Gifted Honors World History Guided Reading, Chapter 29 The Making of Industrial Society (1760 – 1851) Terms

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Gifted Honors World History

Guided Reading, Chapter 29

The Making of Industrial Society

(1760 – 1851)

  1. “enclosure movement”

  2. “putting-out system”

  3. mass production

  4. division of labor

  5. assembly line

  6. mechanization

  7. interchangeable parts

  8. standardized parts

  9. factory system

  10. Crystal Palace

  11. coke

  12. steam engine

  13. Bessemer Process

  14. business cycles

  15. “laissez-faire”

  16. Utilitarianism

  17. Horizontal organization

  18. capitalism

  19. Industrial Capitalism

  20. “Iron Law of Wages”

  21. Proletariat

  22. zaibatsu

  23. The Communist Manifesto

  24. utopian socialism

  25. monopolies

  26. trusts

  27. cartels

  28. corporation

  29. demographic transition

  30. golondrinas (“swallows”)

Individuals / Peoples

  1. Josiah Wedgwood

  2. Richard Arkwright

  3. Eli Whitney

  4. James Watt

  5. John Kay

  6. Edmund Cartwright

  7. George Stephenson’s

  8. Luddites

  9. Alessandro Volta

  10. Henry Bessemer

  11. Samuel Morse

  12. John D. Rockefeller.

  13. Adam Smith

  14. Karl Marx

  15. Engels

  16. Witte

  17. Karl Benz

  18. Daimler

  19. Henry Ford

  20. Charles Fourier

  21. Thomas Malthus

  22. David Ricardo.


  1. Spinning jenny

  2. water frame

  3. cotton gin

  4. rocket

  5. electric telegraph

Eras / Events:

  1. Industrial Revolution

  2. Agricultural Revolution

  3. the “Hungry Forties”


  1. Factory Act of 1833

  2. Mines Act of 1842

  3. Corn Laws (and their repeal)

Essay Questions—plan to write on these topics:--Don’t for get to get charts.

  • Make a planning for each question, listing the major points you want to discuss.

  • Add the relevant dates and details that will make your essay persuasive and accurate.


  1. Many historians have asserted that the steam engine was the single most important invention of the Industrial Revolution. How did the invention of the steam engine change and impact the economic and technological structures of society?

  2. How did industrialization change urban life? Was it more positive or negative?

  3. Discuss the revolutions in transportation and communication brought about by the Industrial Revolution.

  4. Examine the transition from the more traditional putting-out system to the rise of the factory system. How did each invention lead to other innovations? What would be the economic and social implications of this change? What were the conditions like in these new factories? How different would the worker’s life be from that of his ancestors?


  1. Compare and contrast the various philosophies. Such as those of Smith, Malthus, Ricardo, Bentham, List, Saint-Simon, Fourier and Owen, in relation to laissez-faire capitalism.

  2. Compare and contrast industrialism’s development in Britain with those of different areas of the world discussed in this chapter. (Use Chart 22.1 to help brainstorm your essay.)

  3. Compare and contrast the impact of the Industrial Revolution on different groups of people: the

  1. What was the social cost of the Industrial Revolution?

General Essay Topics

  1. Marx wrote the famous words, “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles” in the Manifesto of the Communist Party. In what ways were these simple words the foundation of his philosophy? Who would eventually win the class struggle?

  2. Thomas Malthus, in his Essay on the Principle of Population, discussed the “constant tendency in all animated life to increase beyond the nourishment prepared for it.” What is the meaning of this statement? Were human beings doomed to overpopulation? Beyond expanding, what else was happening to the population of the industrializing world in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries?

  3. Discuss the population explosion, urbanization, and other demographic factors of the industrial revolution. Discuss the growth of huge industrial cities during the nineteenth century. What would the life of the new urban dweller be like? What would be the implications of this existence?

Chapter 29 Guided Reading and Study Guide

  1. Where did the industrial revolution begin?

  2. What was crucial to industrialization?

  3. What threatened British wool producers.

  4. What did T\the British Calico Acts of 1720 and 1721 do?

  5. What did of the flying shuttle improve?

  6. Cheaper iron was produced after 1709 when British smelters began to use what substance as a fuel?

  7. What was the dominant form of industrial organization by the end of the nineteenth century?

  8. What were the crafts workers who destroyed textile machines called?

  9. In America who owned the petroleum monopoly, Standard Oil Company?

  10. What happened when the fertility rate began a marked decline?

  11. Identify the two classes that Marx and Engels proposed that capitalism divided people into.

  12. According to Marx and Engels what served the purposes of the capitalists because they diverted the workers from their misery?

  13. Who believed that private property should be abolished?

  14. What would cause the “dictatorship of the proletariat,” according to Marx and Engels?

  15. According to the Manifesto of the Communist Party, what had all of human history been a factor of?

  16. By the late nineteenth century, what country led Europe in providing medical insurance and unemployment compensation for workers?

  17. Throughout most of the nineteenth century, how did employers and governments view trade unions?

  18. What reduced the likelihood of a revolution by improving the lives of working people?

  19. Identify the social critic who is often referred to as a utopian socialist.

  20. Identify w the largest city in the world by 1900.

  21. The use of what product increased dramatically in the nineteenth century?

  22. Identify the factors that allowed Great Britain to become the birthplace and leader in the onset of the Industrial Revolution?

  23. Identify the term used to describe the consolidation or cooperation of independent companies in the same business.

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