, p. 10
Michael Billington, ‘Richard III: Review’, Guardian, 26 July 2012, p. 6.
Note: punctuation; omit ‘The’ in front of newspaper titles (e.g. put Guardian, Age, New York Times; the one exception is The Times); form of the date (26 July 2012 not July 26th, 2012).
Online newspaper articles
Author’s name, ‘Title of Article’, Newspaper, date [accessed day month year].
Michael Billington, ‘Richard III: Review’, Guardian, 26 July 2012 [accessed 26 July 2012]
Note: punctuation; omit ‘The’ in front of newspaper titles (e.g. put Guardian, Age, New York Times; the one exception is The Times); form of the date (26 July 2012 not July 26th, 2012).
Films
Title, dir. by Director’s name (Production company, date)
The Blue Lagoon, dir. by Randal Kleiser (Columbia Pictures, 1980).
When quoting from a film it is perfectly acceptable to supply your own transcription of a scene or scenes. Put a footnote the first time quote from a film, referencing it as above, followed by ‘Transcriptions mine’.
Lectures
Lecturer, 'Title of Lecture' [Lecture], date delivered, King's College London.
Art Work
Artist, Title of work. [Medium]. Institution or collection that houses the work, city. (Date).
Art Work Online:
Artist, Title of work. [Medium]. Institution or collection that houses the work, city. (Date). [date accessed].
Television or radio broadcasts
‘Title’, Title of series, Broadcaster, Date.
For example:

‘Green Shoots from the Arab Spring’, Analysis, BBC Radio 4, 12 November,

2012.
YouTube Videos
Author or compiler name if available, Title of YouTube video [YouTube video], Organisation responsible, Day/month/year of video [Accessed

Day/month/year].

Bibliography
The bibliography lists all the texts cited—and only those you have cited—in alphabetical order of the author’s/editor’s director’s surname. It should be composed in a similar manner to the footnotes EXCEPT:


  • Surname and first-name are reversed for author/editor, with a comma in between surname and first name. For co-authored or co-edited volumes, only the first name is inverted in this way, e.g. Donovan, Jason, and Kylie Minogue, eds, [etc.]

  • Individual pages are not referenced, but page ranges are given for the entire length of articles in scholarly journals and chapters in multi-authored volumes.

  • If you have referred to several chapters from the same multi-authored book, you can consider simply giving the reference to the book itself under the editor’s name, followed by , ed., (or , eds, if there is more than one editor).

  • There is no full-stop at the end of the citation.

Dickens, Charles, Bleak House (London: Chapman and Hall, 1868) [accessed 26 July 2012]

Finlandia, John Jackson, ‘Vodka: An Illustrated History’, Drinking Studies, 5.7 (1999), 1-10

Juniper, Gordon, ed., Elephant Walk: New Essays in Postcolonial Studies (New York: Routledge, 2001), pp. 6-18

Kleiser, Randal, dir., The Blue Lagoon (Columbia Pictures, 1980)

Maid, Millicent, ‘“Make Mine Milk”: Drinking in British Schools, 1960-1980’, Journal of Liquid Consumption Studies, 8 (winter 1998), 82-91

Newsome, David, The Victorian World Picture: Perceptions and Introspections in an Age of Change (London: John Murray, 1997)

Palmer, Beth, ‘Are the Victorians Still with Us?: Victorian Sensation Fiction and Its Legacies in the Twenty-First Century’, Victorian Studies, 52.1 (2011), 86-94



Todie, Imensa, Royal Animals (Oxford: Sloan University Press, 2011)


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