Deindustrialization of MDCs, industrialization in LDCs—consequences?
Possible Essay Questions:
Describe the industrial revolution (what was it), and how it evolved in the United States? Consider where both light and heavy industry were located in the U.S. and why and the role of Fordism in industry.
What have LDCs done to attract industry to their countries?
Discuss the weaknesses of Foridsm and explain what led to the ‘Crisis of Fordism.’ What replaced Fordism and how has it changed the geography of manufacturing?
What have the outcomes of a post-Fordism, post-industrial society been for the U.S.? What have the outcomes been for Less Developed Countries?
Chapter 11: Agricultural geographies
Origins of civilization
Origins of agriculture—Carl Sauer, independent innovation
Three main hearths of agricultural innovation: Fertile Crescent, Asia, Mesoamerica.
Alfred Crosby, “Columbian Exchange”
Types of agricultural production: subsistence, commercial
Describe the origins of agriculture. Include a mention of what humans were doing pre-agriculture and how agriculture changed human societies.
Describe the types of agricultural production including intensive and extensive forms of commercial and subsistence production.
Describe the changes that come in the second agricultural revolution.
Describe the Green Revolution and its impacts.
Explain how the Gene Revolution differs from previous technological advances in agricultural production. Discuss changes in the who and how of agricultural production as a result, including the rise of agribusiness and industrial farming.
Discuss forms of sustainable agriculture.
Chapter 12: Natural Resources and Environmental Concerns
Garrett Hardin’s first law of ecology
Nonrenewable resources, economic depletion, peak oil (M. King Hubbert).
Renewable energy resources: water (pros/cons), biomass (direct or indirect), solar (pros/cons), wind (pros/cons), geothermal (where?).
Possible Essay Questions:
Explain why most scholars agree that a finite resource, such as oil, will not be completely depleted. Include a discussion of M. King Hubbert’s Peak Oil theory in your essay.
Describe the unevenness in patterns of consumption and production of energy and energy resources.
Discuss the positives and the drawbacks of reliance on fossil fuels as an energy source.
Discuss the potential alternatives to fossil-fuel based energy resources.
What is global warming, how is it linked to energy resources and what global initiatives have attempted to address it?
Chapter 8: Urban Geographies
Explain how American cities developed clear patterns of racial segregation. How does this connect to suburban growth?
Describe the current trends in urbanization and explain the geography of megacities and what makes a city a world city.
What possibilities exist for creating urban areas that are both livable and sustainable?
What is positive and also negative about processes of urban redevelopment and gentrification?