Geography 2: Human Geography Final Exam Study Guide, Fall 2016

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Geography 2: Human Geography Final Exam Study Guide, Fall 2016

Chapter 10: Economic geographies

Primary, secondary, tertiary industries


Staple theory, Mackintosh & Innis

Linkages—forward, backward and demand

Staple theory and scale—local economy shaped by staple, less important at the national, global scale

Impacts of staple economy—Mackintosh vs. Innis

Do staple economies promote industrialization or inhibit it?

Consider example of Australia

Innis—staple economies promote dependency—volatile prices, prices don’t grow much, lack of economic diversification


Secondary—manufacturing, processing, assembly

Heavy vs light industry

Cottage industries

Industrial revolution—changes in technology and growth of capital, now work in factories, urbanization

Geography of industry determined by resources (coal, iron ore)

Industry in the US—New England and the South; Great Lakes

Fordism and Taylorism

Vertical integration


Flexible labor

Deindustrialization of MDCs, industrialization in LDCs—consequences?

Possible Essay Questions:

Describe the industrial revolution (what was it), and how it evolved in the United States? Consider where both light and heavy industry were located in the U.S. and why and the role of Fordism in industry.

What have LDCs done to attract industry to their countries?
Discuss the weaknesses of Foridsm and explain what led to the ‘Crisis of Fordism.’ What replaced Fordism and how has it changed the geography of manufacturing?
What have the outcomes of a post-Fordism, post-industrial society been for the U.S.? What have the outcomes been for Less Developed Countries?
Chapter 11: Agricultural geographies

Domestication, hunter-gatherers

Origins of civilization

Origins of agriculture—Carl Sauer, independent innovation

Three main hearths of agricultural innovation: Fertile Crescent, Asia, Mesoamerica.

Alfred Crosby, “Columbian Exchange”

Types of agricultural production: subsistence, commercial

Intensive subsistence, wet-rice farming (sawah), densely populated areas of tropics, sub-tropics

Extensive subsistence, slash and burn, shifting cultivation, less densely populated areas of tropics, sub-tropics

Pastoralism, nomadic herding

Intensive commercial—luxury items, perishable goods, California.

Commercial dairy/livestock—dry-lot dairies, CAFOs

Extensive commercial—grain

First agricultural revolution

Second agricultural revolution, moldboard plow, horse collar, four course system

Mixed crop and livestock farming

Third agricultural revolution, Green Revolution, Gene Revolution

Agribusiness, horizontal integration, vertical integration, industrial farming

Public health concerns, ethical issues, carbon footprint of livestock production.

Nutrition transition

Sustainable agriculture: contour plowing, strip cropping, no-till farming, crop rotation, precision agriculture, organic agriculture.
Possible Essay Questions:

Describe the origins of agriculture. Include a mention of what humans were doing pre-agriculture and how agriculture changed human societies.

Describe the types of agricultural production including intensive and extensive forms of commercial and subsistence production.
Describe the changes that come in the second agricultural revolution.
Describe the Green Revolution and its impacts.
Explain how the Gene Revolution differs from previous technological advances in agricultural production. Discuss changes in the who and how of agricultural production as a result, including the rise of agribusiness and industrial farming.
Discuss forms of sustainable agriculture.

Chapter 12: Natural Resources and Environmental Concerns

Garrett Hardin’s first law of ecology

Natural capital

Nonrenewable resources, economic depletion, peak oil (M. King Hubbert).

Renewable resources, sustainable yield, ecologically sustainable yield.

Energy resources

Non-renewable energy resources: fossil fuels (oil, coal, natural gas). Pros/Cons of each.

Who produces and who consumes oil, energy resources?

Shale, tar sands

Mountaintop removal


Transboundary pollution

Acid rain

Nuclear energy—pros/cons

Renewable energy resources: water (pros/cons), biomass (direct or indirect), solar (pros/cons), wind (pros/cons), geothermal (where?).
Possible Essay Questions:

Explain why most scholars agree that a finite resource, such as oil, will not be completely depleted. Include a discussion of M. King Hubbert’s Peak Oil theory in your essay.

Describe the unevenness in patterns of consumption and production of energy and energy resources.
Discuss the positives and the drawbacks of reliance on fossil fuels as an energy source.
Discuss the potential alternatives to fossil-fuel based energy resources.
What is global warming, how is it linked to energy resources and what global initiatives have attempted to address it?
Chapter 8: Urban Geographies

Six characteristics of cities

U.S. Census definitions of ‘urban’, MSA, CSA

Megalopolis, Bon-Wash, etc.

Level of urbanization

Rate or urban growth

Three current trends in urbanization


Cities and development, inequality

World city or why not?


Redlining, Blockbusting

Residential segregation

White flight

Urban renewal/urban redevelopment

Eminent domain

Los Angeles’ Bunker Hill

Downtown Oklahoma City


Sustainable cities

Vision Zero

Green roofs

Urban farming


Sprawl and its costs
Possible Essay Questions

Explain how American cities developed clear patterns of racial segregation. How does this connect to suburban growth?

Describe the current trends in urbanization and explain the geography of megacities and what makes a city a world city.
What possibilities exist for creating urban areas that are both livable and sustainable?
What is positive and also negative about processes of urban redevelopment and gentrification?

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