Guide to Grammar and Writing

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2. Two or more authors:

For the Works Cited Page

Metheny, N.M., and W. D. Snively. Nurses' Handbook of Fluid Balance. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 2003.

Note that only the first author's name is reversed (last name first). Subsequent names are given first-name-first.

Darling, C.W., R.E. Pepin, and L.B. Gates. A History of Used Bookstores in Cambridge, England. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge UP, 1987.

In-text Citation

The ph balance is critical in body-fluid crisis control (Metheny and Snively 15).

3. Four or more authors:

Here you have a choice. You may choose to use only the first name listed on the book's title page, followed by et al., an abbreviation for the Latin phrase et alii , which means "and others." (Do not, however, underline or italicize et al. in your citation.) If you prefer, however, you may list all the authors in the same order as they appear on the book's title page. For a book that has more than four editors, however, use only the name of the first editor listed on the title page followed by et. al.

For the Works Cited Page

Shields, J., et al. Byzantine Intrigue: The History of English Alley. Hartford: Merganser P, 2003.


Shields, J., Darling, C.W., Villa, V.B., and Farbman, E. Byzantine Intrigue: The History of English Alley. Hartford: Merganser P, 2004.

In-text Citation

During the late 1990s, what was already known as English Alley also became known as a hotbed of byzantine intrigue (Shields et al. 170).

4. An Anonymous Book or Corporate Author

For the Works Cited Page

National Boosters of Small Appliances. Hair-Dryer Safety and the Three-Pronged Plug. New York: Booster Press, 2000.

Toilet Training and the Feral Child. Philadelphia: Franklin, 2000.

Do not use "Anonymous" or "Anon" to alphabetize publications without a listed author. Ignore the articles a, an, and the and alphabetize as the two above are listed, "N" coming before "T."

5. Part of a Book

When citing a foreword, introduction, preface, afterword, etc. (Please note the spelling of these words!), begin your citation with the name of the person who wrote the foreword (or whatever it is), then the word Foreword (or whatever it is), not underlined or italicized, followed by the title of the work, its author and the other publication information (including the page numbers that include the piece you are citing):

For the Works Cited Page

Pepin, Ronald E. Foreword. The Saints of Diminished Capacity: Selected Poems, 1972-2000. By Charles Darling. Hartford: Capital Press, 2003. ii-ix.

(If Charles Darling had written his own foreword, only his last name would appear after the word "By.") Use this same pattern for an introduction, preface, or afterword. If the introduction or foreward has an actual title, include that title in quotation marks between the author's name and the word Foreward or Introduction (or whatever):

Pepin, Ronald E. "Excellence: A New Chapter in Post-Modern American Verse." Foreword. The Saints of Diminished Capacity: Selected Poems, 1972-2000. By Charles Darling. Hartford: Capital Press, 2003. ii-ix.

D. Citing Dissertations and Theses

For the Works Cited Page

Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis:

Darling, Charles W. "Giver of Due Regard: The Poetry of Richard Wilbur." Diss. U. of CT, 1977 or Thesis U. of CT, 1977.

Published Dissertation or Thesis:

Darling, Charles W. Giver of Due Regard: The Poetry of Richard Wilbur. Diss. U. of CT, 1977. Hartford: Merganser Press, 1979 or Thesis Hartford: Merganser Press, 1979.

If the dissertation or thesis is published by University Microfilms International (UMI), add the order number (after the period after the year): Ann Arbor: UMI, 1982. 9834456.

In-text Citation

Darling contends that Wilbur's analysis of Poe's stories and poems is critical in understanding Wilbur's own verse (72).

E. Citing Essay or Article in a Collection or Anthology

For the Works Cited Page

Hennessy, Margot C. "Listening to the Secret Mother: Reading J.E.Wideman's Brothers and Keepers." American Women's Autobiography: Fea(s)ts of Memory. Ed. Margo Culley. Madison, WI: U Wisconsin P, 1992. 302-314.

Notice that we do not use "p" or "pp" (abbreviations for "page" and "pages") before listing the page or range of pages in the citation. If the work is a reprint of a previously published article, we can include the complete information for both the original publication and the reprint in the anthology:

Darling, Jayden A. "Wondering about Siblings: A Study of Jealousy's Early Onset." Atlantic Monthly May 2004: 77-98. Rpt. in Contemporary Psychological Studies. Ed. Jeffrey W. Turveydrop. Vol. 44. Madison, WI: U Wisconsin P, 1992. 302-314.

In-text Citation

"Wideman, like the woman autobiographer, has to investigate the silences of culture in order to inscribe the story of his people" (Hennessy 306).

F. Citing Government Documents

More often than not, an author is not listed for government publications. Instead of using an author's name, then, use the name of the office that is responsible for the piece's publication. State the name of the government first. Use the publication information found on the first pages of the document.

For the Works Cited Page

Connecticut. Dept. of Higher Education. Community Colleges. Hartford: State Publishing Office, 1999.

United States. Dept. of Education. Feral Children in American Classrooms. Washington: GPO, 1998.

---. Dept. of Small Appliances. The Effect of Asbestos Use in Hair Dryers. 4 vols. Washington: GPO, 1998.

Note that "Washington" is allowed to stand for "Washington, D.C." in citing federal government publications. GPO stands for Government Printing Office, a common source of federal government publications. HMSO would stand for Her Majesty's Stationery Office, a common source of British government publications (London).

In citing the U.S. Congressional Record, only date and page numbers are required:

Cong. Rec. 9 Mar. 2000: 3240-48.

Congressional publications can include bills, resolutions, reports, and documents. Refer to these documents by number, using S, H or HR for abbreviations (for Senate and House of Representatives, respectively).

For the Works Cited Page

United States. Cong. Subcommittee on Small Appliance Safety. Hearings on the Three-Pronged Plug. 84th Cong., 2nd sess. S. Res. 45. Washington: GPO, 1985.

In-text Citation

The sale of so-called durable goods has lagged behind projected sales of big-ticket items for more than a decade (CT Department of Commerce 72).

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