Governance in Education: Raising Performance

Download 372 Kb.
Size372 Kb.
1   ...   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15

7. Conclusions

The role of good governance in raising education provision performance is important and provides a useful entry point for discussions of policy, programs, and implementation. Considerable work exists on how to design sound education programs – quality of inputs and budget and financial management for example. Much of that knowledge informs countries’ education agendas. However, the challenge of translating those concepts into functioning and effective education systems is a harder and more complicated step. It moves into the realm of political economy to align the interests of different stakeholders, and ensure that they face the appropriate incentives and accountabilities to perform as intended.

The gap between good ideas and evidence-based programs on the one hand, and education performance and outcomes on the other, is often significant. The governance agenda focuses on the elements of implementation, the factors that drive performance and make sound technical designs successful in a public context. In effect, good governance offers tools for the middle-ground between program design and its execution.

This paper provides a definition of good governance in education and a framework for thinking about governance issues as a way of improving performance in the education sector. Performance indicators are proposed that offer the potential for comparison, and whose collection is not overly complex or costly, and that have relevance at the national level as well as at the school level. These indicators, when available, are useful tools for cross-country comparisons and for tracking relative education performance, and provide the context for the discussion of good governance and performance in education.

The crucial elements for good governance and high performance include standards, incentives, information, and accountability, all of which support implementation. The paper reviews budget and financial management issues; examines human resource policies and performance; discusses the issues surrounding informal payments for education services; and briefly summarizes the evidence on corruption perceptions in education. This review of ideas and evidence is intended to contribute to the design of projects, and assessment of options for improving education service delivery performance.

While virtually none of the indicators or evidence applies to all countries, they provide a basis for measuring performance. Experiences from other countries are useful in designing programs or conducting analytic work where performance is an issue. This paper is not meant as a catalogue of the possible but rather as an effort to define and analyze the governance and performance issues in education while realizing that much more work needs to be done to understand how to raise education sector performance.


ADB/OECD (2006), Curbing Corruption in Public Procurement in Asia and the Pacific. Progress and Challenges in 25 Countries, Available at

Alcázar, Lorena, F. Halsey Rogers, Nazmul Chaudhury, Jeffrey Hammer, Michael Kremer, and Karthik Muralidharan (2006), “Why Are Teachers Absent? Probing Service Delivery in Peruvian Primary Schools”, International Journal of Educational Research 45(3): 117-136.

Alderman, Harold H., Jooseop Kim, and Peter F. Orazem (2003), “Design, Evaluation, and Sustainability of Private Schools for the Poor: The Pakistan Urban and Rural Fellowship School Experiments”, Economics of Education Review 22(3) (June): 265–274.

Álvarez, Jesús, Vicente Garcia Moreno & Harry A. Patrinos (2007), “Institutional Effects as Determinants of Learning Outcomes. Exploring State Variations in Mexico”, HDN Policy Research Working Paper 4286. Washington, DC: Human Development Network, World Bank.

Avalos, Beatrice (2000), “Policies for Teacher Education in Developing Countries”, International Journal of Education Research 33(5): 457–474.

Banerjee, Abhijit V. and Esther Dulfo (2006), “Addressing Absence”, Journal of Economic Perspectives 20(1): 117–132.

Banerjee, Abhijit, Rukmini Banerji, Esther Duflo, Rachel Glennerster, Daniel Kenniston, Stuti Khemani, and Marc Shotland (2007), “Can Information Campaigns Raise Awareness and Local Participation in Primary Education?”, Economic and Political Weekly 42(15): 1365–1372.

Barber, Sarah, Frederic Bonnet, and Henk Bekedam (2004), “Formalizing Under-the-Table Payments to Control Out-of-Pocket Hospital Expenditures in Cambodia”, Health Policy and Planning 19(4): 199–208.

Barrera-Osorio, Felipe (2007), “The Impact of Private Provision of Public Education: Empirical Evidence from Bogota's Concession Schools”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4121, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Benveniste, Luis, Jeffery Marshall, and Lucrecia Santibañez (2007), Teaching in Lao PDR, Washington, DC: World Bank and the Ministry of Education Lao PDR.

Bennell, Paul and Kwame Akyeampong (2007), Teacher Motivation in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, Essex, U.K.: Department for International Development.

Bennett, Nicholas (2001), “Corruption in Education Systems in Developing Countries: What It Is Doing to the Young”, Paper presented to the 10th International Anticorruption Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, October 7–11.

Bentaouet Kattan, Raja, and Nicholas Burnett (2004), “User Fees in Primary Education”, Education for All Working Paper 30108, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Bray, Mark (2003), Adverse effects of private supplementary tutoring. Dimensions, Implications and Government Responses, Paris, France: UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning.

Bray, Mark (1999), “The Shadow Education System: Private Tutoring and Its Implications for Planners”, Fundamentals of Education Planning 61. Paris, France: UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning

Bruns, Barbara, Alain Mingat, and Ramahatra Rakotomalala (2003), Achieving Universal Primary Education by 2015: A Chance for Every Child, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Burnett, Nicholas and Rodica Cnobloch (2003), “Public Education on Spending in the CIS-7 Countries: The Hidden Crisis”, Paper presented at the IMF/World Bank Conference on Expenditures, Lucerne, Switzerland, January.

Chapman, David (2005) “Stealing an Education: Corruption in education - Its Nature, Effects, and Remedies”, Sectoral Perspectives on Corruption, Commissioned paper prepared for USAID (through MSI International), Washington DC.

Chaudhury, Nazmul, Jeffrey S. Hammer, Michael R. Kremer, Karthik Muralidharan, and F. Halsey Rogers (2006), “Missing in Action: Teacher and Health Worker Absence in Developing Countries”, Journal of Economic Perspectives 20(1): 91–116.

CMS (2006), “Tracking Corruption in India – 2005. Towards Sustaining Good Governance”, New Delhi: Centre for Media Studies.

Das, Jishnu, Stefan Dercon, James Habyarimana, and Pramila Krishnan. 2005. “Teacher shocks and student learning: Evidence from Zambia.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3602. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Das, Jishnu, Priyanka Pandey, and Tristan Zajonc (2005), “Learning Levels and Gaps in Pakistan”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4067, Washington, DC: World Bank.

De Grauwe, Anton (2005), “Improving the Quality of Education Through School-Based Management: Learning from International Experiences”, International Review of Education 51(4): 269-287.

Dehn, Jan, Ritva Reinikka, and Jakob Svensson (2003), “Survey Tools for Assessing Performance in Service Delivery”, in François Bourguinon and Luiz A. Pereira da Silva (editors), The Impact of Economic Policies on Poverty and Income Distribution: Evaluation Techniques and Tools, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp. 191–212.

Department of Education (2007), Second Social Expenditure Management Project Completion Report, September 2007. Manila: Department of Education.

Di Gropello, Emanuela and Jeffery H. Marshall (2005), “Teacher Effort and Schooling Outcomes in Rural Honduras”, in Emiliana Vegas (editor), Incentives to Improve Teaching: Lessons from Latin America, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Dorotinsky, William and Shilpa Pradhan (2007), “Exploring Corruption in Public Financial Management”, in J. Edgardo Campos and Sanjay Pradhan (editors), The Many Faces of Corruption: Tracking Vulnerabilities at the Sector Level, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Duflo, Esther, Rema Hanna and Stephen Ryan (2007), “Monitoring Works: Getting Teachers to Come to School”, BREAD Working Paper 103, Durham, NC: Bureau for Research and Economic Analysis of Development.

Engberg-Pedersen, Poul, Kai Kaiser, Gregory Kisunko, Inna Kushnarova, and Magnus Lindelow (2005), “Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys: A Stocktaking”, Draft, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Gauthier, Bernard (2006), “PETS-QSDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Stocktaking Study”, Draft, Montreal, QC: Institute of Applied Economics, HEC Montreal.

Gaynor, Cathy (1998), Decentralization of Education: Teacher Management, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Gertler, Paul J., Harry A. Patrinos, and Marta Rubio-Codina (2006), “Empowering Parents to Improve Education: Evidence from Rural Mexico”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3935, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Glewwe, Paul W., Nauman Ilias, and Michael R. Kremer (2003), “Teacher Incentives”, NBER Working Paper 9671, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Göttelman-Duret, Gabriele and Joe Hogan (editors) (1998), The Utilization, Deployment and Management of Teachers in Botswana, Malawi, South Africa and Uganda, Paris, France: UNESCO.

Gunnarsson, Victoria, Peter F. Orazem, Mario A. Sánchez, and Aimee Verdisco (2006), “Does School Decentralization Raise Student Outcomes? Theory and Evidence on the Roles of School Autonomy and Community Participation”, Iowa State University Economics Working Paper 04005, Ames, IA: Iowa State University.

Hallak, Jacques and Muriel Poisson (2007), Corrupt Schools, Corrupt Universities: What Can Be Done? Paris, France: UNESCO, Institute for Educational Planning.

Hallak, Jacques and Muriel Poisson (2001), Ethics and Corruption in Education. Results from the Expert Workshop held at IIEP, Paris 28-29 November. Available at

Hamminger, Leo (2008), “The Power of Data: Enhancing Transparency in the Education Sector in Sierra Leone”, U4 Brief 22, Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute.

IIEP (2006), ”Teacher Motivation, Compensation and Working Conditions”, in Guidebook for Planning Education in Emergencies and Reconstruction, Paris: UNESCO, Institute for International Educational Planning.

IIEP and UNICEF (1994), “Decentralised Management of Primary Education: Bangladesh”, Working Document for Regional Workshop, December 13–21, Kathmandu, Nepal: IIEP and UNICEF.

Jayachandran, Seema (2008), “Incentives to Teach Badly? After-School Tutoring in Developing Countries”, Draft.

Jimenez, Emmanuel Y. and Yasuyuki Sawada (2000), “Do Community-Managed Schools Work? An Evaluation of El Salvador’s EDUCO Program”, World Bank Economic Review 13(3): 415–441.

Kaufmann, Daniel, Aart C. Kraay and Massimo Mastruzzi (2003), “Governance Matters III: Governance Indicators for 1996–2002”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3106, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Kaufmann, Daniel, Aart C. Kraay and Massimo Mastruzzi (2007), “Governance Matters VI: Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators 1996–2006”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4280, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Kellaghan, Thomas and Vincent Greaney (2001), Using Assessment to Improve the Quality of Education, Paris: UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning.

King, Elizabet, M. and Dominique van de Walle (2006), “Girls in Lao PDR: Ethnic Affiliation, Poverty, and Location ,” in Maureen A. Lewis and Marlaine Lockheed (editors), Exclusion, Gender and Education: Case Studies from the Developing World, Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.

King, Elizabeth M. and Berk Özler (2004), “What’s Decentralization Got to Do with Learning? School Autonomy and Student Performance”, Impact Evaluation of Education Reforms Working Paper 9, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Kingdon, Geeta and Mohd Muzammil (forthcoming), “Teacher unions and teacher politics: Implications for Teacher accountability in India”, Draft.

Kingdon, Geeta and Mohd Muzammil (2003), The Political Economy of Education in India. Teacher Politics in Uttar Pradesh, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Kingdon, Geeta and Francis J. Teal (2002), “Does Performance-Related Pay for Teachers Improve Student Performance? Some Evidence from India”, CSAE Working Paper 165, Oxford, England: Centre for the Study of African Economics.

Kremer, Michael R., Nazmul Chaudhury, F. Halsey Rogers, Karthik Muralidharan, and Jeffrey S. Hammer (2005), “Teacher Absence in India: A Snapshot”, Journal of the European Economic Association 3(2–3): 658–667.

Kremer, Michael R. and Daniel Chen (2001), “An Interim Report on a Teacher Attendance Incentive Program in Kenya”, Mimeo, Harvard University.

Kutzin, Joseph, Tilek Meimanaliev, Ainoura Ibraimova, Cheryl Cashin, and Sheila O’Dougherty (2003), “Formalizing Informal Payments in Kyrgyz Hospitals: Evidence from Phased Implementation of Financing Reforms”, Paper presented at the International Health Economics Association Fourth World Congress, San Francisco, California.

Leung, Grace (2005), Textbook Count and Civil Society Participation: Effecting System Reforms in the Department of Education. Makati, the Philippines: Ateneo School of Government.

Lewis, Maureen A. (forthcoming), “Decentralizing Education: Do Communities and Parents Matter?” Draft, Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Lewis, Maureen A. (2006), “Governance and Corruption in Public Health Care Systems”, CGD Working Paper 78, Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.

Lloyd, Cynthia, Cem Mete, and Monica Grant (2007), “Rural Girls in Pakistan: Constraints of Policy and Culture”, in Maureen A. Lewisand Marlaine E. Lockheed (editors), Inexcusable Absence: Why 60 Million Girls Still Aren’t in School and What to Do About It, Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.

MacWilliams, Bryon (2002), “In Georgia, Professors Hand Out Price Lists” Chronicle of Higher Education 11(2): A34.

Mulkeen, Aidan and Dandan Chen (Eds.) (2008), Teacher for Rural Schools. Experiences in Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Uganda, Africa Human Development Series. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Mulkeen, Aidan, David Chapman, Joan DeJaeghere, and Elizabeth Leu (2007), “Recruiting, Retaining, and Retraining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan Africa: Secondary Education in Africa”, World Bank Working Paper No. 99, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Muralidharan, Khartik, and Venkatesh Sundararaman (2008), “Teacher Performance Pay: Experimental Evidence from India,” Draft, University of California at San Diego.

OPCS (2007), “Country Policy and Institutional Assessments (2007), Assessment Questionnaire”, Washington, DC: World Bank Operations Policy and Country Services.

Orazem, Peter, Paul W. Glewwe, and Harry A. Patrinos (2007), “The Benefits and Costs of Alternative Strategies to Improve Educational Outcomes”, Iowa State University Department of Economics Working Paper 07028, Ames, IA: Iowa State University.

OECD (2007), Performance Budgeting in OECD Countries, Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

OSI (2006), Education in a Hidden Marketplace: Monitoring Private Tutoring, New York, NY: Open Society Institute.

Paes de Barros, Ricardo and Rosane Mendonca (1998), “The Impact of Three Institutional Innovations in Brazilian Education”, in William D. Savedoff (editor), Organization Matters: Agency Problems in Health and Education in Latin America, Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.

Patrinos, Harry A. and Ruth Kagia (2007), “Maximizing the Performance of Education Systems: The Case of Teacher Absenteeism”, in J. Edgardo Campos and Sanjay Pradhan (editors), The Many Faces of Corruption: Tracking Vulnerabilities at the Sector Level, Washington, DC: The World Bank, pp. 63–87.

PEFA Secretariat (2005), Public Financial Management. Performance Measurement Framework, Washington, DC: Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Program.

Pritchett, Lant H. and Rinku Murgai (2006), “Teacher Compensation: Whether Decentralization to Local Bodies Can Take India from the Perfect Storm Through Troubled Waters to Clear Sailing”, in Suman Bery, Barry P. Bosworth and Arvind Panagariya (editors), India Policy Forum 2006/07, Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.

PROBE (1999), Public Report on Basic Education in India, Oxford, UK; Oxoford University Press.

Reinikka, Ritva and Jakob Svensson (2005), “Fighting Corruption to Improve Schooling: Evidence from a Newspaper Campaign in Uganda”, Journal of the European Economic Association 3 (2–3): 259–267.

Reinikka, Ritva and Jakob Svensson (2004), “Local Capture: Evidence from a Central Government Transfer Program in Uganda”, Quarterly Journal of Economics 119(2): 679–706.

Reinikka, Ritva and Nathanael Smith (2004), Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys in Education, Paris, France: UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning.

Rivkin, Steven, G., Eric A. Hanushek, and John F. Kain (2005), “Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement”, Econometrica 73(2): 417–458.

Rogers, F. Halsey and Emiliana Vegas (2009), “No More Cutting Class? Reducing Teacher Absenteeism and Providing Incentives for Performance”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4847, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Santibañez, Lucrecia (2008), “Teacher Contracting: Review of the Theory and Evidence Around the World”, Draft, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Sawada, Yasuyuki and Andrew B. Ragatz (2005), “Decentralization of Education, Teacher Behavior and Outcomes: The Case of El Salvador’s EDUCO Program”, in Emiliana Vegas (editor), Incentives to Improve Teaching: Lessons from Latin America, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Savedoff, William D. (2008), “Public Expenditure Tracing Surveys: Planning, Implementation and Uses”, Draft, Washington, DC: Social Insight and World Bank.

Sewell, David (2004), “Lessons on Sequencing Financial Management and Accountability Systems in Decentralized Post-Conflict/Low Capacity Contexts: The Case of Sierra Leone”, PRMPS Working Paper, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Shakil, Sofia (2008), “Pakistan: Governance and Accountability to Improve Education Service Delivery”, Presentation at HD Learning Week, November 12, Washington, DC.

Skoufias Emmanuel and Joseph Shapiro (2006), “Evaluating the Impact of Mexico’s Quality Schools Program: The Pitfalls of Using Nonexperimental Data”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4036, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Thampi, Gopakumar Krishnan (2002), “Corruption in South Asia, Insights and Benchmarks from Citizen Feedback Surveys in Five Countries”, Draft, Berlin, Germany: Transparency International.

SELDI (various years), “Regional Corruption Monitoring in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia and Montenegro”, Draft, Rome, Italy: The Southeast European Legal Development Initiative Secretariat.

Transparency International (2004), Stealing the Future: Corruption in the Classroom: Ten Real World Experiences, Berlin, Germany: Transparency International.

Transparency International (2007), “Corruption in the Education Sector”, Transparency International Working Paper e4, Berlin, Germany: Transparency International.

Umansky, Illana (2005), “A Literature Review of Teacher Quality and Incentives”, in Emiliana Vergas (editor), Incentives to Improve Teaching: Lessons from Latin America, Washington, DC: The World Bank, pp. 21–62.

UNDP (2008), Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in Asia and the Pacific, New Delhi, India: Macmillan India Ltd.

Vegas, Emiliana and Ilana Umansky (2005), “Improving Teaching and Learning Through Effective Incentives: Lessons from Education Reforms in Latin America”, in Emiliana Vergas (editor), Incentives to Improve Teaching: Lessons from Latin America, Washington, DC: The World Bank, pp. 1–20.

Vegas, Emiliana (2002), “School Choice, Student Performance, and Teacher and Student Characteristics: The Chilean Case”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2833, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Wang, Aubrey H., Ashaki B. Coleman, Richard J. Coley, and Richard P. Phelps (2003), Preparing Teachers Around the World: Policy Information Report. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Ware, Glenn, T., Shaun Moss, J. Edgardo Campos, and Gregory P. Noone (2007), “Corruption in Public Procurement. A Perennial Challenge”, in J. Edgardo Campos and Sanjay Pradhan (editors), The Many Faces of Corruption. Tracking Vulnerabilities at the Sector Level, Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank (2003), “Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Grant in the Amount of SDR36.7 Million to the Republic of Kenya For the Free Primary Education Support Project.” Report No. 25651-KE. Washington, DC: World Bank

World Bank (2004a), “Papua New Guinea: Public Expenditure and Service Delivery”, PESD Report, Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank (2004b), “Sierra Leone Public Expenditure Review: From Post-Conflict Recovery to Sustained Growth.” Public Expenditure Review Report 29075-SL, Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank (2004c), World Development Report 2004: Making Services Work for Poor People, Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank (2004d), “International Development Association Program Document for a Proposed Sector Adjustment Credit in the Amount of SDR69.5 Million (US$100 Million Equivalent) to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for an Education Sector Adjustment Credit for the Government of Punjab Province”, Report No. 27528-PK, January 8, Human Development Sector Unit, South Asia Region, World Bank.

World Bank (2005a), “Central America Education Strategy. An Agenda for Action”, World Bank Country Study, Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank (2006), World Development Indicators, Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank. (2007a), What Is School-Based Management?, Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank (2007b), “Honduras Public Expenditure Review 2007, Vol. 1.” Public Expenditure Review Report 39251-HO. Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank (2007c), “Uganda. Fiscal Policy for Growth. Public Expenditure Review 2007. Volume II: Main Report.” Public Expenditure Review Report 40161-UG. Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank (2008), Performance-Informed Budgeting in Latin America. Experiences and Opportunities, Washington, DC: World Bank Public Sector Governance Unit Latin America and the Caribbean.

Wößman, Ludger (2003), “Schooling Resources, Educational Institutions, and Student Performance: The International Evidence”, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 65(2): 117–170.

Governance encompasses multiple aspects. These include the capacity of the government to formulate sound policies, manage resources, and provide services efficiently; the effective processes that allow citizens to select, hold accountable, monitor, and replace government; and the respect of government and citizens for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions. Kaufmann, Kraay, and Mastruzzi (2007) break these down into six specific areas: voice and accountability; government effectiveness; control of corruption; regulatory quality; rule of law; and political stability and absence of violence. Of the six, the first four are directly relevant to good governance in education.

Voice and accountability captures the extent to which a country’s citizens are able to participate in the selection of their government, as well as the extent to which public institutions are held accountable. It allows citizens to express their preferences and be involved in the decision-making processes. This dimension also covers freedom of expression, freedom of association, and the presence of a free media. In education, a system with a high level of accountability, one possessing checks and balances; transparent decision-making; access to information; and effective monitoring and evaluation, can improve resource management, reduce corruption, and enhance public service delivery, and ultimately, improve education quality.

Government effectiveness is reflected in the quality of policy formulation and implementation, the effectiveness of public service delivery, the quality of the civil service, and the degree of policy independence from political pressures. In education, this dimension is concerned with, for example, the efficiency of education systems in areas such as licensing requirements; hiring procedures for teachers and school administrators; and the presence and enforcement of national and local statutes on delivering quality education for all.

Control of corruption captures the extent to which there are checks to ensure that public power is not abused for private gain or that there is no “capture” of the state by elites and private interests. In the education sector, forms of corruption include but are not limited to nepotism; purchasing of posts; irregularities in the procurement of education supplies and facilities; bribery in admission and examination; and teacher absenteeism.

1 Equity in access to education is not discussed in this paper.

2 Ackerman distinguishes accountability from transparency and responsiveness, which have elements of importance but are not substitutes for accountability.

3 At the time of writing, PEFA assessments had been carried out in 100 countries, out of which about 40 assessments are publicly available.

4 The PEFA indicators are rated from A (best) to D with + modifiers, here we have converted them into numerical values for ease of exposition.

5 For access to available PETS by country see Also see Savedoff (2008).

6 High-performing countries are those whose eight-graders performed as well or better than American students on mathematics or science in TIMMS 1999; these countries were Australia, England, Japan, Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Netherlands and Singapore.

7 These are perceptions so attention should mainly be paid to relative rankings rather than magnitude.

8 In Mexico all public school teachers are unionized (Alvarez, Moreno, and Patrinos 2007).

9 In UP, 85 percent of all primary and secondary school teachers working in state-funded schools (government and aided) are unionized based on a survey of 570 teachers in rural primary and secondary schools in five districts in UP conducted by Kingdon and Muzammil (forthcoming). The extent of union influence is reflected in the trend or real wages for teachers; between 1973 and 1996 real wages for teachers grew at an annual rate of 5 percent compared to a real growth rate of 3 percent per year of GDP per capita.

10 PROHECO stands for Proyecto Hondureño de Educación Comunitaria.

11 Indirect costs stem from the opportunity cost of students’ time and the potential loss of human capital due to missed instruction. While estimates of these indirect costs do not currently exist, they are arguably large.

12 In a study of Pakistan, private school teachers were found to be absent 1.8 days per month compared to 3.2 days for public school teachers (Das, Pandey, and Zajonc 2006). Wages of public sector teachers in Uganda are 60 percent higher than those of private sector teachers (World Bank 2007c).

13 A valid day is one in which the start and end of the day photos are separated by at minimum of five hours, and a minimum number of children are shown in both photos.

14 For the sub-sample of students who were not taught by the same teacher over the two years there was no statistically significant relationship between teacher absenteeism and student learning.

15 The sample consisted of a representative sample of 300 rural, government schools with 100 schools in each treatment (individual- and group-based) school and 100 schools in the control group (Muralidharan and Sundararaman 2008).

16 These included Benin, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, Nepal, Colombia, Bosnia, Latvia, Russia, and Egypt.

17 Citizen report card surveys are based on stratified, random sampling to make sure that results are representative of the underlying population.

18 Students in schools that offer private tutoring score approximately 0.1 standard deviations lower on the national secondary exam.

Download 372 Kb.

Share with your friends:
1   ...   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15

The database is protected by copyright © 2020
send message

    Main page