Required Text: Newman, B. M., & Newman P. R. (2006). Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach. 9th Edition. California: Brooks/Cole Publishing.
Required Syllabus Book Fee: $2.00 (due by February 9, 2007)
The objective of this course is to introduce students to the study of human development from conception through old age. The course will highlight a psychosocial framework that emphasizes the role of genetic, maturational, societal, and self-directed factors in development.
Students are expected to read the required assignments and participate in discussions of the readings. Assignments related to topics under discussion will be given throughout the course. The completion of these assignments will constitute 20% of the final grade. There will be 4 exams worth 20% each. Dates for these exams are listed on the course outline but may be changed at any time. Therefore, class attendance is crucial. Make-up exams will given only with prior approval and must be taken within one week of the original exam date.
Notes The last day to withdraw from this class with a grade of W is March 20, 2007.
Attendance will be taken at each class meeting.
No assignments will be accepted via email.
Please turn pagers and cellular phones to the silent or vibrate position during the class period. Electronic interruptions during class will result in a 5-point deduction of grade after the first warning.
Foul language (cursing) is unacceptable and will not be tolerated during class.
Grades are assigned according to the following scale:
A (96-100%) C+ (76-79%)
A- (90-95%) C (70-75%)
B+ (87-89%) D (60-69%)
B (84-86%) F (below 60%)
Following is a tentative schedule for the chapters to be covered, assignments and exam dates. If it becomes necessary to change these dates an announcement will be made in class. This outline may be changed at any time so class attendance is crucial. Week 1 Jan 19 Introduction and Overview of Class
2. At what point did you know you were growing up?
3. Complete the sentence: "The most difficult period of my
life was between the ages of _________ and ___________."
4. Complete the sentence: "One aspect of aging I look forward to is…and one aspect of aging I dread is…”
Take-Home Assignment 1 –
Absolutely No Late Assignments Can Be Accepted
Due: February 2, 2007
Refer to chart in book
The basic tenet of the psychosocial theory is that development occurs throughout life in a series of stages. Refer to the chart in the book. Based on your age, which stage of development does the theory predict you are currently facing? You may feel that the previous stage or the stage following better reflects your current life situation.
In 1½ to 2 double-spaced typed pages, discuss your stage of psychosocial development by addressing the following questions. 1. Where does the theory place you in the life stages?
2. Do you believe that there is a close fit between the developmental tasks and psychosocial crisis and your current life circumstances? (It may be helpful to turn to the relevant chapter and briefly review the tasks and crisis.) 3. If so, briefly discuss them. If not, what stage better addresses your life stage?
Remember that the ages in the theory are not set in stone. However, the stages are sequential; it is not possible to skip a stage. All stages influence those that follow.
*****No late papers will be accepted. All papers must be typed with your name in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. Please use standard white paper and black print and use 12pt. font. Please do not use binders, cover pages, or covers of any kind. Please staple multiple pages in the upper left-hand corner.***** In Class Assignment 1
Discuss psychosocial factors [biological (somatic) system, psychological (ego) system, and societal system] that are likely to impact the woman described below. As a group, list as many factors for each system as possible. Finally, decide as a group if the woman described would most likely choose to give birth or abort the pregnancy. Keep notes of the decisions made by the group. You will need this information as we move through the stages of the child.
Married, planned pregnancy, she and husband are both high powered attorneys hoping to become partners at the law firm, own their home, she sees her family physician regularly
Single college student, planned to attend medical school, works part time, does not have a good relationship with the father of the baby and does not know where he is, lives with her parents, no medical coverage
Unhappily married in an abusive relationship, has 3 children, pregnancy unplanned, lives several hundred miles from other family members and has no close friends.
In-class assignment 2
Infancy and Attachment
One of the major developmental tasks in infancy is the development of social attachments. This attachment is usually formed with the primary caregiver. In the following scenarios we will assume that the primary caregiver is the mother although attachments can and often are formed with other people who perform a large portion of the child-care activities and who show warmth and affection for the child. As we have discussed, attachment is affected by what the baby and mother do and how they respond to each other. Because of this, different types of attachments are formed based on how the mother responds to the baby and ultimately how the baby reacts to the mother. The attachments formed can be secure, avoidant, or ambivalent (resistant).
Now, refer back to the life circumstances of Karen, Susan, and Mary and focus primarily on the woman discussed by your group. We have already decided that all three women will decide to carry their pregnancies to term and raise their children themselves. However, given their different circumstances and ego systems, it is possible, though not definite, that different types of attachments will develop for the three women.
Karen - happily married, she and husband are lawyers, she is healthy, has a family physician, has planned her pregnancy.
Susan - single college student, works part time, does not have a good relationship with the father of the baby and does not know where he is, lives with her parents. Mary - unhappily married in an abusive relationship, has 3 children, pregnancy unplanned. Based on the discussions you had about one of these three women and the possible ego systems in effect for each, what is your prediction about the type of attachment that we can expect with the mother and child? What support systems do you anticipate the woman will have? What obstacles will the child have to overcome as he/she faces the psychosocial crisis of trust versus mistrust?
Keep notes of the decisions made by the group. You will need this information as we move through the stages of the child. Lifespan Development
Take-Home Assignment 2 – Absolutely No Late Assignments Can Be Accepted
Due: February 23, 2007 You have a choice between 2 assignments. Read the descriptions of the two assignments carefully before making a decision. No late papers accepted. Option 1 - Using the Internet: Applying Piaget’s Theory
INTRODUCTION: This activity deals with Piaget’s view of intelligence. It will provide you with an in-depth understanding of the stages of cognitive development as outlined in his theory of cognitive growth.
INSTRUCTIONS: Using an Internet browser, locate the web address:
http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html Once the Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development page loads, read through the summary of his key ideas provided at this site.
When you are done, click on the link to specific examples at the bottom of the page (just before the references) for an overview of ways that Piagetian concepts can be translated into classroom settings. The left side of the chart describes what should be done to explain a new concept and the right side of the chart gives some examples of how that can be accomplished. Focus your attention on Teaching the Preoperational Child (Preschool and Early Childhood). Using the suggestions in this section, design one specific classroom exercise that a preschool teacher could use to teach a concept to his or her students. In your lesson plan write-up, list the following:
1. The key objective of the exercise. (What do you plan to teach? For example, the alphabet, identifying words, number sequence, a simple science concept such as plants and flowers, good manners, etc. Be specific about what you want the students to learn from the lesson)
2. The materials that will be required. (Are there props, pictures, objects to manipulate, paper and crayons? Be specific)
3. A detailed explanation of how to conduct the exercise in a classroom setting. (Exactly what will the teacher do during the lesson? Be specific)
This assignment should be typed, double-spaced, with your name in the upper left-hand corner of the first page.
Take-Home Assignment 2 (No late assignments accepted)
Option 2 - Conservation of Liquids
Due: February 23, 2007 In this assignment you will conduct a very simple experiment; a test of conservation using children who are currently in Piaget's stage of preoperational thought which begins in toddlerhood and goes into middle childhood (approximately 2-6 or 7 years of age). Preoperational children tend to centrate: they focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others, often coming to illogical conclusions. They cannot decenter, or think simultaneously about several aspects of a situation.
A classic example is Piaget's most famous experiment. He designed it to test children's development of conservation - the awareness that two things that are equal remain so if their shape is altered so long as nothing is added or taken away. He found that children do not fully understand this principle until the stage of concrete operations, normally in middle childhood. Your task is to show a child (4-6 years old) two identical clear glasses, both short and wide and holding the same amount of water or juice. Then pour the water from one glass into a third taller, thinner glass. Now ask the child whether both glasses contain the same amount of water, or whether one contains more. Wait for the child to answer (most likely he/she will say that the tall glass has more water). Then ask the child why he/she answered the way they did. Then pour the water from the tall glass back into the short glass and ask the child whether the glasses now have the same amount of water (if the child is truly preoperational he/she will say they are equal again).
1. Record the child's age.
2. Record exactly what you ask the child.
3. Record the child's exact answers to your questions.
4. Answer the question: Is the child in the stage of preoperational thought? What leads you to draw this conclusion?
Limit your paper to 1 - 2 double-spaced typed pages. Place your name in the upper left-hand corner of the page. Staple multiple pages in the left-hand corner. Note:
At no time should you laugh at or in any way make the child feel as if he/she is doing or saying anything wrong. Always be encouraging and supportive of the child's response (use good, that's good, you did a good job often). Besides, the child's responses are correct for his/her stage of cognitive development.
Take-Home Assignment 3 –
Absolutely No Late Assignments Can Be Accepted
Due: March 23, 2007 Erikson described the period of free experimentation before a final identity is achieved as psychosocial moratorium. This moratorium allows individuals freedom from the daily expectations for role performance. This allows for a time of experimentation with new roles, values, and belief systems before identity achievement is reached. You are to write a short "What if" paper focusing on what you would do if you had no obligations and received a two-year fellowship to follow any path or pursue any goals you wished. How would you spend this period of psychosocial moratorium? Would you experiment with roles different from those you are currently play? Are you currently in a period of psychosocial moratorium? If so, what roles are you experimenting with now?
The paper should be 1½ to 2 double-spaced typed pages and clearly describe how your identity achievement would be different from what it is now, if at all. Remember to write you name in the upper left-hand corner of the first page and staple multiple pages in the left-hand corner. Use white paper, black ink, and 12pt. font size.
No late papers accepted.
Take-Home Portion of Exam 4
Group Assignment (Groups will be created curing the first class meeting)
Due on May 4, 2007 No late exams will be accepted. Each group member must be present during group meetings to receive full credit. Each part of the assignment constitutes 15% (total 30%) of your grade on exam 4. Type all essays using double spacing. Do not use binders or covers. Place each group member’s name in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. Use 1-inch margins on all sides of the paper. Please use standard white paper and black ink and a standard 12pt. font. Staple multiple pages in the upper left-hand corner. Part 1 – Applying Psychosocial Theory to popular culture.
Source: CD by Five For Fighting, The Battle for Everything,
Track 4, 100 Years The details for this assignment will be distributed in class.
Part 2 – Website: http://www.infinityplus.co.uk/stories/donysidro.htm By the week of March 12, 2007, go to the website listed above and read the short story Don Ysidro. Your individual assignment is to summarize the story. Your summary should be about ½ page long. Type your summary and bring to class to place in the group folder by April 18, 2007. Groups will meet to apply psychosocial theory to the story. The focus will be on the last three stages of development (middle adulthood, later adulthood, and very old age). The major focus should be on generativity and immortality. Group members will develop a group essay together. Each group will choose one person to type the group essay. We will discuss details in class _________________________________________________________________________________
Grading will be based on how clearly and accurately you present your ideas in the essays. Assume that you are writing this essay for someone who has no experience with psychosocial theory, so explain the psychosocial terminology clearly. Be sure to explain and/or give examples of the points you make when necessary. Be sure to provide enough information to support any conclusions you draw about the child’s development in Part 1 and the short story in Part 2. Remember that wordiness does not necessarily make a good essay.
Lifespan Developmental Psychology
Review - Exam I
Following are a few questions that you can use to help prepare for the exam. These questions are not exhaustive of all of the material we covered. This is intended to serve as a study aid only. Please refer to your notes and the relevant areas in the text as you prepare for the exam.
Which of the following is an assumption of the text? (Be sure to review the Newman and Newman assumptions in the text)
a. psychological growth occurs only up to age 25.
b. individual lives show continuity and change over the lifespan.
c. it is best to study each element of human behavior separately
rather than trying to look at interrelationships between systems.
d. the environment is more important than heredity in determining
According to the psychosocial theory, what are the major systems that interact to produce human experience?
a. somatic (biological), ego (psychological), and societal systems
b. democratic, capitalist, and egalitarian systems
c. fantasy, reasoning, and communication systems
d. (somatic) biological, physiological, and metabolic systems
3. Which of the following is a component of the societal system?
a. reasoning b. cultural myths c. reality testing d. motor skills 4. In the case of Rose, a change in social relationships leads to which of the following?
a. being rejected by her children b. physical symptoms
c. self-insight d. self-acceptance
5. Which of the following best defines a longitudinal design?
a. a study that compares people of different ages at one time.
b. a study that follows a group of people over a number of years.
c. a study that follows a group of people of different ages over a period of time.
d. a study that looks back in time to an earlier period of a person's life.
6. Which of the following is a special focus of psychosocial theory?
a. it addresses stability across the life span rather than change.
b. it focuses on the individual, not on society.
c. it addresses new changes from infancy through old age.
d. it attributes development primarily to unconscious forces.
7. Which of the following is not a central concept of psychosocial theory?
a. stages of development b. functional autonomy of motives
c. coping d. psychosocial crisis
8. Which of the following terms refers to the tension between the person's competencies and societal demands at each stage of life?
a. core pathology b. developmental task
c. psychosocial crisis d. critical period
9. What is one assumption of Freud's psychoanalytic theory?
a. all behavior is a product of chance.
b. all behavior is motivated
c. all behavior is a product of reinforcement
d. all behavior is a product of personal aspirations
10. Bob has recently lost his job. After a few days of feeling discouraged and angry about it, Bob decides to visit a career counselor. He goes to the library and borrows some books on emerging career opportunities. He talks to some people who also lost their jobs and finds out how they got started in a new field. Which term best summarizes Bob's efforts?
a. coping behavior b. stagnation
c. identity formation d. radius of significant others
Which is the psychosexual stage in which the conflict focuses on the subordination of the child’s will to the
demands of the culture for appropriate toilet habits?
a. genital b. phallic c. anal d. oral 12. One of the basic assumptions of Piaget's theory of cognitive development is that organisms strive to achieve ______.
a. concrete operational thought b. metacognition
c. psychosocial tasks d. equilibrium
13. During which stage do the Oedipal and Electra conflicts occur?
a. genital b. latency c. phallic d. anal 14. In cognitive developmental theory, adaptation is viewed as a product of two complimentary processes. They are
a. fixation and denial b. stimulus and response
c. reward and punishment d. assimilation and accommodation
15. How does a father's presence during labor and delivery affect childbirth?
a. labor and delivery take longer
b. mothers are more self-conscious
c. mothers have shorter labor when fathers are present
d. fathers' presence has not systematic impact on the length of labor
16. Which of the following is an example of a cultural attitude of shame toward pregnancy?
17. Which of the following describes the embryo during the early weeks of gestation (3-4 weeks)?
a. insensitive to disruptive influences of teratogens
b. almost ten inches long
c. particularly sensitive to disruptive influences of teratogens
d. responsive to light.
Questions to consider.
1. What can happen in a person's development if a psychosocial crisis is resolved toward the negative pole?
2. Considering Rose, Mary, Susan, and Karen, how do the three systems (ego, somatic, and societal) interact?
Review - Exam 2
For each stage of development be able to identify the psychosocial crisis, central process, prime adaptive ego quality, and the core pathology.
Chpt. 6. Infancy
1. Which of the following sensory/motor systems is LEAST well developed in newborns?
a. vision b. hearing
c. taste d. voluntary motor activity
2. Jean Piaget described the period from birth to 2 as the stage of ______________.
a. sensorimotor intelligence b. Oedipal conflict
c. initiative versus guilt d. preoperational thought
As infants approach an unfamiliar person, they look to their mother and use her facial expressions as a source of information about the situation. Under these conditions, the mother serves as a(n) _________________.
4. What are the characteristics of the mother and child for the three types of attachment?
5. By what age do children show object permanance?
Chpt. 7. Toddlerhood 1. Children begin toddlerhood with uncoordinated hesitant movement skills and
a. remain this way until the next stage of development
b. make amazing accomplishments in acquiring coordination and complex
When a person decides whether something is morally right or wrong based on how individuals in positions of
authority view it, the person is said to be at which level of moral reasoning?
a. preconventional b. conventional
c. postconventional d. unconventional
4. A person's evaluation about his or her own worthiness is called
a. self-esteem b. egocentrism c. self theory d. dissonance
5. What is the psychosocial crisis of early school age
a. trust versus mistrust b. initiative versus guilt
c. industry versus inferiority d. autonomy versus shame and doubt
True or false
One's level of self-esteem is associated with the willingness to take risks and one's expectations about success or failure.
Questions to consider.
1. What are two characteristics of children who have well-developed pretending skills?
2. What are three ways toddlers can use language to help them manage their impulses.
3. What are the four elements of understanding gender as a concept?
Lifespan Developmental Psychology
Review - Exam 3
Following is a list of review questions that may help you prepare for the exam.
1. What factors influence a middle school age child's self-evaluation?
2. Compare/contrast physical maturation between girls and boys and the effects of early and late maturation.
What are characteristics of formal operational thought and what factors contribute to its development?
4. What are characteristics of adolescent emotional development?
5. What factors influence sexual activity in males and females?
6. What are the possible identity developments?
7. What is psychosocial moratorium?
8. What factors contribute to autonomy from parents?
9. What factors influence sex-role identity and how does it contribute to career choice?
10. What role do discipline styles have in a middle school aged child's ability to form friendships?
11. Be familiar with the psychosocial crisis, central process, adaptive ego quality, and core pathology for each stage.
12. What are 5 ways which parents influence a child's reading achievement?
Lifespan Developmental Psychology
Review Exam 4
Following are a few questions that you can use to help prepare for the exam. These questions are not exhaustive of all of the material we covered. Please refer to your notes and the relevant areas in the text as you prepare for the exam. 1. What are the ego qualities that have led to the ability to resolve the crisis in middle adulthood in favor of generativity?
2. Compare and contrast the psychosocial stages of middle and later adulthood. What skills (tasks) are important in both period for successful development, and what skills are relatively unique to each stage for successful development? What characteristics of behavior in the former must change in order to develop successfully in the latter?
3. Suppose a large proportion of older adults in a society fail to achieve a sense of integrity, and instead close their lives in a state of despair. What would be the implications of this outcome for individuals in earlier life stages?
4. What is the relationship between health and intellectual ability?
5. Describe an ideal environment that would prevent the deterioration of cognitive abilities and would optimize cognitive functioning in later adulthood.
6. What is the relationship between perception of age and life satisfaction?
7. Explain how one's point of view about death is likely to change from toddlerhood through later life.
8. What is social support and how does it contribute to the health and well being of very old adults?
9. What factors predict physical functioning in the very old?
10. Your successful, well-rounded, satisfied 94-year-old grandfather heard that you were taking a course on lifespan development. He calls you on the phone and wants you to tell him about development; specifically all those factors which have led him to where he is today. How would you explain development from a psychosocial perspective making sure to include a discussion of how each stage is dependent on the resolution of the previous psychosocial crisis? Take a few minutes and describe development according to Newman and Newman.