Foreword try out these riddles and see if you can answer the



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RULES FOR APOSTROPHES

N.B every correct sentence in the grids is worth one point.

1. An apostrophe can take the place of one letter. These are called contractions.



contraction put into a sentence contraction put into a sentence

all’s

All is not well.

isn’t

He is not wise.

can’t

I cannot stand up.

they’re

They are not kind.

couldn’t

I could not stop.

wasn’t

I was not there.

didn’t

I did not do it.

we’re

We are not doing it.

doesn’t

He does not care.

wouldn’t

I would not mind.

I’m

I am not afraid.

you’re

You are not going.

2. An apostrophe can take the place of more than one letter. These are called contractions.

contraction put into a sentence contraction put into a sentence

he’d

He would be a great scholar.

she’ll

She will not be leaving soon.

he’ll

He will be a super parent.

they’d

They would be great parents.

I’d

I would be happy to do it.

they’ll

They will be here soon.

I’ll

I will be there presently.

we’ll

We will vote for you.

I’ve

I have no idea.

who’ve

Who have you seen?

shan’t

I shall not be going.

you’ll

You will be a success.

3. An apostrophe is used to show possession of one thing. This is called singular possession.

singular possession explaining the sentence (one forest etc.)



The forests lake was mirror-silver.

The lake in the forest was mirror-silver.

The mountains peak was heaven swept.

The peak of the mountain was heaven swept.

The moons rays were like lasers.

The rays of the moon were like lasers.

The stars light was brilliant.

The light of the stars was brilliant.

The suns glow was radiant.

The glow of the sun was radiant.

The valleys colour was mint-green.

The colour of the valley was mint-green.

4. An apostrophe is used to show possession of many things. This is called plural possession. When this happens, it comes at the end of the word.

singular possession plural plural possession (more than one forest)

(apos. before last letter) (no apos.) (apos. after last letter)

The forest’s lake

many forests

The forests lakes were salmon-silver.

The mountain’s peak

many mountains

The mountainspeaks were heaven touched.

The cat’s eyes

many

The cats’ eyes were luminous.

The lion’s fur

many

The lions’ fur was tawny-yellow.

The waterfall’s edge

many

The waterfalls’ edges were laced with white.

The meadow’s grass

many

The meadows’ grass was garnish-green.

The river’s bank

many

The rivers’ banks were burst.

The cloud’s colour

many

The clouds’ colour was gloss-black.

The stream’s rocks

many

The streams’ rocks were torn away by the flood.

The tree’s leaves

many

The trees’ leaves were hanging sadly.

5. There are many exceptions to the rule. If in doubt, just put an apostrophe after‘s’ for plurals. An example is below. You will be right over 90% of the time!

MNEMONIC HINT

Think of an apos-trophe as the apostle’s trophy.

If trophies ends with an‘s’, it is the apostles’ trophies.

EXCEPTIONS

SINGULAR PLURAL PLURAL POSSESSION



words ending in S

Christmas

2 Christmases

Christmases’ past

words ending in ES

spectacles

2 pairs of spectacles

the spectacles’ cracks

words ending in CH

church

2 churches

the churches’ doors

words ending in O

volcano

2 volcanoes

the volcanoes’ fires

words ending in X

box

2 boxes

the boxes’ holes

words ending in F

loaf

2 loaves

the loaves’ price

compound nouns

mother-in-law

2 mother’s-in-law

mother-in-law’s sons



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

INTERNET RESOURCES

1)

1)

MAIN LESSON

OTHER RESOURCES

1)

2)
3)



1)



PLENARY/LEARNING OUTCOMES

HOMEWORK IF REQUIRED

1)



OBSERVATIONS:

Date: __/__/__

Title: READING DAY

Lesson number: 66



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

INTERNET RESOURCES

1)
2)


1)

MAIN LESSON

OTHER RESOURCES

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)


1)

PLENARY/LEARNING OUTCOMES

HOMEWORK IF REQUIRED

1)
2)




OBSERVATIONS:


Date: __/__/__

Title: DESCRIBING A LAKE: 3rd GRID

Lesson number: 67(a)

Definition: Words fly, written stays.

­­­­­­­­­­­Spelling revision

New words

Dictionary definitions, corrections, and synonyms.

semicolon

minted




hoarfrost

dew pond




chrysalis

lichen




apostrophe

tattooed




spangle

feral




thunking

quill




plunking

decanter






duck pond round

glassy lake

reflections minted on

hidden heart of lake

dew pond round

crystal lake

reflections tattooed

fathomless depth of

pane clear

gin clear

varnish clear

moonshine clear

window clear

vodka clear

diamond clear

decanter clear

crumbling castle

reed fringed island

a galaxy of flies

feral goats

weather beaten boat

quill shaped reeds

a platoon of flies

lichen encrusted rock

wispy mist

cedar sweet smells

monk hum of bees

the necromancy of

nectar of the Gods

poltergeist white mist

bumbling bees

burbling streams



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

INTERNET RESOURCES

1)

2)


1)


MAIN LESSON

OTHER RESOURCES

1)

2)
3)


4)
5)



1) TI: Visit Greece: lakes reflecting beauty to:

visitgreece.gr

and read out some of the passages. Ask the students to write down a selection of the most beautiful and impactful words they are listening to as you read. Call them:

1) ‘pulse’ words

2) ‘wow’ words

3) ‘brain-flash’ words

4) ‘epiphany’ words

5) ‘eureka’ words


PLENARY/LEARNING OUTCOMES

HOMEWORK IF REQUIRED

1)
2)



OBSERVATIONS:

Date: __/__/__

Title: THE SEMI-COLON

Lesson number: 67(b)



RULES FOR SEMICOLONS (a.k.a. the super comma)

There is only one rule to a semicolon; don’t use it! The other rule is underneath.

1. The reason a semicolon is used, in general, is to link two related sentences (or clauses). If they are not related to each other, they don’t take a semicolon. Think of a semi-detached house as a mnemonic to remember it. A semi-detached house is related (i.e. joined) to another one but they are still separate houses. Which of these sentences should take a semicolon?

a) The thunderclouds started to appear; it rained like a winter’s day.

b) Dogs can jump. Mountains have snow.

As you can see, both of these sentences would be more effective with a full stop. Therefore, don’t use a semicolon! Why do writers use them? It is an effective technique (and a stylish one) if you are using long-winded sentences. As a young student, however, you should keep your sentences short. Use the K.I.S.S philosophy- Keep It Simple, Student!

Below are three sentences that could use either a semicolon or a full stop. Put in a full stop.

a) The lake was womb quiet. Plopping trout broke the silence.

b) The surface of the lake was pane clear. It was like something out of a fairytale.

c) The cedar sweet smell of the trees was refreshing. The air was nirvana pure.



The 14 punctuation marks in English

PUNCTUATION MARK

EXAMPLE

PUNCTUATION MARK

EXAMPLE

apostrophe



braces

{ }

comma

,

brackets

[ ]

colon

:

dash

__

exclamation mark

!

ellipses

..

full stop/period

.

hyphen

-

question mark

?

parentheses

( )

semicolon

;

quotation marks

“ ”

OBSERVATIONS:

Date: __/__/__

Title: DESCRIBING A LAKE: 4th GRID

Lesson number: 68

Definition: How well you live is the secret, not how long.

­­­­­­­­­­­Spelling revision

New words

Dictionary definitions, corrections, and synonyms.

minted

alleluia




dew pond

Tolkien




lichen

idyllic




tattooed

yogi




feral

winkled




quill

amphitheatre




decanter

Buddha






rain winkled grass

avenue of pine trees

heaven leaking light

nature’s amphitheatre

dragonflies whirring

Tolkien-esque ferns

idyllic scene

alleluia moment

statue still

yogi still

vault still

feng shui still

shrine still

Buddha still

crypt still

Zen still

beads of rain

dewdrops of rain

pregnant drops of

diamonds of stinging

pearls of rain

droplets of rain

teardrops of rain

jewels of sharp rain

airy

drizzling

tinkling

mizzling

mist like

spraying

sprinkling

like a Scottish smirr



AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

INTERNET RESOURCES

1)

2)


1)

MAIN LESSON

OTHER RESOURCES

1)

2)
3)


4)

1) TI: Images for enchanted lake to:

google.ie

and ask them to construct a story (fantasy/fable etc.) from one of these surreal and evocative images.




PLENARY/LEARNING OUTCOMES

HOMEWORK IF REQUIRED

1)
2)



OBSERVATIONS:

Date: __/__/__

Title: ADJECTIVES/NOUNS/VERBS

Lesson number: 69




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