Guide to Grammar and Writing



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J. Citing Lectures


When a lecture has no title, simply label the resource (lecture, speech, personal communication, letter, etc.) Provide the sponsor of the lecture (hosting institution), place where the lecture took place, and the date.

For the Works Cited Page


Darling, Charles. "The Decadence: The 1890s." Humanities Division Lecture Series. Capital Community College, Hartford. 12 Dec. 1996.

Scroggs, Biff G. Keynote speech. Bushnell Conf. on Dead Baseball Heroes. Bushnell Auditorium, Hartford. 12 May 2003.


In-text Citation


"The gothic element of the French Symboliste movement owes much to the poets' fascination with the stories and poems of Edgar Allan Poe" (Darling).

K. Citing Legal Documents


If you're going to be citing several law cases or other legal documents, The MLA Handbook suggests that you consult A Uniform System of Citation (Cambridge: Harvard Law Rev. Assn.). The following guidelines should suffice for most academic papers, although pre-law students should probably consult the Harvard text.

Do not set off titles of laws or acts with underlines, italics, or quote marks in text or Works Cited, but you may abbreviate titles, with the works cited by sections and the years added if relevant. Notice the abbreviation of "versus" with the single letter abbreviation "v."


For the Works Cited Page


21 US Code. Sec. 1401a. 1988.

Roe v. Wade. No. 70-18. Supreme Ct. of the US. 22 Jan. 1973.

The citation of an act requires the act's name, its Public Law number, the date it was enacted, and its Statutes at Large cataloging number.

Driving a Professor Crazy Act of 1996. Publ. L. 100-418. 14 Nov. 2002. Stat. 99.1496.

In your text, the names of cases (unlike those of laws) are underlined (or italicized), but they're still not underlined in your Works Cited page. In citing a case, use the following format:

Pepin v. Medieval Scholars Soc. of America. 176 USPQ 677. CT Super. Ct. 1996.

(This case would refer the reader to a case decided by the Connecticut Supreme Court and described in the United States Patent Quarterly, page 677 of volume 176.) Although abbreviation is the norm in such citations, make sure there is enough information for your user to find your resource. For listing of similar cases with the same first name, etc., list items in chronological order.

For parenthetical citation, use the case name or title that you've used to create the Works Cited page. If there is more than one listing of similar acts or cases, use the date as well. When citing a familiar historical document, such as the U.S. Constitution, cite the pertinent section parenthetically in your text (US Const., art. 2, sec. 4); no entry in the Works Cited page will be required.


L. Citing Brochures and Pamphlets

For the Works Cited Page


Gufflethwaite, Edward, ed. Finding Your Way Around Nook Farm. Hartford: Mark Twain Press, 1996.

Pamphlets and brochures are usually published without an author's name. Treat them as you would a book.

State-wide Council on Saving Connecticut for Community-Technical Colleges. Community Colleges: Good for Connecticut, Good for You! Hartford: Capital Press, 2000.

Big Apple! New York: Doubleday, 1999.

M. Citing Radio and Television Programs

For the Works Cited Page


Give the title of the episode (if available), the title of the program plus any pertinent information about performers, writers, narrator, director, etc. (depending on your purpose in citing the resource). List the network and the local station and date on which you heard or recorded the broadcast.

Schneider, Pamela. Interview. Seniors: What Keeps Us Going. With Linda Storrow. Natl. Public Radio. WNYC. New York. 11 July 2003.

"The War in Iraq." Fallows, James. Interview. The O'Franken Factor With Al Franken. Air America Radio. WLIB. New York. 11 May 2004.

In-text Citation


Changes in tax structures for citizens on fixed incomes are changing seniors' need to re-enter the workplace (Schneider).

If you cite the transcript of a program instead of the actual broadcast of a program, add the word Transcript to the end of your citation. If your primary purpose in citing a broadcast is to acknowledge the work of an individual (a narrator, say, or a writer), use that person's name and role before the name of the program.


For the Works Cited Page


"Busted by the FBI!" Narr. Morley Safer. Sixty Minutes. CBS. WFSB, Hartford. 14 Feb. 2000. Transcript.

Safer, Morley, writ. "Busted by the FBI!" Sixty Minutes. CBS. WFSB, Hartford. 14 Feb. 2000. Transcript.

The FBI was aware of federal funding going to illegal subsidy programs prior to 1995 ("Busted by the FBI").

N. Citing Sacred Texts


The MLA Handbook does not directly address the matter of quoting from sacred texts. It does contain a list of abbreviated titles (see below) that should be used in the parenthetical citation of books of the Bible, however. This Guide for Writing Research Papers suggests that once it is clear which edition or version of the Bible (or other sacred text) you are using — which you can establish within the text of your paper, within a footnote, or in the Works Cited page (see below) — parenthetical documentation of quoted language from the scriptures needs to include the book, chapter, and verse.

For the Works Cited Page


The Holy Bible. Revised Standard Version. New York: New American Library, 1962.

Holy Qur'an. Trans. M. H. Shakir. Elmhurst, NY: Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an, n.d.

The titles of sacred scriptures are generally neither italicized nor underlined.

In-text Citation


The prophet says that good and bad measures will be dealt by God with a just hand: "For thus says the Lord: Just as I have brought all this great evil upon this people, so I will bring upon them all the good that I promise them" (Jer. 32.42).

"It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards the East and the West, but righteousness is this that one should believe in Allah and the last day and the angels and the Book and the prophets, and give away wealth out of love for Him to the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and the beggars" (al-Baqarah 2:177.4).

If the book of the Bible (or other sacred text) is clear from the context, only the chapter and verse need be cited.

The MLA Handbook suggests the following abbreviations for books of the Bible.



Hebrew Bible

Gen.

Genesis

Exod.

Exodus

Lev.

Leviticus

Num.

Numbers

Deut.

Deuteronomy

Josh.

Joshua

Judg.

Judges

Ruth

Ruth

1 Sam.

1 Samuel

2 Sam.

2 Samuel

1 Kings

1 Kings

2 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chron.

1 Chronicles

2 Chron.

2 Chronicles

Ezra

Ezra

Neh.

Nehemia

Esth.

Esther

Job

Job

Ps.

Psalms

Prov.

Proverbs

Eccles.

Ecclesiastes

Song Sol
(also Cant.)

Song of Solomon
(also Canticles)

Isa.

Isaiah

Jer.

Jeremiah

Lam.

Lamentations

Ezek

Ezekial

Dan.

Daniel

Hos.

Hosea

Joel

Joel

Amos

Amox

Obad.

Obadiah

Jon.

Jonah

Mic.

Micah

Nah.

Nahum

Hab.

Habakkuk

Zeph.

Zephaniah

Hag.

Haggai

Zech.

Zechariah

Mal.

Malachi








New Testament (NT)

Matt.

Matthew

Mark

Mark

Luke

Luke

John

John

Acts

Acts

Rom

Romans

1 Cor.

1 Corinthians

2 Cor.

2 Corinthians

Gal.

Galatians

Eph.

Ephesians

Phil.

Philippians

Col.

Colossians

1 Thess.

1 Thessalonians

2 Thess.

2 Thessalonians

1 Tim.

1 Timothy

2 Tim.

2 Timothy

Tit.

Titus

Philem.

Philemon

Heb.

Hebrews

Jas.

James

1 Pet.

1 Peter

2 Pet.

2 Peter

1 John

1 John

2 John

2 John

3 John

3 John

Jude

Jude

Rev.
(also Apoc.)

Revelation
(also Apocalypse)












O. Citing Separate Works by the Same Author

For the Works Cited Page


Mumford, Lewis. The Highway and the City. Boston: Houghton, 2002.

- - -. Highways Choking our Cities. New York: Prentice, 1967.

Do not use this device of indicating multiple publications by the same author if the author's name is associated with or combined with other authors in the other publications listed on your Works Cited page. (In that case, you would use all the author's names.) Notice that in the parenthetical citation (below), you must now include the title of the piece being used in addition to the author's name. Notice, above, that we alphabetize now according to the first significant word of a title, ignoring "a," "and," and "the." (Note that we ignore "The" in The Highway and the City, above, and "Highway and" precedes "Highways Choking." If the author serves as an editor or translator, put a comma after the three hyphens and indicate the function with the appropriate abbreviation ("ed." or "trans.").

When authors have the same last names, alphabetize by first names. See the special section in this Guide for alphabetizing names.


In-text Citation


The so-called Eisenhower system of interstate highways begun during the 1950s has had disastrous effects on many small towns in America (Mumford, Highways Choking our Cities 186).

P. Citing Information Services (ERIC)


Information services such as the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) and the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) provide enormous databases for information, sometimes in a variety of formats. ERIC resources, for instance, are available through CD-ROM and through a paid online service that your library may subscribe to. Generally, you will treat the reference to these resources like other printed matter, but you will add a reference to the service itself at the end of the entry. If the material you're using was previously published, your reference should include the details of original publication followed by the service's name and the article or report's proper identification number. Be extremely careful in copying the identification number: "being close" doesn't count.

For the Works Cited Page


Darling, Jeffrey. Tutoring in the Children's Hospital Setting. Massachusetts General Hospital In-House Tutoring Rept.8. Cambridge: Harvard Univ., 1997. ERIC ED 123 654.

However, if the material was not previously published, the information service itself is treated as publisher.



Darling, Margaret. Discipline Problems in the Children's Library. ERIC, 1996. ED 321 456.

In-text Citation


"Tutoring in the children's hospital setting requires the talents of both a teacher and a good coach." (Darling, Jeffrey).



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