General education – english handout I. Nouns a. Classification of Nouns

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1. When giving a list – “I enjoy reading, writing, and to calculate.” (calculating)
2. Comparison – “I like swimming rather than to hike.” (hiking)
3. With Correlative Conjunctions - What you give to one conjunction should have the same structure with its partner. – “You are either for us or you are against us.” (against us)

1. Stress – emphasis to a syllable in a word (could be seen to vowels (sounds) only) that changes the meaning
Example: Noun – PREsent, Verb - preSENT
2. Intonation – rise and fall of voice (pitch)
a. Rising – Yes/ No Question
b. Falling – Statements, Commands, WH-Questions
3. Juncture – temporary stoppage on words and sentences that presents a different idea
Example: Better go/ naked people don’t mind. Better go naked/ people don’t mind.

Classification of Literature
A. Prose
1. Fiction – imaginative, not true, fantasy
a. Short story – story with one plot
b. Novels – long story with many plots, divided into chapters
c. Legends – story of origin
d. Fables – story with animals
2. Non-Fiction – reality, truth
a. Biography – life of a person
b. Essay – viewpoint of writer about an issue
c. Play – divided into acts, played on stage (may be fiction as well)
B. Poetry
1. Narrative – tells a story in poetic form
a. Epic – supernatural, adventure of a hero
- Gilgamesh – Oldest Epic (Mesopotamia)
- Beowulf – England
- Illad and Odyssey – Greece (Homer)
- Biag Ni Lam-Ang – Ilocos
- Hudhud at Alim – Ifugao
- Bidasari - Mindanao
b. Tale – imaginative narrative (fairy tales)
c. Ballad – Narrative song to be sung (single incident)
2. Lyric – emotional and subjective response to experience (meant to be sung before)
a. Folk Song – Awiting Bayan
b. Sonnet – 14 liner poem about love
c. Elegy – poem fo the dead
d. Ode – poem to praise someone , noble feelings
e. Psalms – worship
f. Awit – intended to be sung (guitar/ banduria) 12 syllables
g. Korido – intended to be recited (martial beat) 8 syllables
3. Dramatic – tells through a character / first person POV
a. Comedy – happy ending (amusing)
b. Tragedy – sad ending (struggling)

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