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August 2004

Each piece of written work should fulfil the standards required of published texts. Objective and precise expression, correct spelling and punctuation, and a correspondence between title and content are essential. Avoid jargon, verbosity and repetitions as much as unnecessary quotations or extensive summaries. A logically arranged and accessible presentation of the topic (displaying clear connections with the sources and text(s), an awareness of existing research, and a critical position of its own) is crucial. Personal opinion must be substantiated and marked as such. A signed declaration that no plagiarism has been committed (the form is available from the departmental internet page) must be included.

The subsequent rules only provide an overview of the most important and common issues. Detailed information can be found in:
Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003. [This manual is the only acceptable guideline for American Studies.]

Standop, Ewald. Die Form der wissenschaftlichen Arbeit. 15th ed. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer, 1998.

1. All pieces of written work must be printed or typed on one side of sheets of A4 paper. The length of the assessed essay, excluding table of contents and bibliography: should be ca. 10 pages for Proseminare and ca. 20 pages for Hauptseminare (unless different rules have been announced in the courses).
2. The TITLE PAGE displays the title of the course and the name of the course teacher, the title of the submitted work as well as the name, address, and student number of its author.
3. A TABLE OF CONTENTS is always required. It must contain a complete list of the sections of the submitted work with their corresponding page numbers. There are two conventions for counting sections:

3.1 Decimal arrangement (as in this guideline; recommended in American Studies and English Linguistics)

3.2 Roman numerals for chapters / Arab numerals for sections/ lower-case letters for subsections.

All entries in the table of contents must reappear in identical form in the main body of the work.

4. PAGINATION: The first page after the table of contents to the very last page are numbered consecutively.
5. MARGINS: 4.5 cm for the left-hand margin; 1.5 cm for the right-hand margin.
6. TYPEFACES, SPACING and PARAGRAPHS: Eccentric typefaces and those that are hard to read must be avoided (this also applies to title pages and headings). Times New Roman is the prefered typeface. In the main body of the work, the text should be presented in lines of one and a half spaces distance (with font size 12); in separated quotations of more than four lines and in footnotes the text should be single-spaced (with font size 10). Indent paragraphs (even when using aligned text) or separate them with a blank line. Separated prose quotations are indented on the left and right; new paragraphs within such quotations are indented once more.
7. QUOTATIONS are normally marked by double inverted commas and must conform exactly to their source in wording, spelling and punctuation. Omissions are indicated by [...]. Additions are also placed in square brackets; mistakes in the quoted text are marked by a subsequent [sic].
Quotations are separated from the main body of the text when they exceed four lines. In this case, no inverted commas are used. When quoting direct speech, this is marked by single inverted commas when the quotation is in double inverted commas as part of the main text, and double inverted commas in separated quotations.
In English Linguistics examples used for analysis (sentences, or sections of text) are separated and numbered, so that reference can be made to them in the main body of the text.
A source must be indicated for every direct quotation – even very short ones (see section 12, REFERENCING). When material is paraphrased or only its content is used, a reference is also required. Merely listing the source in the bibliography is not sufficient.
8. Qualifying statements or expansions on the main text as well as references are contained in FOOTNOTES and ENDNOTES. References, footnotes, and endnotes are numbered consecutively and are indicated in the main text by an Arab numeral in superscript immediately after the section to which they refer. The reference, footnote, or endnote is equally preceded by a number in superscript. Footnotes are clearly separated from the main text.
References are generally indicated in short form in the main text in English Linguistics and American Studies. In British Studies they may also be put in footnotes or endnotes.
Explanations and qualifications, however, are generally put in footnotes or endnotes.
9. UNDERLINING or ITALICS are used for the title of independent publications or periodicals. Foreign words and expression in the text are also marked by underlining or italics (e.g. de facto, histoire). Words and short expressions that serve as examples in linguistic publications and form part of the main text are also highlighted by underlining or italics (longer examples and complete sentences, however, are separated from the main text; see section 7, QUOTATIONS). Underlining or italics should not normally be used to emphasise a single word.
10. QUOTATION MARKS: Double inverted commas ("...") are used for quotations in the main text, titles of essays in periodicals and collections (such as Festschriften and year books) and for poems that are not published independently. Single inverted commas ('...') are employed for quotations within quotations, translations and definitions.
11. German ABBREVIATIONS and PLACE NAMES should not be used in work written in English (replace 'Hg.' with 'ed.' or 'eds.' and 'Bd.' with 'vol.', for instance). The most important English abbreviations are:

anon. anonymous

art. article

b. born

c. (ca.) circa, or around (used with approximate dates:

"c. 1796")

cf. compare (not "see"; from the Latin confer)

ch. (chap.) chapter

col. column

comp. compiler, compiled by

d. died

dict. dictionary

ed., eds. editor, editors; edition, edited by

e.g. for example

encyc. encyclopedia

et al. and others (from the Latin et alii, et aliae)

etc. and so forth

i.e. that is (from the Latin id est)

introd. introduction, introduced by

lit. literally; literature, literary

ms., mss. manuscript, manuscripts

n.p. no place of publication; no publisher

resp. respectively

sic thus in the source (in square brackets as an editorial interpolation; not followed

by an exclamation point)

st. stanza

trans. (tr.) translator, translation, translated by

vol. volume

writ. writer, written by

In cases when established English place names exist, e.g. "Munich" for München or "Vienna" for Wien, use the English names in essays written in English.

12. REFERENCING: There are different referencing systems, which are treated in depth in the manuals mentioned at the start of this set of guidelines. In American Studies and English Linguistics referencing, as a rule, integrates the source in the main text in short form and provides the complete information in the bibliography. In English Literature another system is common that gives the full bibliographic details of a source when it is quoted or referred to for the first time in footnotes and endnotes. In what follows the different systems are shown using examples of publications in English. (In works written in German, the only change affects abbreviations, not referencing.)

12.1 Short referencing:

Short referencing provides bibliographic references neither in footnotes nor in endnotes. Instead it places them in round brackets in the main text, for instance in the following forms:
Example 1: This view has been challenged (cf. Berko 1958).
Example 2: "[...]", Labov explained (1972a: 774).
Example 3: "darkness visible" (PL 1.63).
For references abbreviated as acronyms (as in Example 3), all acronyms must be listed in a LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS that includes their complete bibliographic details. It should appear on the first (still unnumbered) page after the table of contents.
An alternative form of short referencing places the references in footnotes or endnotes instead of the main text. In English Linguistics this is not common; in American Studies this form is used only for indirect references – see section 8 above:
EXAMPLES of short referencing:

1 Milton, Paradise Lost, 5.451-60 (Darbishire ed. 21967:I 111).

2 Dittmar and Schlobinski (1988: 13).

3 Dittmar and Schlobinski (1988: 13).
4 Dittmar and Schlobinski (1988: 95).
5 Labov (1972b: 23).
6 Cf. Labov (1972a: 773).
7 Bright (1992: IV 111).
8 McCrum et al. (1992: 14).
12.2 The so-called "complete reference":

When comparing the "complete reference" in footnotes or endnotes with the bibliography at the end of the essay, the following differences emerge:

"Complete reference":

1 Harold Bloom, The Anxiety of Influence (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973) 68.


Bloom, Harold. The Anxiety of Influence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.

First and last name are reversed to enable an alphabetic ordering according to last names in the bibliography. In the bibliography a full stop is used after the name of the author(s) instead of a comma. In a similar way a full stop (instead of a bracket) separates the place of publication, publisher, and year of publication from the title of a text and its author(s) or editor(s).

Examples of "complete references":

1 John Milton, Paradise Lost, 5.451-60, The Poetical Works, ed. Helen Darbishire, 2nd ed., vol. 1, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967) 111.
2 Manfred Pfister, "Trevor Griffiths: Comedians. Zur Thematisierung des Komischen und der Music Hall im modernen englischen Drama."Englisches Drama von Beckett bis Bond, ed. Heinrich F. Plett (München: Fink, 1982) 314.
3 Pfister 314.
4 Pfister 315.
5 Pfister, Drama 38.
6 Cf. Pfister, "Comedians" 316.
7 Eugene Benson and Leonard Conolly, eds., Encyclopedia of Post-Colonial Literatures in English, vol. 2 (London: Routledge, 1994) 25.
8 "Epic", The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, ed. Alex Preminger et al., 3rd ed. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993) 361-75.

9 Elaine Showalter, Hystorien. Hysterische Epidemien im Zeitalter der Medien, trans. Anke Caroline Burger (Berlin: Aufbau Taschenbuch Verlag, 1999) 95.

10 Aiken, Susan Hardy, "Women and the Question of Canonicity," College English 48.3 (1986) 292.

11 Pride and Prejudice, dir. Simon Langton, BBC Production, 1995.

12 John Updike, "No Brakes," rev. of Sinclair Lewis: Rebel from Main Street, by Richard Lingeman, New Yorker 4 Feb. 2002: 77-78.

13 John Leonard, introduction, Paradise Lost, by John Milton (London, New York, et al.: Penguin, 2000) xxiii.

14 "Selected Seventeenth-Century Events," Romantic Chronology, ed. Laura Mandell and Alan Liu, 1999, University of California, Santa Barbara, 31 June 2004 .
Example 1 shows the differences of the two systems: The short referencing system provides the last name of the author, the title, exact location of the quotation, editor, edition, year of publication, page number of the quoted passage. The "complete reference" provides the first and last name of the author, the title, exact location of the quotation, title of the collection, editor, volume of the collection, information on place of publication, publisher, and year of publication, and page number of the quoted passage.

Example 2 shows an essay in a collection of essay.

Examples 3 and 4 are used when the publication has been referred to already and therefore its details are known from a footnote or endnote. In this case, author, title, and page number of the reference are sufficient.
Example 5 is used when the work refers to more than one publication by the same author.
Example 6 is used when the situation is as in example 5, but the reference is indirect or in paraphrase (use 'cf.').

In Example 8 a publication by several editors is referred to. The abbreviation 'et al.' is also used for more than two authors or places of publication.

Example 9 shows a translation; Example 10 an essay in a periodical; Example 11 a film; Example 12 a review by a named reviewer. Example 13 represents an introduction, and Example 14 a document from the Internet.

The bibliography appears at the end of the essay on a new page and continues to be numbered consecutively. Its entries are aligned on the left. When entries are longer than one line, then the second and subsequent lines shift to the right by 1.25 cm.

Primary and secondary sources must be separated. Primary works means those texts that are analysed in the essay; secondary works are those that are used for the analysis. Primary and secondary works are each arranged alphabetically by the authors' or editor(s) last names

In contrast to footnotes and endnotes, (a) the last name of author(s) or editor(s) precedes their first name(s) (if there is more than one author, the first one mentioned on the title is also listed first); (b) multi-volume publications require a mentioning of the number of volumes; (c) individual publications are given without page numbers, while (d) publications that form part of collections or appear in periodicals require page numbers.

In American Studies it is common to list all publications used under the heading List of Works Cited.
Primary sources in Literary Studies:

Edgeworth, Maria. Castle Rackrent. Ed. George Watson. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick, or, The Whale. Ed. G. Thomas Tanselle. Northwestern-Newberry Edition. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press and Chicago: Newberry Library, 1988.

Milton, John. The Poetical Works. Ed. Helen Darbishire. 2 vols. 1952-55. 2nd ed.Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966-67.

When listing secondary sources, the following differences should be noted:

A: Example of a bibliography in English Linguistics

B: Example of a bibliography in Literary Studies


= an independent publication dedicated to one topic

A: McCrum, Robert, et al. 1992. The Story of English. 2nd rev. ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books [11987].

B: Berger, Dieter A. Die Parodie in der Dichtung der englischen Romantik. Tübingen: Francke, 1990.

A: Schneider, Edgar W., ed. 1996. Focus on the USA. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

B: Bungert, Hans, ed. Die amerikanische Literatur der Gegenwart: Aspekte und Tendenzen.
Stuttgart: Reclam, 1977.

When a publication has two or three authors or publishers, list all in the sequence indicated in the publication. If there are more than three, name the first and add the abbreviation 'et. al'. When the publication has two places of publication, list both. If it has more than two, list the first two and add the abbreviation 'et. al'.

A: Dittmar, Norbert, and Peter Schlobinski, eds. 1988. The Sociolinguistics of Urban Vernaculars: Case Studies and Their Evaluation. Berlin: de Gruyter.

B: Benson, Eugene, and Leonard Conolly, eds. Encyclopedia of Post-Colonial Literatures in English. 2 vols. London: Routledge, 1994.

B: Bain, Carl E., Jerome Beaty, and J. Paul Hunter, eds. 5th ed. The Norton Introduction to Literature. New York and London: Norton, 1991.

A: Labov, William. 1972a. "Negative attraction and negative concord in English grammar." Language 48: 773-818.

A: Labov, William. 1972b. Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

B: Pfister, Manfred. Das Drama: Theorie und Analyse. 8th ed. München: Fink, 1994.

B: Pfister, Manfred. "Trevor Griffiths: Comedians. Zur Thematisierung des Komischen und der Music Hall im modernen englischen Drama." Englisches Drama von Beckett bis Bond. Ed. Heinrich F. Plett. München: Fink, 1982. 313-32.

If any other than the first edition of a book is used or quoted, this needs to be indicated immediately after the title of the publication:

Rev. ed. Revised edition

Abr. ed. Abridged edition

2nd ed. second edition (or 3rd ed., 4th ed., etc. respectively)

A: Lodge, David, ed. Modern Criticism and Theory. A Reader. Rev. ed. Nigel Wood. London, New York et al.: Longman, 2000.

A: McCrum, Robert, et al. 1992. The Story of English. 2nd rev. ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books [11987].

B: Booth, Wayne C. The Rhetoric of Fiction. 2nd ed. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1983.

If a merely reprinted edition is used, the year of the first edition is used. The book in the following example was published in 2000 and reprinted or reissued in 2001.

B: Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. The New Critical Idiom. London and New York: Routledge, 2000.


Essays are normally quoted like book publications. Their title, however, is not italicised or underlined, but put into double quotation marks. The bibliographic information consists of the title of the periodical in italics or underlined, the volume and number of the issue, year of publication (with month, if known), and the exact page numbers of the essay.

A: Berko, Jean. 1958. "The child's learning of English morphology." Word 14: 150-77.

A: White, Sabina, and Andrew Winzelberg. 1992. "Laughter and Stress." Humor 5: 343-55.

B: Weimann, Robert. "Die Literatur der Angry Young Men: Ein Beitrag zur Deutung englischer Gegenwartsliteratur." Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik 7 (1959): 117-89.

B: Bridges, Peter. "Playwrights, Presidents, and Prague." Virginia Quarterly Review 79.1 (2003): 97-107.
Reviews are referenced like essays, only the abbreviation 'Rev. of' (= review of) is added. If the reviewed work has been re-edited or translated or if it is a film or theatrical performance, this also must be indicated.

A: Fassett, Deanna L. 2001. Rev. of When Children Don't Learn: Student Failure and the Culture of Teaching, by B. M. Franklin. Communication Education 50: 83-85.

B: Kauffmann, Stanley. "Towards the Shadows." Rev. of Iris, dir. Richard Eyre. New Republic 11 Feb. 2002: 26-27.

B: Randel, Fred V. Rev. of Romantic Correspondence, by Mary A. Favret. Studies in Romanticism 36.1 (1997): 125-28.

13.7 ESSAYS:

An essay that has appeared in a collection of essays that is also listed in the bibliography:

(the respective collections of essays can be found under 13.2)

A: Pederson, Lee. 1996. "Piney Woods Southern." In Edgar W. Schneider, ed. 1996:13-24.

B: Fleischmann, Wolfgang Bernhard. "Die 'Beat Generation' und ihre Nachwirkung." Die amerikanische Literatur der Gegenwart: Aspekte und Tendenzen. Ed. Hans Bungert. Stuttgart: Reclam, 1977. 80-88.

An essay that has appeared in a collection that is not listed in the bibliography:

A: Guy, Gregory R. 1993. "The quantitative analysis of linguistic variation." In Dennis R. Preston, ed. American Dialect Research. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 223-50.

B: Gale, Stephen H. "David Mamet: The Plays, 1972-1980." Essays on Contemporary American Drama. Ed. Hedwig Bock and Albert Wertheim. München: Hueber, 1981. 207-23.

A: Kroch, Anthony. 1992. "Syntactic Change." In William Bright, ed. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, vol. 4. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 111-14.

B: Fielitz, Sonja. "Grundfragen der Dramenanalyse." Handbuch Englisch als Fremdsprache (HEF). Ed. Rüdiger Ahrens et al. Berlin: Schmidt, 1995. 309-13.

B: Sommer, Roy. "Intertextualität." Metzler Lexikon. Literatur- und Kulturtheorie. 2nd rev. ed. Ansgar Nünning. Stuttgart und Weimar: Metzler, 2001. 282-83.


If your are using the introduction, preface, or postscript of a book, list it. If its author is different from the author of the book, add 'By' and the first and last name(s) of the author of the introduction, preface, or postscript. If the authors are identical, only give the author's last name after 'By'. If the introduction, preface, or postscript has a title of its own, mention it as well.

B: Borges, Jorge Luis. Foreword. Selected Poems, 1923-1967. By Borges. Ed. Norman Thomas Di Giovanni. New York: Delta-Dell, 1973. xv-xvi.

B: Doody, Margaret Anne. "In Search of the Ancient Novel." Introduction. The True Story of the Novel. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1996. 1-11.

B: Kirkpatrick, Kathryn J. Introduction. Castle Rackrent. By Maria Edgeworth. Ed. George Watson. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. vii-xxxvi.

B: Sears, Barry. Afterword. The Jungle. By Upton Sinclair. New York: Signet, 2001. 343-47.


With translated publications, the name of the translator (and, if applicable also that of the editor) must be given. Use the abbreviation 'Trans.'.

A: Esquivel, Laura. 1992. Like Water for Chocolate: A Novel in Monthly Installments, with Recipes, Romances, and Home Remedies. Trans. Carol Christensen and Thomas Christensen. New York: Doubleday.

B: Beowulf. Trans. E. Talbot Donaldson. Ed. Nicholas Howe. New York: Norton, 2001.

B: Pfister, Manfred. The Theory and Analysis of Drama. Trans. John Halliday. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

The title of an unpublished work is given in inverted commas, not in italics or underlining. Add 'MA thesis' for Masters' work or 'Diss' for doctoral theses. Give the name of the institution and the year when the thesis or dissertation was accepted.

B: Boyle, Anthony T. "The Epistemological Evolution of Renaissance Utopian Literature, 1516-1657." Diss. New York University, 1983.

Anonymous books, poems, essays, reviews, internet pages, etc. are listed alphabetically according to their titles (ignore A, An or The when ordering them). The remaining elements follow the usual rules.

A: The Holy Bible: New International Version. 1984. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

A: "The Wanderer." Trans. E. T. Donaldson. 2000. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 7th ed. Eds. M. H. Abrams and Stephen Greenblatt. New York and London: Norton. 99-102.

B: "The Cooling of an Admiration." Rev. of Pound/Joyce: The Letters of Ezra Pound to James Joyce, with Pound's Essays on Joyce, ed. Forrest Read. Times Literary Supplement 6 Mar. 1969: 239-40.

B: "Dubious Venture." Time 3 Jan. 1994: 64-65.

B: Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 2002. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15 May 2004 <>.

Electronic texts lack the stability of printed ones. Therefore references to them require more information: 1) name of the author; 2) title of the document; 3) information on printed versions (if applicable); 4) information about the electronic publication; 5) information on accessing the site.

Information concerning accessing the site: Two pieces of information concering time are normally required. The usual date of publication of the electronic text and the exact date of accessing it. Furthermore the complete network address or URL (uniform resource locator) of the respective page must be given in pointed brackets; if you need to divide it onto two or more lines, break up the information after slashes and do not use hyphens. Download or print electronic texte that you intend to use in oder to be able to verify them, since internet pages occasionally disappear.
Hall, Cailey. "Jane Austen's Pride following." 2004. Princeton, New York. 11 May 2004 .

Mina, Antonio. "'Silent Woman' Ponders Gender at Shakespeare Theatre." The Hoya. 31 Jan. 2003. Georgetown University's Newspaper of Record Since 1920. 11 May 2004 .

"Eighteenth Century to 1784." Romantic Chronology. Ed. Laura Mandell and Alan Liu. 1999.

University of California, Santa Barbara. 16 May 2004 .
'Path': If the address is too long or too complicated, you can indicate instead the way to access it. In this case, name the address of the homepage or search engine and add 'Path' followed by a colon behind the pointed bracket. Then indicate the steps to the required page, using a semicolon after each link:

Galchinsky, Michael. "Women's Poetry and Religion in Victorian England: Jewish Identity and Christian Culture." Victorian Studies 45.3 (2003): 551. Literature Online. 16 May 2004 <>. Path: Criticism & Reference; Keyword: Victorian England.

Robinson, Mary. "Jasper." The Poetical Works. Vol. III. 1806. 216-23. Literature Online. 16 May 2004 <>. Path: Texts; Title Keyword: Jasper, Author: Robinson.

13.14 FILM:

Give the title in italics or underlined , the director, distributor, year of release; other details (e.g. performers, producer, writer) may be placed between title and distributor.

Relevant Abbreviations:

adapt. adapter, adaptation, adapted by

chor. choreographer, choreographed by

cond. conductor, conducted by

dir. director, directed by

distr. distributor, distributed by

illus. illustrator, illustration, illustrated by

narr. narrator, narrated by

perf. performer, performed by

prod. producer, produced by

writ. writer, written by

It's a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitschell. RKO, 1946.

Like Water for Chocolate [Como agua para chocolate]. Writ. Laura Esquivel. Dir. Alfonso Arua. Perf. Lumi Cavazos, Marco Lombardi, and Regina Torne. Miramax, 1993.

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