Guide to Grammar and Writing



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2. Databases on CD-ROM


Libraries often subscribe to databases that provide a wealth of material on CD-ROMs. And many textbooks, nowadays, are accompanied by CDs containing essential and ancillary materials. To cite material accessed from a periodically published database on CD-ROM, use the following models:

For the Works Cited Page
(taken from the MLA Handbook)


Angier, Natalie. "Chemists Learn Why Vegetables are Good for You." New York Times 13 Apr. 1993, late ed.: C1. New York Times Ondisc. CD-ROM. UMI-Proquest. Oct. 1993.

If the material on the CD-ROM does not exist in a printed version, use the following model:

"U.S. Population by Age: Urban and Urbanized Areas." 1990 U.S. Census of Population and Housing. CD-ROM. US Bureau of the Census. 1990.

For a nonperiodical publication on CD-ROM (that is, material that is published one time, without obvious plans for periodic updating):



Poetry Speaks. CD-ROM. Paschen, E. and Rebekah Presson Mosby, eds. Sourcebooks MediaFusion: Naperville, Ill. 2001.

"Albatross." The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. CD-ROM. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1992.

If you cannot find some of the information required for a CD-ROM citation — for example, the city and name of the publisher — cite what is available. If you get access to material through a library's computer terminal and cannot tell if the source is the library's hard drive or a CD-ROM, indicate "Electronic Medium" instead of CD-ROM.

3. EBSCO or other online source of full-text articles


To cite full-text articles appearing in online resources such as EBSCO, Periodicals Abstracts, Newspaper Abstracts, or Health Index, list the name of author (if given), title of article, title of journal (or other kind of resource), volume and issue number, date of publication, number of pages or n. pag (for no pagination), publication medium (Online or CD-ROM), name of the computer network (EBSCO, Periodicals Abstracts, etc.), date of access (the date that you actually discovered the material).

For the Works Cited Page


Heinegg, P. "You Still Can't Get There from Here." America 187.12 (21 Oct. 2002): 26. Online. Gale Database. Contemporary Literary Criticism. Capital Comm Coll Lib, Hartford, CT. 26 May 2004.

Anderson, J. "Keats in Harlem." New Republic 204.14 (8 Apr. 1991): n. pag. Online. EBSCO. Capital Comm Coll Lib, Hartford, CT. 29 December 2003.


In-text Citation


"There are no stylistic pyrotechnics, a la John Updike, no convoluted allegories of ego, a la Philip Roth, just quirky, meandering, anticlimactic narratives with perfect-pitch dialogue about a bunch of ordinary male, female and pre-adolescent losers" (Heinegg).

There are other technologies for storing and retrieving information on the World Wide Web — Gopher, Telnet, FTP, MUDs, MOOs, etc. — but most of those have given way to the graphically superior and cross-platform compatibility of hypertext transfer protocol. However, it is possible, for instance, that your instructor has made selected materials available on a server so that you can only retrieve them by FTP (file transfer protocol). If so, there are special citation methods to indicate your resources, and you should consult the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for those formats — or ask your instructor for help.


H. Citing Interviews


The following Works Cited entries are for the kinds of interviews you see on television or see published in a magazine or journal. If you, as researcher, conduct your own interview, indicate the nature of that interview — Personal interview, Telephone interview, etc. — immediately following the name of the person interviewed:

Robert Redford. Telephone interview. 14 Feb. 2000.

If the published or broadcast interview has a title, use that title (in quotation marks) after the name of the person interviewed.

For the Works Cited Page


Kundera, Milan. Interview. New York Times 18 Jan. 1982, early ed., C1+.

Fallows, James. Interview with Al Franken. The O'Franken Factor, Air America Radio. WLIB, New York. 14 May 2004.

An online interview should indicate the same information as above, but the URL for the interview should be included. The final date in the entry indicates the date the interview was accessed online:

Clinton, Bill. Interview with Biff Scroggs. Plainspeaking. Dec. 1999. 18 Jan. 2000. .


In-text Citation


Redford bases his latest screen persona on Paul Newman's portrayal of the rebellious prisoner in Cool Hand Luke (Redford).

I. Citing Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers

Signed Magazine Article:


To cite a magazine article in a periodical published every month or every two months, use the month and year only (without a comma between them). Do not bother with volume and issue numbers. If the article appears on more than one consecutive page, give the page range.

For the Works Cited Page


Wolkomir, Richard. "Charting the Terrain of Touch." Smithsonian June 2000: 38-48.

If the magazine or journal you've used is published more often than once a month, use the complete date (abbreviating all months except May, June, and July), starting with the date: 17 Dec. 1999. (Use no commas, but use the period after abbreviated month names.) If the page numbers on which an article appears are not sequential, use the first page on which the article appears along with a + sign (with an intervening space afterwards, as in 38+). Your parenthetical citation will indicate for your reader the exact page number of the citation.


Scholarly Journal Article:


When citing an article in a scholarly journal, use the volume and number only if the journal does not number its pages beginning anew with each number. In other words, if volume one ends with page 322 and volume two begins with page 323, do not bother to cite the volume and number when using material from that journal. Omit any articles at the beginning of a journal's name when listing on your Works Cited page. If the article does not appear on sequentially printed pages, use the first page with a plus sign, as in 29+. Your parenthetical citation will indicate the material's exact source.

For the Works Cited Page


Christie, John S. "Fathers and Virgins: Garcia Marquez's Faulknerian Chronicle of a Death Foretold." Latin American Literary Review 13.3 (1993): 21-29.

In-text Citation


"The combination of these large patterns of similarity is particularly useful in examining Chronicle of a Death Foretold since both writers break down narrative authority through innovative use of multiple perspectives" (Christie 22).

For articles with more than one author, handle the authors' names as you would the authors' names from multi-authored books.


Unsigned magazine article:


Begin with the title of the article. When alphabetizing, ignore "a," "an," and "the." If the article appears on only one page, give that page number (without p. or pp. abbreviations); if the article appears on more than one consecutive pages, list the inclusive page numbers (your parenthetical citation will indicate the exact page of your citation).

For the Works Cited Page


"What's a Hoatzin?" Newsweek 27 Sept. 1993: 72-73.

In-text Citation


"Perhaps the most distinctive trait of the hoatzin is its odor. It smells like manure—cow manure, to be precise" ("What's a Hoatzin?" 72).

Signed newspaper article:


Omit an initial "The" in newspaper titles. Notice there are no commas in the date construction.

For the Works Cited Page


Huffstutter, P.J. "Music Rights Get Tangled on the Web." Hartford Courant 31 May 2000, eastern ed.: A1+.

Notice that the "+" indicates that the article is carried over onto subsequent pages (but not necessarily the next page). The exact page of a citation will be indicated parenthetically.


In-text Citation


"Federal law says that when an Internet service provider gets a complaint about a person allegedly breaking copyright law, the ISP must remove that user from its service" (Huffstutter A5).

Unsigned newspaper article:


Nowadays newspapers usually assign a byline for their articles. Sometimes, though, especially when combined wire services are used in the compilation of a story, you will not find an author's name. In that case, use the title of the article as the alphabetizing element.

For the Works Cited Page


"U.S. Troops Capture Chief Aide to Warlord." Hartford Courant 22 Sept. 1993: A5.

In-text Citation


"Somalis consider the middle-aged Atto to be Aidid's No. 2 man" ("U.S. Troops" A5).


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