General education – english handout I. Nouns a. Classification of Nouns



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1.GENERAL EDUCATION-ENGLISH
hm-47-owner-agent-agreement-8-08


GENERAL EDUCATION – ENGLISH HANDOUT

I. Nouns
a. Classification of Nouns
1. Common vs Proper

Common = general terms

citizen, country, teacher

Proper = specific nouns

American, USA, Mr.Carlson

2. Concrete vs Abstract



Concrete = perceivable

flower, chicken, car

Abstract = feelings & concepts

love, hate, justice, time

3. Countable vs Uncountable



Countable = has plural form; can be counted

bike, leaf, car, country

Abstract = has no plural form; can’t be counted

freedom, milk, water, rice

4. Compound =made with two or more words



Open/ Spaced

bus stop, tennis shoe

Closed/Solid

breakfast, blackboard

Hyphenated

mother-in-law, check-out

5. Collective Nouns = refer to a group of something


Examples: army, band, flock, pride, school, fleet


b. Functions of Nouns

Subject = a noun partnered with a predicate verb

Joe eats meatballs.
There is a dog outside!

Object of Preposition = noun that follows a preposition

...into the woods.
...with the teachers.

Direct Object = noun that answers “whom” or “what” after an action verb

Joe eats meatballs.
Some men called Joe a hero.

Indirect Object = noun that answers “to whom/what” after an action verb

Joe gave Jane a bracelet.
Jane taught kids at school.

Subject Complement = renames the subject; comes after a linking verb

Jane is a teacher.
Joe is a pleaser.

Objective Complement = renames or describes the direct object.

Some men called Joe a hero.
He considers Jane the best teacher.

Appositive = renames another noun next to it and is set off by a comma

Joe, our hero, likes Jane.
Jane, our teacher, doesn’t like Joe.


II. Adjectives
a. Order of Adjectives


b. Degrees of Comparison
Adjectives change in form when they show comparison.
Positive Degree: An adjective is said to be in the positive degree when there is no comparison.
Comparative Degree: An adjective is said to be in the comparative degree when it is used to compare two nouns/pronouns.
Superlative Degree: An adjective is in superlative degree when it is used to compare more than two nouns/pronouns. We use the article 'the' before the superlative degrees.




Positive

Comparative

Superlative

One syllable

nice

nicer

nicest

Three+ syllables

fantastic

more fantastic

most fantastic

Irregular Adjectives

bad
good
little
much

worse
better
less
more

worst
best
least
most


III. Subject-Verb Agreement
Subjects and verbs must AGREE with one another in number (singular or plural). Thus, if a subject is singular, its verb must also be singular; if a subject is plural, its verb must also be plural.
RULES:
1. A phrase or clause between subject and verb does not change the number of the subject. The teacher who handles three subjects looks very tired.
2. Singular indefinite pronoun subjects take singular verbs. (one, anyone, everyone, no one, someone, anybody, everybody, nobody, somebody, another, the other, either, neither, each) Plural indefinite pronoun subjects take plural verbs. PLURAL: several, few, both, many Some indefinite pronouns may be either singular or plural: with uncountable, use singular; with countable, use plural.
3. Compound subjects joined by and are always plural.
4. With compound subjects joined by or/nor, the verb agrees with the subject nearer to it.
5. Inverted Subjects must agree with the verb.
6. Collective Nouns (group, jury, crowd, team, etc.) may be singular or plural, depending on meaning.
7. With one of those ________ who, use a plural verb; With the only one of those ________who, use a singular verb.
8. With every ______ and many a ________, use a singular verb.
9. With the number of _______, use a singular verb; With a number of _______, use a plural verb.


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